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Comprehensive Gang Model
- A Guide to Assessing Your Community’s Youth Gang Problem
The 2009 Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency and Prevention revised publication guides communities in conducting comprehensive assessments to address gang problems.
Assessment-Guide.pdf | More Information...
- OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model: Planning for Implementation
The 2009 revised Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention publication guides communities in developing implementation plans to
address community gang problems based on a comprehensive assessment.
It focuses on a multidisciplinary approach addressing five basic strategic areas.
Implementation-Manual.pdf | More Information...
- Best Practices to Address Community Gang Problems
Second Edition of Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention’s Best Practices in the Comprehensive Gang Model.
- Street Outreach and the OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model
The June 2012 National Gang Center Bulletin discusses issues related to effective street outreach practices in the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Comprehensive Gang Model.
- Multidisciplinary Gang Intervention Teams
The 2007 National Gang Center Bulletin outlines the development, role, and practice of multidisciplinary gang intervention teams in addressing gang problems.
- Gang Suppression and Intervention: Problem and Response
This Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention 1994 publication includes a research summary related to the Comprehensive Gang Model.
- Gang Suppression and Intervention: Community Models
This Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention 1994 publication includes a research summary on
recommended policy and practices for communities and community stakeholders in addressing gang issues.
- Implementing the OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention 1999 Fact Sheet on implementing the Comprehensive Gang Model.
General Gang-Related Publications
- City Gangs
Link to Arizona State University’s portico to Walter Miller’s unpublished book based on work in Boston’s Roxbury community.
- History of Street Gangs in the United States
The 2010 National Gang Center Bulletin details the development of street gangs in the United States.
- Menacing or Mimicking? Realities of Youth Gangs
A 2007 abstract in the Juvenile and Family Court Journal addressing the realities of youth gangs.
- Mobilizing Communities to Address Gang Problems
A 2009 National Gang Center Bulletin which discusses mobilizing and organizing communities to address gang problems.
It provides a number of examples from various communities.
- The Impact of Gangs on Communities
The 2006 National Gang Center bulletin discusses the impact of gangs in a number of different contexts.
- Addressing Community Gang Problems: A Model for Problem Solving
This 1997 Bureau of Justice Assistance monograph provides a problem-solving process to address gang problems.
- Addressing Community Gang Problems: A Practical Guide
The 1998 Bureau of Justice Assistance monograph discusses practical solutions to address community gang problems.
- Gangs in Small Towns and Rural Counties
The 2005 National Gang Center bulletin discusses trends and potentially related problems to the emergence of gangs in small towns and rural counties in the United States.
- Youth Gangs in Rural America
The 2004 National Institute of Justice journal article discusses gangs in rural areas.
- Youth Gangs in Indian Country
The 2004 OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin discusses findings of surveying tribal police officers regarding tribal gang activity in Indian Country.
- Modern-Day Youth Gangs
The 2002 OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin addresses the emergence of modern youth gangs over an extended period of time in various settings.
- Hybrid and Other Modern Gangs
The 2001 OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin discusses the nature of hybrid youth gangs.
- Female Gangs: A Focus on Research
The 2001 OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin represents a step toward rectifying the deficiencies of prior research.
It summarizes past and present research and tracks the rise in the number of female gangs.
The 2004 U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing publication discusses the topic of graffiti in the Problem Oriented Policing Series.
- The Comprehensive Strategy: Lessons Learned From the Pilot Sites
The March 2000 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin discusses
lessons learned from the four Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Comprehensive Gang Model pilot sites.
- Street Gangs and Interventions: Innovative Problem Solving with Network Analysis
The U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing publication focuses on the subject of network analysis in addressing gangs.
- Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Influences Among Youths: A Compendium of Assessment Tools—Second Edition
- Violence by Gang Members, 1993–2003
The 2005 Bureau of Justice Statistics brief discusses violence by gang members over a ten-year period (1993–2003).
