Gang-Related Legislation by Subject Index

Enhanced Penalties—Sentencing

Alabama (view all subjects for this state)

Alabama § 12-25-32. Definitions. [Contingently effective January 30, 2016]

For the purposes of this article, the following terms have the following meanings:

. . .
(15) Violent offense.

a. For the purposes of this article, a violent offense includes each of the following offenses, or any substantially similar offense to those listed in this subdivision created after June 20, 2003:

1. Capital murder pursuant to Sections 13A-6-2 and 13A-5-40.

2. Murder pursuant to Section 13A-6-2.

3. Manslaughter pursuant to Section 13A-6-3.

4. Criminally negligent homicide pursuant to section 13A-6-4.

5. Assault I pursuant to Section 13A-6-20.

6. Assault II pursuant to Section 13A-6-21.

7. Compelling street gang membership pursuant to Section 13A-6-26.

8. Kidnapping I pursuant to Section 13A-6-43.

9. Kidnapping II pursuant to Section 13A-6-44.

10. Rape I pursuant to Section 13A-6-61.

11. Rape II pursuant to Section 13A-6-62.

12. Sodomy I pursuant to Section 13A-6-63.

13. Sodomy II pursuant to Section 13A-6-64.

14. Sexual torture pursuant to Section 13A-6-65.1.

15. Sexual abuse I pursuant to Section 13A-6-66.

16. Enticing a child to enter a vehicle for immoral purposes pursuant to Section 13A-6-69.

17. Stalking pursuant to Section 13A-6-90.

18. Aggravated stalking pursuant to Section 13A-6-91.

19. Soliciting a child by computer pursuant to Section 13A-6-110.

20. Domestic violence I pursuant to Section 13A-6-130.

21. Domestic violence II pursuant to Section 13A-6-131.

22. Burglary I pursuant to Section 13A-7-5.

23. Burglary II pursuant to Section 13A-7-6.

24. Burglary III pursuant to subdivision (1) or subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of Section 13A-7-7.

25. Arson I pursuant to Section 13A-7-41.

26. Criminal possession of explosives pursuant to Section 13A-7-44.

27. Extortion I pursuant to Section 13A-8-14.

28. Robbery I pursuant to Section 13A-8-41.

29. Robbery II pursuant to Section 13A-8-42.

30. Robbery III pursuant to Section 13A-8-43.

31. Pharmacy robbery pursuant to Section 13A-8-51.

32. Terrorist threats pursuant to Section 13A-10-15.

33. Escape I pursuant to Section 13A-10-31.

34. Promoting prison contraband I pursuant to Section 13A-10-36, involving a deadly weapon or dangerous instrument.

35. Intimidating a witness pursuant to Section 13A-10-123.

36. Intimidating a juror pursuant to Section 13A-10-127.

37. Treason pursuant to Section 13A-11-2.

38. Discharging a weapon into an occupied building, dwelling, automobile, etc., pursuant to Section 13A-11-61.

39. Promoting prostitution I pursuant to Section 13A-12-111.

40. Production of obscene matter involving a minor pursuant to Section 13A-12-197.

41. Trafficking pursuant to Section 13A-12-231.

42. Child abuse pursuant to Section 26-15-3.

43. Elder abuse pursuant to Section 38-9-7.

44. Terrorism pursuant to Section 13A-10-152.

45. Hindering prosecution for terrorism pursuant to Section 13A-10-154.

46. Domestic violence III pursuant to subsection (d) of Section 13A-6-132.

47. Domestic violence by strangulation or suffocation pursuant to Section 13A-6-138.

48. Human trafficking I pursuant to Section 13A-6-152.

49. Human trafficking II pursuant to Section 13A-6-153.

50. Hindering prosecution in the first degree pursuant to Section 13A-10-43.

51. Any substantially similar offense for which an Alabama offender has been convicted under prior Alabama law or the law of any other state, the District of Columbia, the United States, or any of the territories of the United States.

b. The basis for defining these offenses as violent is that each offense meets at least one of the following criteria:

1. Has as an element, the use, attempted use, or threatened use of a deadly weapon or dangerous instrument or physical force against the person of another.

2. Involves a substantial risk of physical injury against the person of another.

3. Is a nonconsensual sex offense.

4. Is particularly reprehensible.

c. Any attempt, conspiracy, or solicitation to commit a violent offense shall be considered a violent offense for the purposes of this article.

d. Any criminal offense which meets the criteria provided in paragraph b. enacted after 2003

Alaska (view all subjects for this state)

Alaska § 12.55.137. Penalties for Gang Activities Punishable as Misdemeanors

(a) If a person commits an offense that would be a Class B misdemeanor and the person committed the offense for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with a criminal street gang, the offense is a Class A misdemeanor.

(b) If a person commits an offense that would be a Class A misdemeanor and the person committed the offense for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with a criminal street gang, the offense is a Class C felony

Alaska § 12.55.155. Factors in Aggravation and Mitigation

(c) The following factors shall be considered by the sentencing court if proven in accordance with this section, and may allow imposition of a sentence above the presumptive range set out in AS 12.55.125:

(1) a person, other than an accomplice, sustained physical injury as a direct result of the defendant's conduct;

(2) the defendant's conduct during the commission of the offense manifested deliberate cruelty to another person;

(3) the defendant was the leader of a group of three or more persons who participated in the offense;

(4) the defendant employed a dangerous instrument in furtherance of the offense;

(5) the defendant knew or reasonably should have known that the victim of the offense was particularly vulnerable or incapable of resistance due to advanced age, disability, ill health, homelessness, consumption of alcohol or drugs, or extreme youth or was for any other reason substantially incapable of exercising normal physical or mental powers of resistance;

(6) the defendant's conduct created a risk of imminent physical injury to three or more persons, other than accomplices;

(7) a prior felony conviction considered for the purpose of invoking a presumptive range under this chapter was of a more serious class of offense than the present offense;

(8) the defendant's prior criminal history includes conduct involving aggravated assaultive behavior, repeated instances of assaultive behavior, repeated instances of cruelty to animals proscribed under AS 11.61.140(a)(1) and (3) -- (5), or a combination of assaultive behavior and cruelty to animals proscribed under AS 11.61.140(a)(1) and (3) -- (5); in this paragraph, "aggravated assaultive behavior"
means assault that is a felony under AS 11.41, or a similar provision in another jurisdiction;

(9) the defendant knew that the offense involved more than one victim;

(10) the conduct constituting the offense was among the most serious conduct included in the definition of the offense;

(11) the defendant committed the offense under an agreement that the defendant either pay or be paid for the commission of the offense, and the pecuniary incentive was beyond that inherent in the offense itself;

(12) the defendant was on release under AS 12.30 for another felony charge or conviction or for a misdemeanor charge or conviction having assault as a necessary element;

(13) the defendant knowingly directed the conduct constituting the offense at an active officer of the court or at an active or former judicial officer, prosecuting attorney, law enforcement officer, correctional employee, firefighter, emergency medical technician, paramedic, ambulance attendant, or other emergency responder during or because of the exercise of official duties;

(14) the defendant was a member of an organized group of five or more persons, and the offense was committed to further the criminal objectives of the group;

(15) the defendant has three or more prior felony convictions;

(16) the defendant's criminal conduct was designed to obtain substantial pecuniary gain and the risk of prosecution and punishment for the conduct is slight;

(17) the offense was one of a continuing series of criminal offenses committed in furtherance of illegal business activities from which the defendant derives a major portion of the defendant's income;

(18) the offense was a felony

(A) specified in AS 11.41 and was committed against a spouse, a former spouse, or a member of the social unit made up of those living together in the same dwelling as the defendant;

(B) specified in AS 11.41.410 -- 11.41.458 and the defendant has engaged in the same or other conduct prohibited by a provision of AS 11.41.410 -- 11.41.460 involving the same or another victim;

(C) specified in AS 11.41 that is a crime involving domestic violence and was committed in the physical presence or hearing of a child under 16 years of age who was, at the time of the offense, living within the residence of the victim, the residence of the perpetrator, or the residence where the crime involving domestic violence occurred;

(D) specified in AS 11.41 and was committed against a person with whom the defendant has a dating relationship or with whom the defendant has engaged in a sexual relationship; or

(E) specified in AS 11.41.434 -- 11.41.458 or AS 11.61.128 and the defendant was 10 or more years older than the victim;

(19) the defendant's prior criminal history includes an adjudication as a delinquent for conduct that would have been a felony if committed by an adult;

(20) the defendant was on furlough under AS 33.30 or on parole or probation for another felony charge or conviction that would be considered a prior felony conviction under AS 12.55.145(a)(1)(B);

(21) the defendant has a criminal history of repeated instances of conduct violative of criminal laws, whether punishable as felonies or misdemeanors, similar in nature to the offense for which the defendant is being sentenced under this section;

(22) the defendant knowingly directed the conduct constituting the offense at a victim because of that person's race, sex, color, creed, physical or mental disability, ancestry, or national origin;

(23) the defendant is convicted of an offense specified in AS 11.71 and

(A) the offense involved the delivery of a controlled substance under circumstances manifesting an intent to distribute the substance as part of a commercial enterprise; or

(B) at the time of the conduct resulting in the conviction, the defendant was caring for or assisting in the care of a child under 10 years of age;

(24) the defendant is convicted of an offense specified in AS 11.71 and the offense involved the transportation of controlled substances into the state;

(25) the defendant is convicted of an offense specified in AS 11.71 and the offense involved large quantities of a controlled substance;

(26) the defendant is convicted of an offense specified in AS 11.71 and the offense involved the distribution of a controlled substance that had been adulterated with a toxic substance;

(27) the defendant, being 18 years of age or older,

(A) is legally accountable under AS 11.16.110(2) for the conduct of a person who, at the time the offense was committed, was under 18 years of age and at least three years younger than the defendant; or

(B) is aided or abetted in planning or committing the offense by a person who, at the time the offense was committed, was under 18 years of age and at least three years younger than the defendant;

(28) the victim of the offense is a person who provided testimony or evidence related to a prior offense committed by the defendant;

(29) the defendant committed the offense for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with a criminal street gang;

(30) the defendant is convicted of an offense specified in AS 11.41.410 -- 11.41.455, and the defendant knowingly supplied alcohol or a controlled substance to the victim in furtherance of the offense with the intent to make the victim incapacitated; in this paragraph, "incapacitated" has the meaning given in AS 11.41.470;

(31) the defendant's prior criminal history includes convictions for five or more crimes in this or another jurisdiction that are class A misdemeanors under the law of this state, or having elements similar to a class A misdemeanor; two or more convictions arising out of a single continuous episode are considered a single conviction; however, an offense is not a part of a continuous episode if committed while attempting to escape or resist arrest or if it is an assault on a uniformed or otherwise clearly identified peace officer or correctional employee; notice and denial of convictions are governed by AS 12.55.145(b) -- (d);

(32) the offense is a violation of AS 11.41 or AS 11.46.400 and the offense occurred on school grounds, on a school bus, at a school-sponsored event, or in the administrative offices of a school district if students are educated at that office; in this paragraph,

(A) "school bus" has the meaning given in AS 11.71.900;

(B) "school district" has the meaning given in AS 47.07.063;

(C) "school grounds" has the meaning given in AS 11.71.900;

(33) the offense was a felony specified in AS 11.41.410 -- 11.41.455, the defendant had been previously diagnosed as having or having tested positive for HIV or AIDS, and the offense either (A) involved penetration, or (B) exposed the victim to a risk or a fear that the offense could result in the transmission of HIV or AIDS; in this paragraph, "HIV" and "AIDS" have the meanings given in AS 18.15.310;

(34) the defendant committed the offense on, or to affect persons or property on, the premises of a recognized shelter or facility providing services to victims of domestic violence or sexual assault; (35) the defendant knowingly directed the conduct constituting the offense at a victim because that person was 65 years of age or older.

