Risk Factors Ages 0–2

Individual

Conduct disorders (authority conflict/rebellious/stubborn/disruptive/antisocial)* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder No reports likely; consult with preschool or kindergarten teachers

Difficult temperament Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Data not likely available except in local studies

Hyperactive (impulsive, attention problems)* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Data not likely available except in local studies

Family

Family poverty/low family socioeconomic status* Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Families eligible for Free and Reduced Lunch Program State welfare agency
Families on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families State welfare agency
Families/persons/children living below poverty level U.S. Bureau of the Census
Food Stamp Program recipients State welfare agency
Median family income U.S. Bureau of the Census

Family violence (child maltreatment, partner violence, conflict) Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
911 calls for domestic violence Local police/sheriff’s department
Protective Orders written Child Protective Services

Having a teenage mother Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Births to mothers ages 13 to 19 State or local health departments

Maternal drug, alcohol, and tobacco use during pregnancy Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Reported incidents Local health department

Parental criminality Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Adult criminal arrest rate Local police/sheriff’s department

Parental psychiatric disorder Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Mental health problems Parental risk assessments for abuse and neglect

Parental substance abuse Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Parents in drug treatment Medicaid claims for alcohol and substance use

Poor parent-child relations or communication Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Data not likely available except in local studies

Pregnancy and delivery complications Associated Programs

Indicators Data Sources
Activity, Pulse, Grimace, Appearance, and Respiration (APGAR) scores Hospital records
Babies born affected with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome State or local health departments
Low birth weight Hospital records, state or local health departments
Preterm deliveries Hospital records, state or local health departments
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