- Gang Members on the Move
The 1998 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Justice Bulletin seeks to clarify the term “gang” and addresses gang migration.
- Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action
This resource by the Centers for Disease Control is designed to help communities use evidence-based actions to effectively prevent youth violence, including gang violence.
- Taking Action to Prevent Youth Violence
This is a companion document to the Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action resource.
It is designed to help communities learn more about
the causes and impact of youth violence (including gang violence) and identify actions that can be taken to prevent youth violence.
- Changing Course: Preventing Youth From Joining Gangs
- Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs
This 2010 OJJDP bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services.
The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention.
- Gang Prevention: How to Make the “Front End” of Your Anti-Gang Effort Work
This 2006 United States Attorney’s Office Bulletin discusses the research related to gang membership and lays out
guidelines for implementation of community prevention and intervention efforts.
- Preventing Gang Violence and Building Communities Where Young People Thrive
This National League of Cities Toolkit is based on work within the California Cities Gang Prevention Network.
Gang Intervention and Reentry
- Getting Out of Gangs, Staying Out of Gangs
2013 National Gang Center Bulletin focused on gang intervention and desistence in regard to gang members leaving gangs.
- APPA’s C.A.R.E. Model: A Framework for Collaboration, Analysis, Reentry, and Evaluation: A Response to Street Gang Violence
The American Probation and Parole Association’s C.A.R.E. model is designed to assist community corrections agencies’ participation
in interagency anti-gang collaborative initiatives.
- Multidisciplinary Gang Intervention Teams
The 2007 National Gang Center Bulletin outlining the development, role, and practice of multidisciplinary gang intervention teams in addressing gang problems.
- Guidelines to Gang Reentry
This is a link to access the American Probation and Parole Association CD produced for the Bureau of Justice Assistance,
which outlines recommended practices in the various stages of gang member reentry from incarceration to the community.
Guidelines to Gang Reentry
- Developing a Successful Street Outreach Program: Recommendations and Lessons Learned
A 2009 National Council on Crime and Delinquency publication on establishing outreach programs with recommendations and lessons learned.
Street Outreach Final 10.20.09.pdf
- Effective Intervention for Serious Juvenile Offenders
The 2001 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin describes the intervention programs that showed the strongest,
most consistent impact on recidivism for serious juvenile offenders.
- Implementation of the Intensive Community-Based Aftercare Program
The 2000 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin on implementing intensive community-based aftercare programming for serious offenders.
- Gang Prosecutions, United States Attorneys’ Bulletin, May 2014, Volume 62, Number 3
This bulletin highlights a number of topics in the investigation and prosecution of gang crime.
- Guidelines for Establishing and Operating Gang Intelligence Units and Task Forces
The 2008 Bureau of Justice Assistance report provides guidelines to creating and operating gang task force and gang intelligence units.
- Property Abatements—The Other Gang Injunction: Project T.O.U.G.H.
The 2009 National Gang Center Bulletin by staff from the Los Angeles City Attorney’s Office highlights that entity’s Project T.O.U.G.H.
- OJJDP Gang Prosecution Manual
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention manual provides guidance to law enforcement and prosecutors from investigation through prosecution of gang crime.
- Civil Gang Injunctions: A Guide for Prosecutors
A 2009 publication providing guidelines by the National District Attorney’s Association for prosecutors seeking gang injunctions.
- Prosecuting Gang Cases: What Local Prosecutors Need to Know
A 2004 Bureau of Justice Assistance abstract by the American Prosecutor’s Research Institute provides guidance for prosecutors in prosecuting local gang cases.
- Gang Issues, United States Attorneys’ Bulletin, July 2008, Volume 56, Number 4
This bulletin highlights a number of topics in the investigation and prosecution of gang crime.
- Can Civil Gang Injunctions Change Communities? A Community Assessment of the Impact of Civil Gang Injunctions
The 2004 Department of Justice publication addresses the impact of gang injunctions on neighborhoods in San Bernardino, California.