(d) The following factors shall be considered by the sentencing court if proven in accordance with this section, and may allow imposition of a sentence below the presumptive range set out in AS 12.55.125:

(1) the offense was principally accomplished by another person, and the defendant manifested extreme caution or sincere concern for the safety or well-being of the victim;

(2) the defendant, although an accomplice, played only a minor role in the commission of the offense;

(3) the defendant committed the offense under some degree of duress, coercion, threat, or compulsion insufficient to constitute a complete defense, but that significantly affected the defendant's conduct;

(4) the conduct of a youthful defendant was substantially influenced by another person more mature than the defendant;

(5) the conduct of an aged defendant was substantially a product of physical or mental infirmities resulting from the defendant's age;

(6) in a conviction for assault under AS 11.41.200 -- 11.41.220, the defendant acted with serious provocation from the victim;

(7) except in the case of a crime defined by AS 11.41.410 -- 11.41.470, the victim provoked the crime to a significant degree;

(8) before the defendant knew that the criminal conduct had been discovered, the defendant fully compensated or made a good faith effort to fully compensate the victim of the defendant's criminal conduct for any damage or injury sustained;

(9) the conduct constituting the offense was among the least serious conduct included in the definition of the offense;

(10) the defendant was motivated to commit the offense solely by an overwhelming compulsion to provide for emergency necessities for the defendant's immediate family;

(11) after commission of the offense for which the defendant is being sentenced, the defendant assisted authorities to detect, apprehend, or prosecute other persons who committed an offense;

(12) the facts surrounding the commission of the offense and any previous offenses by the defendant establish that the harm caused by the defendant's conduct is consistently minor and inconsistent with the imposition of a substantial period of imprisonment;

(13) the defendant is convicted of an offense specified in AS 11.71 and the offense involved small quantities of a controlled substance;

(14) the defendant is convicted of an offense specified in AS 11.71 and the offense involved the distribution of a controlled substance, other than a schedule IA controlled substance, to a personal acquaintance who is 19 years of age or older for no profit;

(15) the defendant is convicted of an offense specified in AS 11.71 and the offense involved the possession of a small amount of a controlled substance for personal use in the defendant's home;

(16) in a conviction for assault or attempted assault or for homicide or attempted homicide, the defendant acted in response to domestic violence perpetrated by the victim against the defendant and the domestic violence consisted of aggravated or repeated instances of assaultive behavior;

(17) except in the case of an offense defined by AS 11.41 or AS 11.46.400, the defendant has been convicted of a class B or C felony, and, at the time of sentencing, has successfully completed a court-ordered treatment program as defined in AS 28.35.028 that was begun after the offense was committed;

(18) except in the case of an offense defined under AS 11.41 or AS 11.46.400 or a defendant who has previously been convicted of a felony, the defendant committed the offense while suffering from a mental disease or defect as defined in AS 12.47.130 that was insufficient to constitute a complete defense but that significantly affected the defendant's conduct;

(19) the defendant is convicted of an offense under AS 11.71, and the defendant sought medical assistance for another person who was experiencing a drug overdose contemporaneously with the commission of the offense;

(20) except in the case of an offense defined under AS 11.41 or AS 11.46.400, the defendant committed the offense while suffering from a condition diagnosed

(A) as a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder substantially impaired the defendant's judgment, behavior, capacity to recognize reality, or ability to cope with the ordinary demands of life, and the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, though insufficient to constitute a complete defense, significantly affected the defendant's conduct; in this subparagraph, "fetal alcohol spectrum disorder" means a condition of impaired brain function in the range of permanent birth defects caused by maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy; or

(B) as combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder or combatrelated traumatic brain injury, the combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder or combat-related traumatic brain injury substantially impaired the defendant's judgment, behavior, capacity to recognize reality, or ability to cope with the ordinary demands of life, and the combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder or combat-related traumatic brain injury, though insufficient to constitute a complete defense, significantly affected the defendant's conduct; in this subparagraph, "combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder or combat-related traumatic brain injury" means post-traumatic stress disorder or traumatic brain injury resulting from combat with an enemy of the United States in the line of duty while on active duty as a member of the armed forces of the United States; nothing in this subparagraph is intended to limit the application of (18) of this subsection;

(21) the defendant, as a condition of release ordered by the court, successfully completed an alcohol and substance abuse monitoring program established under AS 47.38.020.

(e) If a factor in aggravation is a necessary element of the present offense, or requires the imposition of a sentence within the presumptive range under AS 12.55.125(c)(2), that factor may not be used to impose a sentence above the high end of the presumptive range. If a factor in mitigation is raised at trial as a defense reducing the offense charged to a lesser included offense, that factor may not be used to impose a sentence below the low end of the presumptive range.

(f) If the state seeks to establish a factor in aggravation at sentencing

(1) under (c)(7), (8), (12), (15), (18)(B), (19), (20), (21), or (31) of this section, or if the defendant seeks to establish a factor in mitigation at sentencing, written notice must be served on the opposing party and filed with the court not later than 10 days before the date set for imposition of sentence; the factors in aggravation listed in this paragraph and factors in mitigation must be established by clear and convincing evidence before the court sitting without a jury; all findings must be set out with specificity;

(2) other than one listed in (1) of this subsection, the factor shall be presented to a trial jury under procedures set by the court,unless the defendant waives trial by jury, stipulates to the existence of the factor, or consents to have the factor proven under procedures set out in (1) of this subsection; a factor in aggravation presented to a jury is established if proved beyond a reasonable doubt; written notice of the intent to establish a factor in aggravation must be served on the defendant and filed with the court

(A) 20 days before trial, or at another time specified by the court;

(B) within 48 hours, or at a time specified by the court, if the court instructs the jury about the option to return a verdict for a lesser included offense; or

(C) five days before entering a plea that results in a finding of guilt, or at another time specified by the court.

(g) Voluntary alcohol or other drug intoxication or chronic alcoholism or other drug addiction may not be considered an aggravating or mitigating factor.

(h) If one of the aggravating factors in (c) of this section is established as provided in (f)(1) and (2) of this section, the court may increase the term of imprisonment up to the maximum term of imprisonment. Any additional aggravating factor may then be established by clear and convincing evidence by the court sitting without a jury, including an aggravating factor that the jury has found not to have been established beyond a reasonable doubt.

(i) In this section, "serious provocation" has the meaning given in AS 11.41.115(f).

Arizona (view all subjects for this state)

Arizona § 13-501. Persons under eighteen years of age; felony charging; definitions

A. The county attorney shall bring a criminal prosecution against a juvenile in the same manner as an adult if the juvenile is fifteen, sixteen or seventeen years of age at the time the alleged offense is committed and the juvenile is accused of any of the following offenses:

1. First degree murder in violation of section 13-1105.

2. Second degree murder in violation of section 13-1104.

3. Forcible sexual assault in violation of section 13-1406.

4. Armed robbery in violation of section 13-1904.

5. Any other violent felony offense.

6. Any felony offense committed by a chronic felony offender.

7. Any offense that is properly joined to an offense listed in this subsection.

B. Except as provided in subsection A of this section, the county attorney may bring a criminal prosecution against a juvenile in the same manner as an adult if the juvenile is at least fourteen years of age at the time the alleged offense is committed and the juvenile is accused of any of the following offenses:

1. A class 1 felony.

2. A class 2 felony.

3. A class 3 felony in violation of any offense in chapters 10 through 17 or chapter 19 or 23 of this title.

4. A class 3, 4, 5 or 6 felony involving a dangerous offense.

5. Any felony offense committed by a chronic felony offender.

6. Any offense that is properly joined to an offense listed in this subsection.

C. A criminal prosecution shall be brought against a juvenile in the same manner as an adult if the juvenile has been accused of a criminal offense and has a historical prior felony conviction.

D. At the time the county attorney files a complaint or indictment the county attorney shall file a notice stating that the juvenile is a chronic felony offender. Subject to subsection E of this section, the notice shall establish and confer jurisdiction over the juvenile as a chronic felony offender.

E. On motion of the juvenile the court shall hold a hearing after arraignment and before trial to determine if a juvenile is a chronic felony offender. At the hearing the state shall prove by a preponderance of the evidence that the juvenile is a chronic felony offender. If the court does not find that the juvenile is a chronic felony offender, the court shall transfer the juvenile to the juvenile court pursuant to section 8-302. If the court finds that the juvenile is a chronic felony offender or if the juvenile does not file a motion to determine if the juvenile is a chronic felony offender, the criminal prosecution shall continue.

F. Except as provided in section 13-921, a person who is charged pursuant to this section shall be sentenced in the criminal court in the same manner as an adult for any offense for which the person is convicted.

G. Unless otherwise provided by law, nothing in this section shall be construed as to confer jurisdiction in the juvenile court over any person who is eighteen years of age or older.

H. For the purposes of this section:

1. "Accused" means a juvenile against whom a complaint, information or indictment is filed.

2. "Chronic felony offender" means a juvenile who has had two prior and separate adjudications and dispositions for conduct that would constitute a historical prior felony conviction if the juvenile had been tried as an adult.

3. "Forcible sexual assault" means sexual assault pursuant to section 13-1406 that is committed without consent as defined in section 13-1401, paragraph 7, subdivision (a).

4. "Other violent felony offense" means:

(a) Aggravated assault pursuant to section 13-1204, subsection A, paragraph 1.

(b) Aggravated assault pursuant to section 13-1204, subsection A, paragraph 2 involving the use of a deadly weapon.

(c) Drive by shooting pursuant to section 13-1209.

(d) Discharging a firearm at a structure pursuant to section 13-1211.

Arizona § 13-504. Persons Under 18 Years of Age; Juvenile Transfer

D. The court shall consider the following factors in determining whether public safety and the juvenile's rehabilitation, if adjudicated delinquent, would be served by the transfer:

6. Whether the juvenile committed the alleged offense while participating in, assisting, promoting, or furthering the interests of a criminal street gang, a criminal syndicate, or a racketeering enterprise.

Arizona § 13-709. Offenses Committed in School Safety Zone; Sentences; Definitions

A. Except as otherwise prescribed in section 13-3411, a person who is convicted of a felony offense that is committed in a school safety zone is guilty of the same class of felony that the person would otherwise be guilty of if the violation had not occurred within a school safety zone, except that the court may impose a sentence that is one year longer than the minimum, maximum and presumptive sentence for that violation if the person is not a criminal street gang member or up to five years longer than the minimum, maximum and presumptive sentence for that violation if the person is a criminal street gang member. The additional sentence imposed under this subsection is in addition to any other enhanced punishment that may be applicable under section 13-703, section 13-704, section 13-706, section 13-708, subsection D or chapter 34 of this title.

B. In addition to any other penalty prescribed by this title, the court may order a person who is subject to subsection A of this section to pay a fine of not less than two thousand dollars and not more than the maximum authorized by chapter 8 of this title.

