Risk Factors Ages 6–11

Individual

Antisocial/delinquent beliefs* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Data not likely available except in local studies

Early and persistent noncompliant behavior Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
School disciplinary actions/referrals School district records
Social adjustment assessments of children referred to city/county social service agencies Local agency data
Students served in programs classified as Behaviorally Emotionally Handicapped (BEH) School district reports

Early onset of aggression/violence* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Child (prior to age 13) arrests for violent crimes Local police/sheriff’s department, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, local police department
Child (prior to age 13) court referrals for person offenses Local juvenile/family court records
School disciplinary actions/referrals School district records
School disciplinary actions/referrals and mental health referrals for aggression School and mental health center records
Social adjustment assessments of children referred to city/county social service agencies Local agency data
Students served in programs classified as Behaviorally or Emotionally Handicapped (BEH) School district records

Fearless* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Behavior profile Interview with youth/parent reports

Few social ties (involved in social activities, popularity) Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Social adjustment assessments of children referred to city/county juvenile/family courts and city/county social service agencies Local agency data
Social adjustment assessments of children referred to juvenile/family courts Treatment needs assessment

General delinquency involvement* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Child (prior to age 13) arrest rate Local police department
Child (prior to age 13) delinquency court referral/adjudication rate Local juvenile/family court records
School disciplinary actions/referrals School district records

High alcohol/drug use* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Child arrests for drug abuse violations Local police department
Child arrests for liquor law violations Local police department
Child use of alcohol and other drugs Monitoring the Future Study, Volume 1, student surveys
Risk and treatment needs assessments of adolescents referred to juvenile/family courts Local juvenile/family court

Hyperactive (impulsive, attention problems)* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Students served in programs classified as Behaviorally Emotionally Handicapped (BEH) School district reports

Lack of guilt and empathy* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Behavior profile Interview with youth/parent reports

Low intelligence quotient Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Standardized intelligence test scores School district records

Low perceived likelihood of being caught Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Self-admission Student surveys

Medical/physical condition Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Problems among children referred to city/county social service agencies Local agency data
Problems among children referred to juvenile/family courts Treatment needs assessment and local social services agency data

Mental health problems* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Juvenile arrest rate for running away/curfew/vandalism/disorderly conduct Local police/sheriff’s department
Juvenile/family court referrals of children (prior to age 13) for running away/curfew/vandalism/disorderly conduct Local juvenile/family court records
Low intelligence quotient School district tests
Mental health referrals for various problems Local mental health center records
Risk and treatment needs assessments of adolescents referred to juvenile/family courts Local juvenile/family court
School disciplinary actions/referrals School district records
Social adjustment assessments of children referred to city/county social service agencies Local agency data
Students served in programs classified as Behaviorally or Emotionally Handicapped (BEH) School district records
Truancy School district records, Trends in the Well-Being of America’s Children and Youth

Physical violence/aggression* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Child (prior to age 13) court referrals for person offenses Local juvenile/family court records
School disciplinary actions/referrals and mental health referrals for aggression School and mental health center records

Poor refusal skills* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Data not likely available except in local studies

Victimization and exposure to violence* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Child abuse and neglect rate Child Protective Services
Child abuse rate Child Protective Services
Domestic violence arrests and convictions Local police department and criminal court
Treatment needs assessments of adolescents referred to juvenile/family courts Local juvenile/family court

Family

Abusive parents Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Child abuse and neglect rate Child Protective Services

Antisocial parents Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Adult arrest rate Local police department
Treatment needs assessments of adolescents referred to juvenile/family courts Local juvenile/family court

Broken home/changes in caretaker* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Children in neighborhoods with a high rate of female-headed families Population Reference Bureau, analysis of data from 2010 census-by-census tract
Children with one or more parents in jail/prison Data may not be available
Divorce rate for parents with children under age 18 Data may not be available
Proportion of children in nonintact families referred to juvenile/family courts and city/county social service agencies Local agency data

Family poverty/low family socioeconomic status* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Families eligible for Free and Reduced Lunch Program State welfare agency
Families on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families State welfare agency
Families/persons/children living below poverty level U.S. Bureau of the Census
Food Stamp Program recipients State welfare agency
Median family income U.S. Bureau of the Census
Unemployment rate U.S. Bureau of the Census

Family violence (child maltreatment, partner violence, conflict) Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
911 calls for domestic violence Local police/sheriff’s department
Child abuse and neglect rate Child Protective Services, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.
Intimate murders Local police/sheriff’s department
Protective Orders written Child Protective Services

High parental stress/maternal depression Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Treatment needs assessments of adolescents referred to juvenile/family courts Local juvenile/family court

Lived/living with a gang member* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Self-admission Youth survey

Parent proviolent attitudes* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Data not likely available except in local studies

Parental use of physical punishment/harsh and/or erratic discipline practices Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Child abuse and neglect rate Child Protective Services
Treatment needs assessments of adolescents referred to social services Local social service agency

Poor parental supervision (control, monitoring, and child management)* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Arrests for runaway by age 12 Local police department
Child abuse and neglect rate Child Protective Services, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.
Children living outside the family/placements in foster care facilities Local department of social services, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.
Number of latchkey children among referrals to child welfare agency Local department of social services
Treatment needs assessments of adolescents referred to juvenile/family courts Local juvenile/family court

Poor parent-child relations or communication Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Social adjustment assessments of children referred to city/county social service agencies Local agency data
Social adjustment assessments of children referred to juvenile/family courts Treatment needs assessment
Treatment needs assessments of adolescents referred to juvenile/family courts Local juvenile/family court

Sibling antisocial behavior* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Social adjustment assessments of children referred to city/county social service agencies Local agency data
Social adjustment assessments of children referred to juvenile/family courts Treatment needs assessment

