Risk Factors Ages 3–5

Family

Family violence (child maltreatment, partner violence, conflict) Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
911 calls for domestic violence Local police/sheriff’s department
Child abuse and neglect rate Child Protective Services, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.
Protective Orders written Child Protective Services

Parental psychiatric disorder Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Needs assessments of children and families referred to city/county social service agencies Local agencies

Parental use of physical punishment/harsh and/or erratic discipline practices Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Reports to CPS of harsh physical punishment Child Protective Services

Individual

Conduct disorders (authority conflict/rebellious/stubborn/disruptive/antisocial)* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder No reports likely; consult with preschool or kindergarten teachers

Lack of guilt and empathy* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Behavior profile Interview with youth/parent reports

Low intelligence quotient Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Data not likely available except in local studies

Physical violence/aggression* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Data not likely available except in local studies
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