C. Each school district governing board or its designee, or chief administrative officer in the case of a nonpublic or charter school, may place and maintain permanently affixed signs that are located in a visible manner at the main entrance of each school and that identify the school and its accompanying grounds as a school safety zone. A school may include information regarding the school safety zone boundaries on a sign that identifies the area as a drug free zone and not post separate school safety zone signs.

D. For the purposes of this section:

1. "School" means any public or nonpublic kindergarten program, common school or high school.

2. "School safety zone" means any of the following:

(a) The area within three hundred feet of a school or its accompanying grounds.

(b) Any public property within one thousand feet of a school or its accompanying grounds.

(c) Any school bus.

(d) A bus contracted to transport pupils to any school during the time when the contracted vehicle is transporting pupils on behalf of the school.

(e) A school bus stop.

(f) Any bus stop where school children are awaiting, boarding or exiting a bus contracted to transport pupils to any school.

Arizona § 13-714. Offenses Committed with Intent to Promote, Further, or Assist a Criminal Street Gang

A person who is convicted of committing any felony offense with the intent to promote, further or assist any criminal conduct by a criminal street gang shall not be eligible for suspension of sentence, probation, pardon or release from confinement on any basis except as authorized by § 31-233, subsection A or B until the sentence imposed by the court has been served, the person is eligible for release pursuant to § 41-1604.07 or the sentence is commuted. The presumptive, minimum and maximum sentence for the offense shall be increased by three years if the offense is a class 4, 5 or 6 felony or shall be increased by five years if the offense is a class 2 or 3 felony. The additional sentence imposed pursuant to this section is in addition to any enhanced sentence that may be applicable.

Arizona § 13-751. Sentence of Death or Life Imprisonment; Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances; Definition

F. The trier of fact shall consider the following aggravating circumstances in determining whether to impose a sentence of death:

1. The defendant has been convicted of another offense in the United States for which under Arizona law a sentence of life imprisonment or death was imposable.

2. The defendant has been or was previously convicted of a serious offense, whether preparatory or completed. Convictions for serious offenses committed on the same occasion as the homicide, or not committed on the same occasion but consolidated for trial with the homicide, shall be treated as a serious offense under this paragraph.

3. In the commission of the offense the defendant knowingly created a grave risk of death to another person or persons in addition to the person murdered during the commission of the offense.

4. The defendant procured the commission of the offense by payment, or promise of payment, of anything of pecuniary value.

5. The defendant committed the offense as consideration for the receipt, or in expectation of the receipt, of anything of pecuniary value.

6. The defendant committed the offense in an especially heinous, cruel or depraved manner.

7. The defendant committed the offense while:

(a) In the custody of or on authorized or unauthorized release from the state department of corrections, a law enforcement agency or a county or city jail.

(b) On probation for a felony offense.

8. The defendant has been convicted of one or more other homicides, as defined in section 13-1101, that were committed during the commission of the offense.

9. The defendant was an adult at the time the offense was committed or was tried as an adult and the murdered person was under fifteen years of age, was an unborn child in the womb at any stage of its development or was seventy years of age or older.

10. The murdered person was an on duty peace officer who was killed in the course of performing the officer's official duties and the defendant knew, or should have known, that the murdered person was a peace officer.

11. The defendant committed the offense with the intent to promote, further or assist the objectives of a criminal street gang or criminal syndicate or to join a criminal street gang or criminal syndicate.

12. The defendant committed the offense to prevent a person's cooperation with an official law enforcement investigation, to prevent a person's testimony in a court proceeding, in retaliation for a person's cooperation with an official law enforcement investigation or in retaliation for a person's testimony in a court proceeding.

13. The offense was committed in a cold, calculated manner without pretense of moral or legal justification.

14. The defendant used a remote stun gun or an authorized remote stun gun in the commission of the offense. For the purposes of this paragraph:

(a) "Authorized remote stun gun" means a remote stun gun that has all of the following:

(i) An electrical discharge that is less than one hundred thousand volts and less than nine joules of energy per pulse.

(ii) A serial or identification number on all projectiles that are discharged from the remote stun gun.

(iii) An identification and tracking system that, on deployment of remote electrodes, disperses coded material that is traceable to the purchaser through records that are kept by the manufacturer on all remote stun guns and all individual cartridges sold.

(iv) A training program that is offered by the manufacturer.

(b) "Remote stun gun" means an electronic device that emits an electrical charge and that is designed and primarily employed to incapacitate a person or animal either through contact with electrodes on the device itself or remotely through wired probes that are attached to the device or through a spark, plasma, ionization or other conductive means emitting from the device.

Arizona § 13-1805. Shoplifting; Detaining Suspect; Defense to Wrongful Detention; Civil Action by Merchant; Public Services; Classification

H. Shoplifting property with a value of two thousand dollars or more, shoplifting property during any continuing criminal episode, or shoplifting property if done to promote, further, or assist any criminal street gang or criminal syndicate is a class 5 felony. Shoplifting property with a value of one thousand dollars or more but less than two thousand dollars is a class 6 felony. Shoplifting property valued at less than one thousand dollars is a class 1 misdemeanor, unless the property is a firearm in which case the shoplifting is a class 6 felony. For the purposes of this subsection, “continuing criminal episode” means theft of property with a value of one thousand five hundred dollars or more if committed during at least three separate incidences within a period of ninety consecutive days.

Arizona § 13-2409. Obstructing Criminal Investigations or Prosecutions; Classification

A person who knowingly attempts by means of bribery, misrepresentation, intimidation, or force or threats of force to obstruct, delay, or prevent the communication of information or testimony relating to a violation of any criminal statute to a peace officer, magistrate, prosecutor, or grand jury or who knowingly injures another in his person or property on account of the giving by the latter or by any other person of any such information or testimony to a peace officer, magistrate, prosecutor, or grand jury is guilty of a class 5 felony, except that it is a class 3 felony if the person commits the offense with the intent to promote, further, or assist a criminal street gang.

Arizona § 13-2512. Hindering Prosecution in the First Degree; Classification

B. Hindering prosecution in the first degree is a class 5 felony, except that it is a class 3 felony if either:

1. The person knows or has reason to know that the offense involves terrorism or murder.

2. The person commits the offense with the intent to promote, further, or assist a criminal street gang.

Arkansas (view all subjects for this state)

Arkansas § 5-74-104. Engaging in a Continuing Criminal Gang, Organization, or Enterprise

(a)(1) A person commits the offense of engaging in a continuing criminal gang, organization, or enterprise in the first degree if he or she:

(A) Commits or attempts to commit or solicits to commit a felony predicate criminal offense; and

(B) That offense is part of a continuing series of two (2) or more predicate criminal offenses which are undertaken by that person in concert with two (2) or more other persons with respect to whom that person occupies a position of organizer, a supervisory position, or any other position of management.

(2) A person who engages in a continuing criminal gang, organization, or enterprise in the first degree is guilty of a felony two (2) classifications higher than the classification of the highest underlying predicate offense referenced in subdivision (a)(1)(A) of this section.

(b)(1) A person commits the offense of engaging in a continuing criminal gang, organization, or enterprise in the second degree if he or she:

(A) Commits or attempts to commit or solicits to commit a felony predicate criminal offense; and

(B) That offense is part of a continuing series of two (2) or more predicate criminal offenses which are undertaken by that person in concert with two (2) or more other persons, but with respect to whom that person does not occupy the position of organizer, a supervisory position, or any other position of management.

(2) A person who engages in a continuing criminal gang, organization, or enterprise in the second degree is guilty of a felony one (1) classification higher than the classification of the highest underlying offense referenced in subdivision (b)(1)(A) of this section.

(c) A person who engages in a continuing criminal gang, organization, or enterprise where the underlying predicate offense is a Class A or Class Y felony shall be guilty of a Class Y felony.

(d) Any sentence of imprisonment imposed pursuant to this section shall be in addition to any sentence imposed for the violation of a predicate criminal offense.

Arkansas § 5-74-108. Violence in Concert with Others; Enhanced Penalties

(a) Any person who violates any provision of Arkansas law that is a crime of violence while acting in concert with two (2) or more other persons is subject to enhanced penalties.

(b) Upon conviction of a crime of violence committed while acting in concert with two (2) or more other persons, the classification and penalty range is increased by one (1) classification.

(c) The fact that the group was not a criminal gang, organization, or enterprise is not a defense to prosecution under this section.

California (view all subjects for this state)

California Pen Code § 186.22. Street Gang (Operative January 1, 2017)

(a) Any person who actively participates in any criminal street gang with knowledge that its members engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal gang activity, and who willfully promotes, furthers, or assists in any felonious criminal conduct by members of that gang, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for a period not to exceed one year, or by imprisonment in the state prison for 16 months, or two or three years.

(b)

(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (4) and (5), any person who is convicted of a felony committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members, shall, upon conviction of that felony, in addition and consecutive to the punishment prescribed for the felony or attempted felony of which he or she has been convicted, be punished as follows:

(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), the person shall be punished by an additional term of two, three, or four years at the court's discretion.

(B) If the felony is a serious felony, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 1192.7, the person shall be punished by an additional term of five years.

(C) If the felony is a violent felony, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5, the person shall be punished by an additional term of 10 years.

(2) If the underlying felony described in paragraph (1) is committed on the grounds of, or within 1,000 feet of, a public or private elementary, vocational, junior high, or high school, during hours in which the facility is open for classes or school-related programs or when minors are using the facility, that fact shall be a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under paragraph (1).

(3) The court shall order the imposition of the middle term of the sentence enhancement, unless there are circumstances in aggravation or mitigation. The court shall state the reasons for its choice of sentencing enhancements on the record at the time of the sentencing.

(4) Any person who is convicted of a felony enumerated in this paragraph committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members, shall, upon conviction of that felony, be sentenced to an indeterminate term of life imprisonment with a minimum term of the indeterminate sentence calculated as the greater of:

(A) The term determined by the court pursuant to Section 1170 for the underlying conviction, including any enhancement applicable under Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 1170) of Title 7 of Part 2, or any period prescribed by Section 3046, if the felony is any of the offenses enumerated in subparagraph (B) or (C) of this paragraph.

(B) Imprisonment in the state prison for 15 years, if the felony is a home invasion robbery, in violation of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 213; carjacking, as defined in Section 215; a felony violation of Section 246; or a violation of Section 12022.55.

(C) Imprisonment in the state prison for seven years, if the felony is extortion, as defined in Section 519; or threats to victims and witnesses, as defined in Section 136.1.

(5) Except as provided in paragraph (4), any person who violates this subdivision in the commission of a felony punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for life shall not be paroled until a minimum of 15 calendar years have been served.

(c) If the court grants probation or suspends the execution of sentence imposed upon the defendant for a violation of subdivision (a), or in cases involving a true finding of the enhancement enumerated in subdivision (b), the court shall require that the defendant serve a minimum of 180 days in a county jail as a condition thereof.

(d) Any person who is convicted of a public offense punishable as a felony or a misdemeanor, which is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail not to exceed one year, or by imprisonment in a state prison for one, two, or three years, provided that any person sentenced to imprisonment in the county jail shall be imprisoned for a period not to exceed one year, but not less than 180 days, and shall not be eligible for release upon completion of sentence, parole, or any other basis, until he or she has served 180 days. If the court grants probation or suspends the execution of sentence imposed upon the defendant, it shall require as a condition thereof that the defendant serve 180 days in a county jail.