School

Bullying Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Child exhibited cruelty, intimidating, or meanness toward peers Teacher ratings, student surveys

Chronic absenteeism Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Local school district reports

Frequent school transitions Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
New students and transfers Local school district records

Frequent truancy/absences/suspensions; expelled from school; dropping out of school* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Chronic absenteeism Trends in the Well-Being of America’s Children and Youth
Event dropout rate (the proportion of all students enrolled in school at the beginning of a 12-month period who leave school by the end of that 12-month period without graduating) U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.
School dropout rate Local school district reports; Population Reference Bureau, analysis of data from 2010 census-by-census tract
Status dropout rate (proportion of the population 16 to 24 years of age who are not enrolled in high school and have not graduated) U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.
Suspension rate Local school district reports
Truancy rate Local school district reports, Trends in the Well-Being of America’s Children and Youth

Identified as learning disabled* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Enrollments in special education/exceptional student programs School district reports

Low academic aspirations* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Data not likely available except in local studies

Low achievement in school* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
End-of-year testing/competency exams by grade School district reports
Math proficiency by grade School district reports, Digest of Education Statistics
Performance composite of public schools School district reports
Reading proficiency by grade School district reports, Digest of Education Statistics
Risk and treatment needs assessments of adolescents referred to juvenile/family courts Local juvenile/family court
Science proficiency by grade School district reports, Digest of Education Statistics

Low school attachment/bonding/motivation/commitment to school* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Completion of four years of high school Digest of Education Statistics
Excessive suspensions and expulsions School district reports
Excessive zero tolerance punishments School district reports
High absenteeism School district ADA reports
Number of GED diplomas Digest of Education Statistics
Unreasonable zero tolerance rules School conduct rules/policies

Old for grade/repeated a grade Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Correspondence of student ages to grade level School district reports

Poor student-teacher relations Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Student assaults on teachers Local school district reports, Monitoring the Future Study

Poorly defined rules and expectations for appropriate conduct Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Lack of clarity in student code of conduct No reports likely; student surveys may be necessary

Poorly organized and functioning schools/inadequate school climate/negative labeling by teachers* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Excessive suspensions and expulsions School district reports
Excessive zero tolerance punishments School conduct rules/policies
Graduation rates Local school district
High dropout rate Local school district reports; Population Reference Bureau, analysis of data from 2010 census-by-census tract
Large classes (larger than 25 students in elementary school; larger than 36 students in middle school) School district reports
Physical decay of schools School district reports
Reports of corporal punishment in schools School district reports
Teacher attitudes/job satisfaction School district reports
Teacher exposure to abuse by students School district reports, Monitoring the Future Study
Underfunded schools School district office, state education departments

Student failure in the first grade Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
End-of-year testing/competency exams by grade School district reports

Community

Availability of firearms* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Adult arrests for weapons law violations Local police/sheriff’s department
Firearms in homes of adults State Licensing Board and reports from local firearm dealers
Illegal gun confiscations Local police/sheriff’s department
Juvenile arrests for weapons law violations Local police/sheriff’s department

Economic deprivation/poverty/residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Families eligible for Free and Reduced Lunch Program State welfare agency, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.
Families on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families State welfare agency, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.
Families/persons/children living below poverty level U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.
Food Stamp Program recipients State welfare agency, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.
Median family income U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.
Unemployment rate U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.

Exposure to firearm violence Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Adult arrests for weapons law violations Local police/sheriff’s department, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
Firearm sales Statistical Abstract of the U.S.
Firearms in homes of adults State Licensing Board and local firearm dealer reports, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics
Gun licenses/permits issued Local police/sheriff’s department
Illegal gun confiscations Local police/sheriff’s department, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
Juvenile arrests for weapons law violations Local police/sheriff’s department

Feeling unsafe in the neighborhood* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Juvenile/adult violent crime arrests Local police/sheriff’s department
Presence of documented gangs Local police/sheriff’s department
Self-admission Youth survey, YRBS survey
Self-admission Interview with youth

Low neighborhood attachment* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Net migration rate U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services/U.S. Bureau of the Census
Prevalence of homeless families/individuals National Coalition for the Homeless, homeless shelters
Rental residential properties as proportion of all housing U.S. Bureau of the Census/Real Estate Board

Moved to a new neighborhood* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Self-admission Interview with youth/parent reports

Neighborhood antisocial environment* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Juvenile/adult violent crime arrests Local police/sheriff’s department
Presence of documented gangs Local police/sheriff’s department

Neighborhood youth in trouble* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Children in neighborhoods with a high rate of school dropout Population Reference Bureau, analysis of data from 2010 census-by-census tract
Juvenile arrest rate Local police department
Juvenile/family court referral/adjudication rate Local juvenile/family court
School suspensions, expulsions, dropouts Local school district reports

Peer

Association with antisocial/aggressive/delinquent peers; high peer delinquency* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Documentation of friends/associates Risk and treatment needs assessments of children referred to local juvenile/family courts; local studies and YRBS survey
Risk and treatment needs assessments of adolescents referred to juvenile/family courts Local juvenile/family court

Association with gang-involved peers/relatives* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Documentation of gang membership or association Risk and treatment needs assessments of children referred to local juvenile/family courts, detention centers, correctional facilities
Perceived peer gang involvement/activity Student and School Resource Officer surveys
Presence of documented gangs Local police/sheriff’s department, National Youth Gang Survey

Peer alcohol/drug use Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use rate Student survey, YRBS survey
Child (under age 13) arrests for alcohol-related offenses Local police department
Child (under age 13) arrests for drug-related offenses Local police department

Peer rejection* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Data not likely available except in local studies
Self-admission of peer rejection Local student surveys
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