- Preventing Gang- and Drug-Related Witness Intimidation
The 1996 Office of Justice Programs publication addresses a variety of issues related to witness intimidation, including the act of intimidation,
legal issues, and methods to combat the act and the establishment of witness security programs.
- Gangs Toolkit
Link to the Community Oriented Policing Office Web site toolkit, which provides resource information for various gang-related issues.
- Specialized Gang Units: Form and Function in Community Policing
The 2004 report was submitted to the National Institute of Justice.
It addresses the efficacy of when and whether it is advisable to create specialized gang units.
- Strategies to Address Gang Crime: A Guidebook for Local Law Enforcement
The 2008 guide published by the Office of Justice Programs Office of Community Oriented Policing Services to assist local law enforcement investigating gang crime.
- Drive-By Shootings
The March 2007 Office of Justice Programs Office of Community Oriented Policing Services problem-solving guide for police officers investigating drive-by shootings.
Gangs, Drugs, and Guns
- Project Safe Neighborhoods—A National Program to Reduce Gun Crime: Final Project Report
The 2006 final report prepared by Michigan State University in regard to Project Safe Neighborhoods for the United States Office of Justice.
- Promising Strategies to Reduce Gun Violence
A 1999 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention report outlining strategies to reduce gun violence.
- Gun Violence Among Serious Young Offenders
A guide for police-related gun violence by serious young offenders.
The guide was developed as part of the problem-oriented policing series for the Office of Community Oriented Policing.
- Kids and Guns (1999 National Report Series)
The 2000 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention report titled “Kids and Guns” was published as part of the National Report Series.
- The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin was published in 1999 to bring an understanding of the interrelationship of the three title issues.
- Youth Gang Drug Trafficking
The 1999 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin analyzes data from the 1996 National Youth Gang Survey to
provide a picture of youth gang involvement in drug trafficking.
Gangs and Schools
- Bullying in Schools: An Overview
A December 2011 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin providing an overview of the findings of funded studies related to bullying in schools.
- Responding to Gangs in the School Setting
A 2010 National Gang Center Bulletin addressing the problem and assessment of gangs in schools and potential solutions.
- Youth Gangs in Schools
A 2000 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin providing research insight into the issue of youth gangs in schools.
- Bullying in Schools
A May 2012 update of the Office of Community Oriented Policing’s Problem Solving Guide regarding bullying in schools.
- Balancing Student Privacy and School Safety: A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act for Elementary and Secondary Schools
Link to a United States Department of Education Web site providing guidance regarding the Family Educational and Privacy Act (FERPA).
- Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research
The 2002 National Institute of Justice publication provides a collection of the Institute’s research on gangs.
- Gang Members and Delinquent Behavior
This 1997 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin summarizes the findings of the Rochester Youth Development study.
- Gang Membership, Delinquent Peers, and Delinquent Behavior
A 2008 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin in the Youth Gang Series summarizing the
research on various issues related to gangs, including female gangs and gang migration.
- Predictors of Youth Violence
A 2000 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin summarizing predictors of youth gang violence at various stages
of youth development and implications for violence prevention.
- Police Response to Gangs: A Multi-Site Study
A 2003 research report prepared by Arizona State University faculty for the National Institute of Justice summarizing law enforcement responses to gangs in different jurisdictions.
- Homicide in Los Angeles: An Analysis of the Differential Character of Adolescent and Other Homicides
A 2000 research study prepared for the United States Justice Department by University of Southern California faculty.
- Highlights of Findings From the Rochester Youth Development Study
An Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention FACT Sheet published in 1999 highlighting findings of the Rochester Youth Development Study.
- Highlights of Findings From the Pittsburgh Youth Study
An Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention FACT Sheet published in 1999 highlighting findings of the Pittsburgh Youth Development Study.
- Highlights of Findings From the Denver Youth Survey
An Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention FACT Sheet published in 1999 highlighting findings of the Denver Youth Development Study.