(e) As used in this chapter, "pattern of criminal gang activity" means the commission of, attempted commission of, conspiracy to commit, or solicitation of, sustained juvenile petition for, or conviction of two or more of the following offenses, provided at least one of these offenses occurred after the effective date of this chapter and the last of those offenses occurred within three years after a prior offense, and the offenses were committed on separate occasions, or by two or more persons:

(1) Assault with a deadly weapon or by means of force likely to produce great bodily injury, as defined in Section 245.

(2) Robbery, as defined in Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 211) of Title 8 of Part 1.

(3) Unlawful homicide or manslaughter, as defined in Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 187) of Title 8 of Part 1.

(4) The sale, possession for sale, transportation, manufacture, offer for sale, or offer to manufacture controlled substances as defined in Sections 11054, 11055, 11056, 11057, and 11058 of the Health and Safety Code.

(5) Shooting at an inhabited dwelling or occupied motor vehicle, as defined in Section 246.

(6) Discharging or permitting the discharge of a firearm from a motor vehicle, as defined in subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 12034 until January 1, 2012, and, on or after that date, subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 26100.

(7) Arson, as defined in Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 450) of Title 13.

(8) The intimidation of witnesses and victims, as defined in Section 136.1.

(9) Grand theft, as defined in subdivision (a) or (c) of Section 487.

(10) Grand theft of any firearm, vehicle, trailer, or vessel.

(11) Burglary, as defined in Section 459.

(12) Rape, as defined in Section 261.

(13) Looting, as defined in Section 463.

(14) Money laundering, as defined in Section 186.10.

(15) Kidnapping, as defined in Section 207.

(16) Mayhem, as defined in Section 203.

(17) Aggravated mayhem, as defined in Section 205.

(18) Torture, as defined in Section 206.

(19) Felony extortion, as defined in Sections 518 and 520.

(20) Felony vandalism, as defined in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 594.

(21) Carjacking, as defined in Section 215.

(22) The sale, delivery, or transfer of a firearm, as defined in Section 12072 until January 1, 2012, and, on or after that date, Article 1 (commencing with Section 27500) of Chapter 4 of Division 6 of Title 4 of Part 6.

(23) Possession of a pistol, revolver, or other firearm capable of being concealed upon the person in violation of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 12101 until January 1, 2012, and, on or after that date, Section 29610.

(24) Threats to commit crimes resulting in death or great bodily injury, as defined in Section 422.

(25) Theft and unlawful taking or driving of a vehicle, as defined in Section 10851 of the Vehicle Code.

(26) Felony theft of an access card or account information, as defined in Section 484e.

(27) Counterfeiting, designing, using, or attempting to use an access card, as defined in Section 484f.

(28) Felony fraudulent use of an access card or account information, as defined in Section 484g.

(29) Unlawful use of personal identifying information to obtain credit, goods, services, or medical information, as defined in Section 530.5.

(30) Wrongfully obtaining Department of Motor Vehicles documentation, as defined in Section 529.7.

(31) Prohibited possession of a firearm in violation of Section 12021 until January 1, 2012, and, on or after that date, Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 29800) of Division 9 of Title 4 of Part 6.

(32) Carrying a concealed firearm in violation of Section 12025 until January 1, 2012, and, on or after that date, Section 25400.

(33) Carrying a loaded firearm in violation of Section 12031 until January 1, 2012, and, on or after that date, Section 25850.

(f) As used in this chapter, "criminal street gang" means any ongoing organization, association, or group of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, having as one of its primary activities the commission of one or more of the criminal acts enumerated in paragraphs (1) to (25), inclusive, or (31) to (33), inclusive, of subdivision (e), having a common name or common identifying sign or symbol, and whose members individually or collectively engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal gang activity.

(g) Notwithstanding any other law, the court may strike the additional punishment for the enhancements provided in this section or refuse to impose the minimum jail sentence for misdemeanors in an unusual case where the interests of justice would best be served, if the court specifies on the record and enters into the minutes the circumstances indicating that the interests of justice would best be served by that disposition.

(h) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for each person committed to the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Facilities for a conviction pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) of this section, the offense shall be deemed one for which the state shall pay the rate of 100 percent of the per capita institutional cost of the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Facilities, pursuant to Section 912.5 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(i) In order to secure a conviction or sustain a juvenile petition, pursuant to subdivision (a) it is not necessary for the prosecution to prove that the person devotes all, or a substantial part, of his or her time or efforts to the criminal street gang, nor is it necessary to prove that the person is a member of the criminal street gang. Active participation in the criminal street gang is all that is required.

(j) A pattern of gang activity may be shown by the commission of one or more of the offenses enumerated in paragraphs (26) to (30), inclusive, of subdivision (e), and the commission of one or more of the offenses enumerated in paragraphs (1) to (25), inclusive, or (31) to (33), inclusive, of subdivision (e). A pattern of gang activity cannot be established solely by proof of commission of offenses enumerated in paragraphs (26) to (30), inclusive, of subdivision (e), alone.

(k) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2017.

California Pen Code § 186.22. Street gang (Repealed January 1, 2017)

(a) Any person who actively participates in any criminal street gang with knowledge that its members engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal gang activity, and who willfully promotes, furthers, or assists in any felonious criminal conduct by members of that gang, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for a period not to exceed one year, or by imprisonment in the state prison for 16 months, or two or three years.

(b)

(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (4) and (5), any person who is convicted of a felony committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members, shall, upon conviction of that felony, in addition and consecutive to the punishment prescribed for the felony or attempted felony of which he or she has been convicted, be punished as follows:

(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), the person shall be punished by an additional term of two, three, or four years at the court's discretion.

(B) If the felony is a serious felony, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 1192.7, the person shall be punished by an additional term of five years.

(C) If the felony is a violent felony, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5, the person shall be punished by an additional term of 10 years.

(2) If the underlying felony described in paragraph (1) is committed on the grounds of, or within 1,000 feet of, a public or private elementary, vocational, junior high, or high school, during hours in which the facility is open for classes or school-related programs or when minors are using the facility, that fact shall be a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under paragraph (1).

(3) The court shall select the sentence enhancement which, in the court's discretion, best serves the interests of justice and shall state the reasons for its choice on the record at the time of the sentencing in accordance with the provisions of subdivision (d) of Section 1170.1.

(4) Any person who is convicted of a felony enumerated in this paragraph committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members, shall, upon conviction of that felony, be sentenced to an indeterminate term of life imprisonment with a minimum term of the indeterminate sentence calculated as the greater of:

(A) The term determined by the court pursuant to Section 1170 for the underlying conviction, including any enhancement applicable under Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 1170) of Title 7 of Part 2, or any period prescribed by Section 3046, if the felony is any of the offenses enumerated in subparagraph (B) or (C) of this paragraph.

(B) Imprisonment in the state prison for 15 years, if the felony is a home invasion robbery, in violation of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 213; carjacking, as defined in Section 215; a felony violation of Section 246; or a violation of Section 12022.55.

(C) Imprisonment in the state prison for seven years, if the felony is extortion, as defined in Section 519; or threats to victims and witnesses, as defined in Section 136.1.

(5) Except as provided in paragraph (4), any person who violates this subdivision in the commission of a felony punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for life shall not be paroled until a minimum of 15 calendar years have been served.

(c) If the court grants probation or suspends the execution of sentence imposed upon the defendant for a violation of subdivision (a), or in cases involving a true finding of the enhancement enumerated in subdivision (b), the court shall require that the defendant serve a minimum of 180 days in a county jail as a condition thereof.

(d) Any person who is convicted of a public offense punishable as a felony or a misdemeanor, which is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail not to exceed one year, or by imprisonment in a state prison for one, two, or three years, provided that any person sentenced to imprisonment in the county jail shall be imprisoned for a period not to exceed one year, but not less than 180 days, and shall not be eligible for release upon completion of sentence, parole, or any other basis, until he or she has served 180 days. If the court grants probation or suspends the execution of sentence imposed upon the defendant, it shall require as a condition thereof that the defendant serve 180 days in a county jail.

(e) As used in this chapter, "pattern of criminal gang activity" means the commission of, attempted commission of, conspiracy to commit, or solicitation of, sustained juvenile petition for, or conviction of two or more of the following offenses, provided at least one of these offenses occurred after the effective date of this chapter and the last of those offenses occurred within three years after a prior offense, and the offenses were committed on separate occasions, or by two or more persons:

(1) Assault with a deadly weapon or by means of force likely to produce great bodily injury, as defined in Section 245.

(2) Robbery, as defined in Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 211) of Title 8 of Part 1.

(3) Unlawful homicide or manslaughter, as defined in Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 187) of Title 8 of Part 1.

(4) The sale, possession for sale, transportation, manufacture, offer for sale, or offer to manufacture controlled substances as defined in Sections 11054, 11055, 11056, 11057, and 11058 of the Health and Safety Code.

(5) Shooting at an inhabited dwelling or occupied motor vehicle, as defined in Section 246.

(6) Discharging or permitting the discharge of a firearm from a motor vehicle, as defined in subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 12034 until January 1, 2012, and, on or after that date, subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 26100.

(7) Arson, as defined in Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 450) of Title 13.

(8) The intimidation of witnesses and victims, as defined in Section 136.1.

(9) Grand theft, as defined in subdivision (a) or (c) of Section 487.

(10) Grand theft of any firearm, vehicle, trailer, or vessel.

(11) Burglary, as defined in Section 459.

(12) Rape, as defined in Section 261.

(13) Looting, as defined in Section 463.

(14) Money laundering, as defined in Section 186.10.

(15) Kidnapping, as defined in Section 207.

(16) Mayhem, as defined in Section 203.

(17) Aggravated mayhem, as defined in Section 205.

(18) Torture, as defined in Section 206.

(19) Felony extortion, as defined in Sections 518 and 520.

(20) Felony vandalism, as defined in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 594.

(21) Carjacking, as defined in Section 215.

(22) The sale, delivery, or transfer of a firearm, as defined in Section 12072 until January 1, 2012, and, on or after that date, Article 1 (commencing with Section 27500) of Chapter 4 of Division 6 of Title 4 of Part 6.

(23) Possession of a pistol, revolver, or other firearm capable of being concealed upon the person in violation of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 12101 until January 1, 2012, and, on or after that date, Section 29610.

(24) Threats to commit crimes resulting in death or great bodily injury, as defined in Section 422.

(25) Theft and unlawful taking or driving of a vehicle, as defined in Section 10851 of the Vehicle Code.

(26) Felony theft of an access card or account information, as defined in Section 484e.

(27) Counterfeiting, designing, using, or attempting to use an access card, as defined in Section 484f.

(28) Felony fraudulent use of an access card or account information, as defined in Section 484g.

(29) Unlawful use of personal identifying information to obtain credit, goods, services, or medical information, as defined in Section 530.5.

(30) Wrongfully obtaining Department of Motor Vehicles documentation, as defined in Section 529.7.

(31) Prohibited possession of a firearm in violation of Section 12021 until January 1, 2012, and on or after that date, Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 29800) of Division 9 of Title 4 of Part 6.

(32) Carrying a concealed firearm in violation of Section 12025 until January 1, 2012, and, on or after that date, Section 25400.

(33) Carrying a loaded firearm in violation of Section 12031 until January 1, 2012, and, on or after that date, Section 25850.

(f) As used in this chapter, "criminal street gang" means any ongoing organization, association, or group of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, having as one of its primary activities the commission of one or more of the criminal acts enumerated in paragraphs (1) to (25), inclusive, or (31) to (33), inclusive, of subdivision (e), having a common name or common identifying sign or symbol, and whose members individually or collectively engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal gang activity.

(g) Notwithstanding any other law, the court may strike the additional punishment for the enhancements provided in this section or refuse to impose the minimum jail sentence for misdemeanors in an unusual case where the interests of justice would best be served, if the court specifies on the record and enters into the minutes the circumstances indicating that the interests of justice would best be served by that disposition.

(h) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for each person committed to the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Facilities for a conviction pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) of this section, the offense shall be deemed one for which the state shall pay the rate of 100 percent of the per capita institutional cost of the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Facilities, pursuant to Section 912.5 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(i) In order to secure a conviction or sustain a juvenile petition, pursuant to subdivision (a) it is not necessary for the prosecution to prove that the person devotes all, or a substantial part, of his or her time or efforts to the criminal street gang, nor is it necessary to prove that the person is a member of the criminal street gang. Active participation in the criminal street gang is all that is required.

(j) A pattern of gang activity may be shown by the commission of one or more of the offenses enumerated in paragraphs (26) to (30), inclusive, of subdivision (e), and the commission of one or more of the offenses enumerated in paragraphs (1) to (25), inclusive, or (31) to (33), inclusive, of subdivision (e). A pattern of gang activity cannot be established solely by proof of commission of offenses enumerated in paragraphs (26) to (30), inclusive, of subdivision (e), alone.

(k) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2017, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2017, deletes or extends that date.

California Pen Code § 190.2. Penalty on finding special circumstances

(a) The penalty for a defendant who is found guilty of murder in the first degree is death or imprisonment in the state prison for life without the possibility of parole if one or more of the following special circumstances has been found under Section 190.4 to be true:

(1) The murder was intentional and carried out for financial gain.

(2) The defendant was convicted previously of murder in the first or second degree. For the purpose of this paragraph, an offense committed in another jurisdiction, which if committed in California would be punishable as first or second degree murder, shall be deemed murder in the first or second degree.

(3) The defendant, in this proceeding, has been convicted of more than one offense of murder in the first or second degree.

(4) The murder was committed by means of a destructive device, bomb, or explosive planted, hidden, or concealed in any place, area, dwelling, building, or structure, and the defendant knew, or reasonably should have known, that his or her act or acts would create a great risk of death to one or more human beings.

(5) The murder was committed for the purpose of avoiding or preventing a lawful arrest, or perfecting or attempting to perfect, an escape from lawful custody.

(6) The murder was committed by means of a destructive device, bomb, or explosive that the defendant mailed or delivered, attempted to mail or deliver, or caused to be mailed or delivered, and the defendant knew, or reasonably should have known, that his or her act or acts would create a great risk of death to one or more human beings.

(7) The victim was a peace officer, as defined in Section 830.1, 830.2, 830.3, 830.31, 830.32, 830.33, 830.34, 830.35, 830.36, 830.37, 830.4, 830.5, 830.6, 830.10, 830.11, or 830.12, who, while engaged in the course of the performance of his or her duties, was intentionally killed, and the defendant knew, or reasonably should have known, that the victim was a peace officer engaged in the performance of his or her duties; or the victim was a peace officer, as defined in the above-enumerated sections, or a former peace officer under any of those sections, and was intentionally killed in retaliation for the performance of his or her official duties.

(8) The victim was a federal law enforcement officer or agent who, while engaged in the course of the performance of his or her duties, was intentionally killed, and the defendant knew, or reasonably should have known, that the victim was a federal law enforcement officer or agent engaged in the performance of his or her duties; or the victim was a federal law enforcement officer or agent, and was intentionally killed in retaliation for the performance of his or her official duties.

(9) The victim was a firefighter, as defined in Section 245.1, who, while engaged in the course of the performance of his or her duties, was intentionally killed, and the defendant knew, or reasonably should have known, that the victim was a firefighter engaged in the performance of his or her duties.

(10) The victim was a witness to a crime who was intentionally killed for the purpose of preventing his or her testimony in any criminal or juvenile proceeding, and the killing was not committed during the commission or attempted commission, of the crime to which he or she was a witness; or the victim was a witness to a crime and was intentionally killed in retaliation for his or her testimony in any criminal or juvenile proceeding. As used in this paragraph, “juvenile proceeding” means a proceeding brought pursuant to Section 602 or 707 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(11) The victim was a prosecutor or assistant prosecutor or a former prosecutor or assistant prosecutor of any local or state prosecutor's office in this or any other state, or of a federal prosecutor's office, and the murder was intentionally carried out in retaliation for, or to prevent the performance of, the victim's official duties.

(12) The victim was a judge or former judge of any court of record in the local, state, or federal system in this or any other state, and the murder was intentionally carried out in retaliation for, or to prevent the performance of, the victim's official duties.

(13) The victim was an elected or appointed official or former official of the federal government, or of any local or state government of this or any other state, and the killing was intentionally carried out in retaliation for, or to prevent the performance of, the victim's official duties.

(14) The murder was especially heinous, atrocious, or cruel, manifesting exceptional depravity. As used in this section, the phrase “especially heinous, atrocious, or cruel, manifesting exceptional depravity” means a conscienceless or pitiless crime that is unnecessarily torturous to the victim.

(15) The defendant intentionally killed the victim by means of lying in wait.

(16) The victim was intentionally killed because of his or her race, color, religion, nationality, or country of origin.

(17) The murder was committed while the defendant was engaged in, or was an accomplice in, the commission of, attempted commission of, or the immediate flight after committing, or attempting to commit, the following felonies:

(A) Robbery in violation of Section 211 or 212.5.

(B) Kidnapping in violation of Section 207, 209, or 209.5.

(C) Rape in violation of Section 261.

(D) Sodomy in violation of Section 286.

(E) The performance of a lewd or lascivious act upon the person of a child under the age of 14 years in violation of Section 288.

(F) Oral copulation in violation of Section 288a.

(G) Burglary in the first or second degree in violation of Section 460.

(H) Arson in violation of subdivision (b) of Section 451.

(I) Train wrecking in violation of Section 219.

(J) Mayhem in violation of Section 203.

(K) Rape by instrument in violation of Section 289.

(L) Carjacking, as defined in Section 215.

(M) To prove the special circumstances of kidnapping in subparagraph (B), or arson in subparagraph (H), if there is specific intent to kill, it is only required that there be proof of the elements of those felonies. If so established, those two special circumstances are proven even if the felony of kidnapping or arson is committed primarily or solely for the purpose of facilitating the murder.

(18) The murder was intentional and involved the infliction of torture.

(19) The defendant intentionally killed the victim by the administration of poison.

(20) The victim was a juror in any court of record in the local, state, or federal system in this or any other state, and the murder was intentionally carried out in retaliation for, or to prevent the performance of, the victim's official duties.

(21) The murder was intentional and perpetrated by means of discharging a firearm from a motor vehicle, intentionally at another person or persons outside the vehicle with the intent to inflict death. For purposes of this paragraph, “motor vehicle” means any vehicle as defined in Section 415 of the Vehicle Code.

(22) The defendant intentionally killed the victim while the defendant was an active participant in a criminal street gang, as defined in subdivision (f) of Section 186.22, and the murder was carried out to further the activities of the criminal street gang.

(b) Unless an intent to kill is specially required under subdivision (a) for a special circumstance enumerated therein, an actual killer, as to whom the special circumstance has been found to be true under Section 190.4, need not have had any intent to kill at the time of the commission of the offense which is the basis of the special circumstance in order to suffer death or confinement in the state prison for life without the possibility of parole.

(c) Every person, not the actual killer, who, with the intent to kill, aids, abets, counsels, commands, induces, solicits, requests, or assists any actor in the commission of murder in the first degree shall be punished by death or imprisonment in the state prison for life without the possibility of parole if one or more of the special circumstances enumerated in subdivision (a) has been found to be true under Section 190.4.

(d) Notwithstanding subdivision (c), every person, not the actual killer, who, with reckless indifference to human life and as a major participant, aids, abets, counsels, commands, induces, solicits, requests, or assists in the commission of a felony enumerated in paragraph (17) of subdivision (a) which results in the death of some person or persons, and who is found guilty of murder in the first degree therefor, shall be punished by death or imprisonment in the state prison for life without the possibility of parole if a special circumstance enumerated in paragraph (17) of subdivision (a) has been found to be true under Section 190.4.

The penalty shall be determined as provided in this section and Sections 190.1, 190.3, 190.4, and 190.5.

California Pen Code § 653f. Soliciting Commission of Certain Offenses; Punishment; Degree of Proof

(a) Every person who, with the intent that the crime be committed, solicits another to offer, accept, or join in the offer or acceptance of a bribe, or to commit or join in the commission of carjacking, robbery, burglary, grand theft, receiving stolen property, extortion, perjury, subornation of perjury, forgery, kidnapping, arson or assault with a deadly weapon or instrument or by means of force likely to produce great bodily injury, or, by the use of force or a threat of force, to prevent or dissuade any person who is or may become a witness from attending upon, or testifying at, any trial, proceeding, or inquiry authorized by law, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year or pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170, or by a fine of not more than ten thousand dollars ($10,000), or the amount which could have been assessed for commission of the offense itself, whichever is greater, or by both the fine and imprisonment.

(b) Every person who, with the intent that the crime be committed, solicits another to commit or join in the commission of murder shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for three, six, or nine years.

(c) Every person who, with the intent that the crime be committed, solicits another to commit rape by force or violence, sodomy by force or violence, oral copulation by force or violence, or any violation of Section 264.1, 288, or 289, shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years.

(d)

(1) Every person who, with the intent that the crime be committed, solicits another to commit an offense specified in Section 11352, 11379, 11379.5, 11379.6, or 11391 of the Health and Safety Code shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding six months. Every person who, having been convicted of soliciting another to commit an offense specified in this subdivision, is subsequently convicted of the proscribed solicitation, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year, or pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170.

(2) This subdivision does not apply where the term of imprisonment imposed under other provisions of law would result in a longer term of imprisonment.

(e) Every person who, with the intent that the crime be committed, solicits another to commit an offense specified in Section 14014 of the Welfare and Institutions Code shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not exceeding six months. Every person who, having been convicted of soliciting another to commit an offense specified in this subdivision, is subsequently convicted of the proscribed solicitation, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year, or pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170.

(f)

(1) Every person who, with the intent that the crime be committed, solicits another to commit an offense set forth in Section 502 shall be punished as set forth in paragraph (3).

(2) Every person who, with the intent that the crime be committed, offers to solicit assistance for another to conduct activities in violation of Section 502 shall be punished as set forth in paragraph (3). This includes persons operating Internet Web sites that offer to assist others in locating hacking services. For the purposes of this section "hacking services" means assistance in the unauthorized access to computers, computer systems, or data in violation of Section 502.

(3) Every person who violates this subdivision shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for a period not to exceed six months. Every subsequent violation of this subdivision by that same person shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year.

(g) An offense charged in violation of subdivision (a), (b), or (c) shall be proven by the testimony of two witnesses, or of one witness and corroborating circumstances. An offense charged in violation of subdivision (d), (e), or (f) shall be proven by the testimony of one witness and corroborating circumstances.

(h) Nothing in this section precludes prosecution under any other law that provides for a greater punishment.