- Early Precursors of Gang Membership: A Study of Seattle Youth
An Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin published in 2001 drawing on data from
the Seattle Social Development project to discuss the impact of risk factors on 10- to 12-year-olds.
- Findings From the Evaluation of OJJDP’s Gang Reduction Program
A 2010 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin highlighting findings from the Urban Institute evaluation of the Gang Reduction Program.
- Evaluation of CeaseFire–Chicago
A 2008 unpublished evaluation funded by National Institute of Justice of Chicago Ceasefire (now known as Cure Violence) by Northwestern University.
- Evaluation and Evolution of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program
A 2011 evaluation of the G.R.E.A.T. Program.
Evaluation and Evolution of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program
- Gang Intervention Partnership: Evaluation of and Recommendations Regarding a Program to Reduce Criminal Activity of Latino Gangs in the District of Columbia
A 2006 Evaluation conducted for the Office of the District of Columbia Mayor’s Office of Latino Affairs.
Surveys, Statistics, and Analyses
National Youth Gang Surveys:
- Highlights of the 2012 National Youth Gang Survey
This fact sheet discusses trends in gang activity, factors influencing local gang violence, and anti-gang measures.
248025.pdf | Previous Fact Sheets
- U.S. Gang Problem Trends and Seriousness, 1996–2009
Related Surveys and Statistics:
- 2000 Survey of Youth Gangs in Indian Country
- Youth Gang Homicides in the 1990’s
- The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970–98, Part 1
- The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970–98, Part 2
- 2011 Montana Gang Threat Assessment
- Florida Gang Reduction Strategy 2011 Annual Report
- Gangs in North Carolina: An Analysis of GangNET Data
- Gangs and Crime in South Carolina: How Much, How Bad?
- Gangs in New Jersey: Municipal Law Enforcement Response to the 2010 NJSP Gang Survey
- 2008 Arizona Gang Threat Assessment
- Criminal Gangs in Maryland
- 2009 Gangland Behind Bars: How and Why Organized Criminal Street Gangs Thrive in New Jersey’s Prisons . . . And What Can Be Done About It
- Gangs SCI Report Full.pdf
- Northern Virginia Comprehensive Gang Assessment 2003–2008
- Responding to Gang, Crew and Youth Violence in the District of Columbia
- Youth Gang Violence and Guns: Data Collection in California
- Northeast Wisconsin Gang Assessment
- 2007 Statewide Gang Survey Results (Florida)
- 2007 Pennsylvania Youth Survey Report
- Organized Crime in California: 2005 Annual Report to the California Legislature
National Gang Center Bibliography of Gang Literature
- Gang Bibliography
Victims and Witnesses
- Working With Victims of Gun Violence
The 2001 Office of Victims of Crimes Bulletin provides guidelines for working with victims of gun violence.
- Preventing Gang- and Drug-Related Witness Intimidation
The 1996 National Institute of Justice abstract addresses issues related to witness intimidation in gang and drug-related crime.
- Victim and Witness Intimidation: New Developments and Emerging Responses
The 1995 National Institute of Justice bulletin discusses emerging topics and practices in the area of intimidation of victims and witnesses to crime.
- Witness Intimidation
A 2006 Office of Community Oriented Policing abstract with guidelines for law enforcement related to intimidation of witnesses to crime.
- Gang-Related Witness Intimidation
A 2007 National Gang Center Bulletin regarding the issue of intimidation of witnesses specific to gang-related crimes.
Program Sustainability and Replication
- Building Sustainability in Demonstration Projects for Children, Youth, and Families
Guidelines for Building Sustainable Projects by the Institute for Educational Leadership funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Planning.
- Program Sustainability: Developing Strategies For Maintaining Programs Over the Long-term
A 2001 presentation developed by American Indian Development Associates.
- Sustaining Your Gang Prevention Efforts
Sustainability guidelines developed by the National Crime Prevention Council.