California Pen Code § 667.9. Conviction of Certain Crimes Against Persons 65 Years of Age or Older, Blind, Deaf, Developmentally Disabled, Paraplegic, Quadriplegic, or Under the Age of 14 years; Prior Conviction; Sentence Enhancements

(a) Any person who commits one or more of the crimes specified in subdivision (c) against a person who is 65 years of age or older, or against a person who is blind, deaf, developmentally disabled, a paraplegic, or a quadriplegic, or against a person who is under the age of 14 years, and that disability or condition is known or reasonably should be known to the person committing the crime, shall receive a one-year enhancement for each violation.

(b) Any person who commits a violation of subdivision (a) and who has a prior conviction for any of the offenses specified in subdivision (c), shall receive a two-year enhancement for each violation in addition to the sentence provided under Section 667.

(c) Subdivisions (a) and (b) apply to the following crimes:

(1) Mayhem, in violation of Section 203 or 205.

(2) Kidnapping, in violation of Section 207, 209, or 209.5.

(3) Robbery, in violation of Section 211.

(4) Carjacking, in violation of Section 215.

(5) Rape, in violation of paragraph (2) or (6) of subdivision (a) of Section 261.

(6) Spousal rape, in violation of paragraph (1) or (4) of subdivision (a) of Section 262.

(7) Rape, spousal rape, or sexual penetration in concert, in violation of Section 264.1.

(8) Sodomy, in violation of paragraph (2) or (3) of subdivision (c), or subdivision (d), of Section 286.

(9) Oral copulation, in violation of paragraph (2) or (3) of subdivision (c), or subdivision (d), of Section 288a.

(10) Sexual penetration, in violation of subdivision (a) of Section 289.

(11) Burglary of the first degree, as defined in Section 460, in violation of Section 459.

California Pen Code § 12021.5. Commission or attempted commission of street gang crime while carrying firearm (Operative January 1, 2017)

(a) Every person who carries a loaded or unloaded firearm on his or her person, or in a vehicle, during the commission or attempted commission of any street gang crimes described in subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 186.22, shall, upon conviction of the felony or attempted felony, be punished by an additional term of imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 for one, two, or three years in the court's discretion. The court shall impose the middle term unless there are circumstances in aggravation or mitigation. The court shall state the reasons for its enhancement choice on the record at the time of sentence.

(b) Every person who carries a loaded or unloaded firearm together with a detachable shotgun magazine, a detachable pistol magazine, a detachable magazine, or a belt-feeding device on his or her person, or in a vehicle, during the commission or attempted commission of any street gang crimes described in subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 186.22, shall, upon conviction of the felony or attempted felony, be punished by an additional term of imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years in the court's discretion. The court shall impose the middle term unless there are circumstances in aggravation or mitigation. The court shall state the reasons for its enhancement choice on the record at the time of sentence.

(c) As used in this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) "Detachable magazine" means a device that is designed or redesigned to do all of the following:

(A) To be attached to a rifle that is designed or redesigned to fire ammunition.

(B) To be attached to, and detached from, a rifle that is designed or redesigned to fire ammunition.

(C) To feed ammunition continuously and directly into the loading mechanism of a rifle that is designed or redesigned to fire ammunition.

(2) "Detachable pistol magazine" means a device that is designed or redesigned to do all of the following:

(A) To be attached to a semiautomatic firearm that is not a rifle or shotgun that is designed or redesigned to fire ammunition.

(B) To be attached to, and detached from, a firearm that is not a rifle or shotgun that is designed or redesigned to fire ammunition.

(C) To feed ammunition continuously and directly into the loading mechanism of a firearm that is not a rifle or a shotgun that is designed or redesigned to fire ammunition.

(3) "Detachable shotgun magazine" means a device that is designed or redesigned to do all of the following:

(A) To be attached to a firearm that is designed or redesigned to fire a fixed shotgun shell through a smooth or rifled bore.

(B) To be attached to, and detached from, a firearm that is designed or redesigned to fire a fixed shotgun shell through a smooth bore.

(C) To feed fixed shotgun shells continuously and directly into the loading mechanism of a firearm that is designed or redesigned to fire a fixed shotgun shell.

(4) "Belt-feeding device" means a device that is designed or redesigned to continuously feed ammunition into the loading mechanism of a machinegun or a semiautomatic firearm.

(5) "Rifle" shall have the same meaning as specified in Section 17090.

(6) "Shotgun" shall have the same meaning as specified in Section 17190.

(d) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2017.

California Pen Code § 12022.53. Use of firearm in commission of felony; Discharge; Injury

(a) This section applies to the following felonies:

(1) Section 187 (murder).

(2) Section 203 or 205 (mayhem).

(3) Section 207, 209, or 209.5 (kidnapping).

(4) Section 211 (robbery).

(5) Section 215 (carjacking).

(6) Section 220 (assault with intent to commit a specified felony).

(7) Subdivision (d) of Section 245 (assault with a firearm on a peace officer or firefighter).

(8) Section 261 or 262 (rape).

(9) Section 264.1 (rape or sexual penetration in concert).

(10) Section 286 (sodomy).

(11) Section 288 or 288.5 (lewd act on a child).

(12) Section 288a (oral copulation).

(13) Section 289 (sexual penetration).

(14) Section 4500 (assault by a life prisoner).

(15) Section 4501 (assault by a prisoner).

(16) Section 4503 (holding a hostage by a prisoner).

(17) Any felony punishable by death or imprisonment in the state prison for life.

(18) Any attempt to commit a crime listed in this subdivision other than an assault.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any person who, in the commission of a felony specified in subdivision (a), personally uses a firearm, shall be punished by an additional and consecutive term of imprisonment in the state prison for 10 years. The firearm need not be operable or loaded for this enhancement to apply.

(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any person who, in the commission of a felony specified in subdivision (a), personally and intentionally discharges a firearm, shall be punished by an additional and consecutive term of imprisonment in the state prison for 20 years.

(d) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any person who, in the commission of a felony specified in subdivision (a), Section 246, or subdivision (c) or (d) of Section 26100, personally and intentionally discharges a firearm and proximately causes great bodily injury, as defined in Section 12022.7, or death, to any person other than an accomplice, shall be punished by an additional and consecutive term of imprisonment in the state prison for 25 years to life.

(e)

(1) The enhancements provided in this section shall apply to any person who is a principal in the commission of an offense if both of the following are pled and proved:

(A) The person violated subdivision (b) of Section 186.22.

(B) Any principal in the offense committed any act specified in subdivision (b), (c), or (d).

(2) An enhancement for participation in a criminal street gang pursuant to Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 186.20) of Title 7 of Part 1 shall not be imposed on a person in addition to an enhancement imposed pursuant to this subdivision, unless the person personally used or personally discharged a firearm in the commission of the offense.

(f) Only one additional term of imprisonment under this section shall be imposed per person for each crime. If more than one enhancement per person is found true under this section, the court shall impose upon that person the enhancement that provides the longest term of imprisonment. An enhancement involving a firearm specified in Section 12021.5, 12022, 12022.3, 12022.4, 12022.5, or 12022.55 shall not be imposed on a person in addition to an enhancement imposed pursuant to this section. An enhancement for great bodily injury as defined in Section 12022.7, 12022.8, or 12022.9 shall not be imposed on a person in addition to an enhancement imposed pursuant to subdivision

(d).

(g) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, probation shall not be granted to, nor shall the execution or imposition of sentence be suspended for, any person found to come within the provisions of this section.

(h) Notwithstanding Section 1385 or any other provision of law, the court shall not strike an allegation under this section or a finding bringing a person within the provisions of this section.

(i) The total amount of credits awarded pursuant to Article 2.5 (commencing with Section 2930) of Chapter 7 of Title 1 of Part 3 or pursuant to section 4019 or any other provision of law shall not exceed 15 percent of the total term of imprisonment imposed on a defendant upon whom a sentence is imposed pursuant to this section.

(j) For the penalties in this section to apply, the existence of any fact required under subdivision (b), (c), or (d) shall be alleged in the accusatory pleading and either admitted by the defendant in open court or found to be true by the trier of fact. When an enhancement specified in this section has been admitted or found to be true, the court shall impose punishment for that enhancement pursuant to this section rather than imposing punishment authorized under any other provision of law, unless another enhancement provides for a greater penalty or a longer term of imprisonment.

(k) When a person is found to have used or discharged a firearm in the commission of an offense that includes an allegation pursuant to this section and the firearm is owned by that person, a coparticipant, or a coconspirator, the court shall order that the firearm be deemed a nuisance and disposed of in the manner provided in Sections 18000 and 18005.

(l) The enhancements specified in this section shall not apply to the lawful use or discharge of a firearm by a public officer, as provided in Section 196, or by any person in lawful self-defense, lawful defense of another, or lawful defense of property, as provided in Sections 197, 198, and 198.5.

California Pen Code § 12022.55. Additional punishment for discharging firearm from vehicle

Notwithstanding Section 12022.5, any person who, with the intent to inflict great bodily injury or death, inflicts great bodily injury, as defined in Section 12022.7, or causes the death of a person, other than an occupant of a motor vehicle, as a result of discharging a firearm from a motor vehicle in the commission of a felony or attempted felony, shall be punished by an additional and consecutive term of imprisonment in the state prison for 5, 6, or 10 years.

California Penal Code § 19200. Possession of Handgrenade; Punishment

(a) Except as provided in Section 19205 and Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 17700) of Division 2, any person in this state who manufactures or causes to be manufactured, imports into the state, keeps for sale, or offers or exposes for sale, or who gives, lends, or possesses any metal military practice handgrenade or metal replica handgrenade is punishable by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year or imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), a first offense involving any metal military practice handgrenade or metal replica handgrenade shall be punishable only as an infraction unless the offender is an active participant in a criminal street gang as defined in the Street Terrorism and Enforcement and Prevention Act (Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 186.20) of Title 7 of Part 1).

California Welfare & Institutions Code § 707. Decision whether to transfer minor to court of criminal jurisdiction; Investigation and submission of report; Criteria

(a)

(1) In any case in which a minor is alleged to be a person described in Section 602 by reason of the violation, when he or she was 16 years of age or older, of any felony criminal statute, or of an offense listed in subdivision (b) when he or she was 14 or 15 years of age, the district attorney or other appropriate prosecuting officer may make a motion to transfer the minor from juvenile court to a court of criminal jurisdiction. The motion must be made prior to the attachment of jeopardy. Upon such motion, the juvenile court shall order the probation officer to submit a report on the behavioral patterns and social history of the minor. The report shall include any written or oral statement offered by the victim pursuant to Section 656.2.

(2) Following submission and consideration of the report, and of any other relevant evidence that the petitioner or the minor may wish to submit, the juvenile court shall decide whether the minor should be transferred to a court of criminal jurisdiction. In making its decision, the court shall consider the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A) to (E). If the court orders a transfer of jurisdiction, the court shall recite the basis for its decision in an order entered upon the minutes. In any case in which a hearing has been noticed pursuant to this section, the court shall postpone the taking of a plea to the petition until the conclusion of the transfer hearing, and no plea that may have been entered already shall constitute evidence at the hearing.

(A)

(i) The degree of criminal sophistication exhibited by the minor.

(ii) When evaluating the criterion specified in clause (i), the juvenile court may give weight to any relevant factor, including, but not limited to, the minor's age, maturity, intellectual capacity, and physical, mental, and emotional health at the time of the alleged offense, the minor's impetuosity or failure to appreciate risks and consequences of criminal behavior, the effect of familial, adult, or peer pressure on the minor's actions, and the effect of the minor's family and community environment and childhood trauma on the minor's criminal sophistication.

(B)

(i) Whether the minor can be rehabilitated prior to the expiration of the juvenile court's jurisdiction.

(ii) When evaluating the criterion specified in clause (i), the juvenile court may give weight to any relevant factor, including, but
not limited to, the minor's potential to grow and mature.

(C)

(i) The minor's previous delinquent history.

(ii) When evaluating the criterion specified in clause (i), the juvenile court may give weight to any relevant factor, including, but not limited to, the seriousness of the minor's previous delinquent history and the effect of the minor's family and community environment and childhood trauma on the minor's previous delinquent behavior.

(D)

(i) Success of previous attempts by the juvenile court to rehabilitate the minor.

(ii) When evaluating the criterion specified in clause (i), the juvenile court may give weight to any relevant factor, including, but not limited to, the adequacy of the services previously provided to address the minor's needs.

(E)

(i) The circumstances and gravity of the offense alleged in the petition to have been committed by the minor.

(ii) When evaluating the criterion specified in clause (i), the juvenile court may give weight to any relevant factor, including, but not limited to, the actual behavior of the person, the mental state of the person, the person's degree of involvement in the crime, the level of harm actually caused by the person, and the person's mental and emotional development.

(b) Subdivision (a) shall be applicable in any case in which a minor is alleged to be a person described in Section 602 by reason of the violation of one of the following offenses when he or she was 14 or 15 years of age:

(1) Murder.

(2) Arson, as provided in subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 451 of the Penal Code.

(3) Robbery.

(4) Rape with force, violence, or threat of great bodily harm.

(5) Sodomy by force, violence, duress, menace, or threat of great bodily harm.

(6) A lewd or lascivious act as provided in subdivision (b) of Section 288 of the Penal Code.

(7) Oral copulation by force, violence, duress, menace, or threat of great bodily harm.

(8) An offense specified in subdivision (a) of Section 289 of the Penal Code.

(9) Kidnapping for ransom.

(10) Kidnapping for purposes of robbery.

(11) Kidnapping with bodily harm.

(12) Attempted murder.

(13) Assault with a firearm or destructive device.

(14) Assault by any means of force likely to produce great bodily injury.

(15) Discharge of a firearm into an inhabited or occupied building.

(16) An offense described in Section 1203.09 of the Penal Code.

(17) An offense described in Section 12022.5 or 12022.53 of the Penal Code.

(18) A felony offense in which the minor personally used a weapon described in any provision listed in Section 16590 of the Penal Code.

(19) A felony offense described in Section 136.1 or 137 of the PenalCode.

(20) Manufacturing, compounding, or selling one-half ounce or more of a salt or solution of a controlled substance specified in subdivision (e) of Section 11055 of the Health and Safety Code.

(21) A violent felony, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5 of the Penal Code, which also would constitute a felony violation of subdivision (b) of Section 186.22 of the Penal Code.

(22) Escape, by the use of force or violence, from a county juvenile hall, home, ranch, camp, or forestry camp in violation of subdivision (b) of Section 871 if great bodily injury is intentionally inflicted upon an employee of the juvenile facility during the commission of the escape.

(23) Torture as described in Sections 206 and 206.1 of the Penal Code.

(24) Aggravated mayhem, as described in Section 205 of the Penal Code.

(25) Carjacking, as described in Section 215 of the Penal Code, while armed with a dangerous or deadly weapon.

(26) Kidnapping for purposes of sexual assault, as punishable in subdivision (b) of Section 209 of the Penal Code.

(27) Kidnapping as punishable in Section 209.5 of the Penal Code.

(28) The offense described in subdivision (c) of Section 26100 of the Penal Code.

(29) The offense described in Section 18745 of the Penal Code.

(30) Voluntary manslaughter, as described in subdivision (a) of Section 192 of the Penal Code.

Delaware (view all subjects for this state)

Delaware 11 § 616. Gang Participation

(a) Definitions. The following terms shall have the following meaning as used in this section.

(1) "Criminal street gang" means any ongoing organization, association, or group of 3 or more persons, whether formal or informal, having as 1 of its primary activities the commission of one or more of the criminal acts enumerated in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, having a common name or common identifying sign or symbol, and whose members individually or collectively engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal gang activity.

(2) "Pattern of criminal gang activity" means the commission of, attempted commission of, conspiracy to commit, solicitation of, or conviction of 2 or more of the following criminal offenses, provided that at least 1 of these offenses occurred after July 1, 2003, and that the last of those offenses occurred within 3 years after a prior offense, and provided that the offenses were committed on separate occasions, or by 2 or more persons:

a. Assault, as defined in Section 612 or 613 of this title.

b. Any criminal acts causing death as defined in Sections 632–636 of this title.

c. Any criminal acts relating to sexual offenses defined in Sections 768–780 of this title.

d. Any criminal offenses relating to unlawful imprisonment or kidnapping which are defined in Sections 782–783A of this title.

e. Any criminal acts of arson as defined in Sections 801–803 of this title.

f. Any criminal acts relating to burglary which are defined in Sections 824–826A of this title.

g. Any criminal acts relating to robbery which are defined in Sections 831 and 832 of this title.

h. Any criminal acts relating to theft or extortion which are defined in Section 841, 849, or 851 of this title, provided that such acts meet the requirements of felony offenses under said sections.

i. Any criminal acts relating to riot, unlawful disruption, hate crimes, stalking, or bombs which are defined in Section 1302, 1303 [repealed], 1304, 1312A, or 1338 of this title, provided that such acts meet the requirements of felony offenses under said sections.

j. Any criminal acts involving deadly weapons or dangerous instruments which are defined in Section 1442, 1444, 1447–1448, 1449, 1450, 1451, 1454, or 1455 of this title.

k. Any criminal acts involving controlled substances which are defined by Section 4752, 4753, 4754, 4755, 4756, 4757(c), of Title 16.

(b) Forbidden conduct. A person who actively participates in any criminal street gang with knowledge that its members engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal gang activity and who knowingly promotes, furthers, or assists in any criminal conduct by members of that gang which would constitute a felony under Delaware law shall be guilty of illegal gang participation. Illegal gang participation is a Class F felony.

(c) Sentencing enhancements.

(1) Any person who is convicted of a Class E felony committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members, shall, upon conviction of that felony, be sentenced consistent with the sentence dictated by Delaware law for a Class D felony under Section 4205(b)(4) of this title.

(2) Any person who is convicted of a Class D felony committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members, shall, upon conviction of that felony, be sentenced consistent with the sentence dictated by Delaware law for a Class C felony under Section 4205(b)(3) of this title.

(3) Any person who is convicted of a Class C felony committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members, shall, upon conviction of that felony, be sentenced consistent with the sentence dictated by Delaware law for a Class B felony under Section 4205(b)(2) of this title.

Florida (view all subjects for this state)

Florida § 874.04. Gang-Related Offenses; Enhanced Penalties

Upon a finding by the factfinder that the defendant committed the charged offense for the purpose of benefiting, promoting, or furthering the interests of a criminal gang, the penalty for any felony or misdemeanor, or any delinquent act or violation of law which would be a felony or misdemeanor if committed by an adult, may be enhanced. Penalty enhancement affects the applicable statutory maximum penalty only. Each of the findings required as a basis for such sentence shall be found beyond a reasonable doubt. The enhancement will be as follows:

(1)(a) A misdemeanor of the second degree may be punished as if it were a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(b) A misdemeanor of the first degree may be punished as if it were a felony of the third degree. For purposes of sentencing under chapter 921 and determining incentive gain-time eligibility under chapter 944, such offense is ranked in level 1 of the offense severity ranking chart. The criminal gang multiplier in s. 921.0024 does not apply to misdemeanors enhanced under this paragraph.

(2)(a) A felony of the third degree may be punished as if it were a felony of the second degree.

(b) A felony of the second degree may be punished as if it were a felony of the first degree.

(c) A felony of the first degree may be punished as if it were a life felony.

For purposes of sentencing under chapter 921 and determining incentive gain-time eligibility under chapter 944, such felony offense is ranked as provided in s. 921.0022 or s. 921.0023, and without regard to the penalty enhancement in this subsection.

Florida § 921.141. Sentence of Death or Life Imprisonment for Capital Felonies; Further Proceedings to Determine Sentence

(1) Separate proceedings on issue of penalty. -- Upon conviction or adjudication of guilt of a defendant of a capital felony, the court shall conduct a separate sentencing proceeding to determine whether the defendant should be sentenced to death or life imprisonment as authorized by s. 775.082. The proceeding shall be conducted by the trial judge before the trial jury as soon as practicable. If, through impossibility or inability, the trial jury is unable to reconvene for a hearing on the issue of penalty, having determined the guilt of the accused, the trial judge may summon a special juror or jurors as provided in chapter 913 to determine the issue of the imposition of the penalty. If the trial jury has been waived, or if the defendant pleaded guilty, the sentencing proceeding shall be conducted before a jury impaneled for that purpose, unless waived by the defendant. In the proceeding, evidence may be presented as to any matter that the court deems relevant to the nature of the crime and the character of the defendant and shall include matters relating to any of the aggravating factors enumerated in subsection (6) and for which notice has been provided pursuant to s.782.04(1)(b) or mitigating circumstances enumerated in subsection (7). Any such evidence that the court deems to have probative value may be received, regardless of its admissibility under the exclusionary rules of evidence, provided the defendant is accorded a fair opportunity to rebut any hearsay statements. However, this subsection shall not be construed to authorize the introduction of any evidence secured in violation of the Constitution of the United States or the Constitution of the State of Florida. The state and the defendant or the defendant's counsel shall be permitted to present argument for or against sentence of death.

(2) Findings and recommended sentence by the jury. -- This subsection applies only if the defendant has not waived his or her right to a sentencing proceeding by a jury.

(a) After hearing all of the evidence presented regarding aggravating factors and mitigating circumstances, the jury shall deliberate and determine if the state has proven, beyond a reasonable doubt, the existence of at least one aggravating factor set forth in subsection (6).

(b) The jury shall return findings identifying each aggravating factor found to exist. A finding that an aggravating factor exists must be unanimous. If the jury:

1. Does not unanimously find at least one aggravating factor, the defendant is ineligible for a sentence of death.

2. Unanimously finds at least one aggravating factor, the defendant is eligible for a sentence of death and the jury shall make a recommendation to the court as to whether the defendant shall be sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole or to death. The recommendation shall be based on a weighing of all of the following:

a. Whether sufficient aggravating factors exist.

b. Whether aggravating factors exist which outweigh the mitigating circumstances found to exist.

c. Based on the considerations in sub-subparagraphs a. and b., whether the defendant should be sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole or to death.

(c) If at least 10 jurors determine that the defendant should be sentenced to death, the jury's recommendation to the court shall be a sentence of death. If fewer than 10 jurors determine that the defendant should be sentenced to death, the jury's recommendation to the court shall be a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole.

(3) Imposition of sentence of life imprisonment or death.

(a) If the jury has recommended a sentence of:

1. Life imprisonment without the possibility of parole, the court shall impose the recommended sentence.

2. Death, the court, after considering each aggravating factor found by the jury and all mitigating circumstances, may impose a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole or a sentence of death. The court may consider only an aggravating factor that was unanimously found to exist by the jury.

(b) If the defendant waived his or her right to a sentencing proceeding by a jury, the court, after considering all aggravating factors and mitigating circumstances, may impose a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole or a sentence of death. The court may impose a sentence of death only if the court finds that at least one aggravating factor has been proven to exist beyond a
reasonable doubt.

(4) Order of the court in support of sentence of death. -- In each case in which the court imposes a sentence of death, the court shall, considering the records of the trial and the sentencing proceedings, enter a written order addressing the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (6) found to exist, the mitigating circumstances in subsection (7) reasonably established by the evidence, whether there are sufficient aggravating factors to warrant the death penalty, and whether the aggravating factors outweigh the mitigating circumstances reasonably established by the evidence. If the court does not issue its order requiring the death sentence within 30 days after the rendition of the judgment and sentence, the court shall impose a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole in accordance with s.
775.082.

(5) Review of judgment and sentence. -- The judgment of conviction and sentence of death shall be subject to automatic review by the Supreme Court of Florida and disposition rendered within 2 years after the filing of a notice of appeal. Such review by the Supreme Court shall have priority over all other cases and shall be heard in accordance with rules adopted by the Supreme Court.

(6) Aggravating factors. -- Aggravating factors shall be limited to the following:

(a) The capital felony was committed by a person previously convicted of a felony and under sentence of imprisonment or placed on community control or on felony probation.

(b) The defendant was previously convicted of another capital felony or of a felony involving the use or threat of violence to the person.

(c) The defendant knowingly created a great risk of death to many persons.

(d) The capital felony was committed while the defendant was engaged, or was an accomplice, in the commission of, or an attempt to commit, or flight after committing or attempting to commit, any: robbery; sexual battery; aggravated child abuse; abuse of an elderly person or disabled adult resulting in great bodily harm, permanent disability, or permanent disfigurement; arson; burglary; kidnapping; aircraft piracy; or unlawful throwing, placing, or discharging of a destructive device or bomb.

(e) The capital felony was committed for the purpose of avoiding or preventing a lawful arrest or effecting an escape from custody.

(f) The capital felony was committed for pecuniary gain.

(g) The capital felony was committed to disrupt or hinder the lawful exercise of any governmental function or the enforcement of laws.

(h) The capital felony was especially heinous, atrocious, or cruel.

(i) The capital felony was a homicide and was committed in a cold, calculated, and premeditated manner without any pretense of moral or legal justification.

(j) The victim of the capital felony was a law enforcement officer engaged in the performance of his or her official duties.

(k) The victim of the capital felony was an elected or appointed public official engaged in the performance of his or her official duties if the motive for the capital felony was related, in whole or in part, to the victim's official capacity.

(l) The victim of the capital felony was a person less than 12 years of age.

(m) The victim of the capital felony was particularly vulnerable due to advanced age or disability, or because the defendant stood in a
position of familial or custodial authority over the victim.

(n) The capital felony was committed by a criminal gang member, as defined in s. 874.03.

(o) The capital felony was committed by a person designated as a sexual predator pursuant to s. 775.21 or a person previously designated as a sexual predator who had the sexual predator designation removed.

(p) The capital felony was committed by a person subject to an injunction issued pursuant to s. 741.30 or s. 784.046, or a foreign protection order accorded full faith and credit pursuant to s. 741.315, and was committed against the petitioner who obtained the injunction or protection order or any spouse, child, sibling, or parent of the petitioner.

(7) Mitigating circumstances. -- Mitigating circumstances shall be the following:

(a) The defendant has no significant history of prior criminal activity.

(b) The capital felony was committed while the defendant was under the influence of extreme mental or emotional disturbance.

(c) The victim was a participant in the defendant's conduct or consented to the act.

(d) The defendant was an accomplice in the capital felony committed by another person and his or her participation was relatively minor.

(e) The defendant acted under extreme duress or under the substantial domination of another person.

(f) The capacity of the defendant to appreciate the criminality of his or her conduct or to conform his or her conduct to the requirements of law was substantially impaired.

(g) The age of the defendant at the time of the crime.

(h) The existence of any other factors in the defendant's background that would mitigate against imposition of the death penalty.

(8) Victim impact evidence. -- Once the prosecution has provided evidence of the existence of one or more aggravating factors as described in subsection (6), the prosecution may introduce, and subsequently argue, victim impact evidence to the jury. Such evidence shall be designed to demonstrate the victim's uniqueness as an individual human being and the resultant loss to the community's members by the victim's death. Characterizations and opinions about the crime, the defendant, and the appropriate sentence shall not be
permitted as a part of victim impact evidence.

(9) Applicability. -- This section does not apply to a person convicted or adjudicated guilty of a capital drug trafficking felony under s. 893.135.

Georgia (view all subjects for this state)

Georgia § 16-15-4. Participation in criminal gang activity prohibited

(a) It shall be unlawful for any person employed by or associated with a criminal street gang to conduct or participate in criminal gang activity through the commission of any offense enumerated in paragraph (1) of Code Section 16-15-3.

(b) It shall be unlawful for any person to commit any offense enumerated in paragraph (1) of Code Section 16-15-3 with the intent to obtain or earn membership or maintain or increase his or her status or position in a criminal street gang.

(c) It shall be unlawful for any person to acquire or maintain, directly or indirectly, through criminal gang activity or proceeds derived therefrom any interest in or control of any real or personal property of any nature, including money.

(d) It shall be unlawful for any person who occupies a position of organizer, supervisory position, or any other position of management or leadership with regard to a criminal street gang to engage in, directly or indirectly, or conspire to engage in criminal gang activity.

(e) It shall be unlawful for any person to cause, encourage, solicit, recruit, or coerce another to become a member or associate of a criminal street gang, to participate in a criminal street gang, or to conduct or participate in criminal gang activity.

(f) It shall be unlawful for any person to communicate, directly or indirectly, with another any threat of injury or damage to the person or property of the other person or of any associate or relative of the other person with the intent to deter such person from assisting a member or associate of a criminal street gang to withdraw from such criminal street gang.

(g) It shall be unlawful for any person to communicate, directly or indirectly, with another any threat of injury or damage to the person or property of the other person or of any associate or relative of the other person with the intent to punish or retaliate against such person for having withdrawn from a criminal street gang.

(h) It shall be unlawful for any person to communicate, directly or indirectly, with another any threat of injury or damage to the person or property of the other person or of any associate or relative of the other person with the intent to punish or retaliate against such person for refusing to or encouraging another to refuse to become or obtain the status of a member or associate of a criminal street gang.

(i) It shall be unlawful for any person to communicate, directly or indirectly, with another any threat of injury or damage to the person or property of the other person or of any associate or relative of the other person with the intent to punish or retaliate against such person for providing statements or testimony against criminal street gangs or any criminal street gang member or associate.

(j) In addition to the prohibitions set forth in Code Section 16-10-93, it shall be unlawful for any person to communicate, directly or indirectly, with another any threat of injury or damage to the person or property of the other person or of any associate or relative of the other person with the intent to intimidate, deter, or prevent such person from communicating to any law enforcement or corrections officer, prosecuting attorney, or judge information relating to criminal street gangs, criminal street gang members or associates, or criminal gang activity.

(k) (1) Any person who violates subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this Code section shall, in addition to any other penalty imposed by law, be punished by imprisonment for not less than five nor more than 15 years or by a fine of not less than $10,000.00 nor more than $15,000.00, or both.

(2) Any person who violates subsection (d) of this Code section may, in addition to any other penalty provided by law, be punished by imprisonment for an additional ten years which shall be served consecutively to any other sentence imposed on such person by law.

(3) Any person who violates subsection (e), (f), (g), (h), (i) or (j) of this Code section shall, in addition to any other penalty provided by law, be punished by imprisonment for not less than three nor more than ten years.

(l) In addition to any other penalty provided by this Code section, all sentences imposed under this Code section shall require as a special condition of the sentence that the person sentenced shall not knowingly have contact of any kind or character with any other member or associate of a criminal street gang, shall not participate in any criminal gang activity, and, in cases involving a victim, shall not knowingly have contact of any kind or character with any such victim or any member of any such victim's family or household.

(m) Any crime committed in violation of this Code section shall be considered a separate offense.

Georgia § 42-9-42. Procedure for granting relief from sentence; conditions and prerequisites; public access to information; violation of parole

(a) No person shall be granted clemency, pardon, parole, or other relief from sentence except by a majority vote of the board. A majority of the members of the board may commute a death sentence to life imprisonment, as provided in Code Section 42-9-20.

(b) (1) As used in this subsection, the term "serious offense" means:

(A) A serious violent felony as such term is defined in Code Section 17-10-6.1; or

(B) A felony offense of:

(i) False imprisonment in violation of Code Section 16-5-41 when the victim is not the child of the accused and the victim is less than 14 years of age;

(ii) Aggravated assault in violation of Code Section 16-5-21;

(iii) Aggravated battery in violation of Code Section 16-5-24;

(iv) Trafficking of persons for labor or sexual servitude in violation of Code Section 16-5-46;

(v) Cruelty to children in violation of Code Section 16-5-70;

(vi) Stalking in violation of Code Section 16-5-90;

(vii) Aggravated stalking in violation of Code Section 16-5-91;

(viii) Exploitation and intimidation of disabled adults, elder persons, and residents in violation of Code Section 16-5-102;

(ix) Sodomy in violation of Code Section 16-6-2;

(x) Statutory rape in violation of Code Section 16-6-3;

(xi) Child molestation in violation of Code Section 16-6-4;

(xii) Enticing a child for indecent purposes in violation of Code Section 16-6-5;

(xiii) Sexual assault of certain persons in violation of Code Section 16-6-5.1;

(xiv) Incest in violation of Code Section 16-6-22;

(xv) Sexual battery in violation of Code Section 16-6-22.1;

(xvi) Burglary in violation of Code Section 16-7-1;

(xvii) Home invasion in violation of Code Section 16-7-5;

(xviii) Arson in violation of Code Section 16-7-60;

(xix) Possession, manufacture, transport, distribution, possession with the intent to distribute, or offering to distribute an explosive device in violation of Code Section 16-7-82;

(xx) Possessing, transporting, or receiving explosives or destructive devices with the intent to kill, injure, or intimidate individuals or destroy public buildings in violation of Code Section 16-7-88;

(xxi) Theft by receiving stolen property in violation of Code Section 16-8-7;

(xxii) Robbery in violation of Code Section 16-8-40;

(xxiii) Sexual exploitation of children in violation of Code Section 16-12-100;

(xxiv) Drug related objects in violation of Code Section 16-13-1;

(xxv) Approval by the federal Food and Drug Administration as prerequisite to certain sales in violation of Code Section 16-13-4;

(xxvi) Purchase, possession, manufacture, distribution, or sale of controlled substances or marijuana in violation of Code Section 16-13-30;

(xxvii) Licenses for sale, transfer, or purchase for resale of products containing pseudoephedrine; reporting and record-keeping requirements in violation of Code Section 16-13-30.4;

(xxviii) Possession of substances with intent to use or convey such substances for the manufacture of Schedule I or Schedule II controlled substances in violation of Code Section 16-13-30.5;

(xxix) Trafficking in cocaine, illegal drugs, marijuana, or methamphetamine in violation of Code Section 16-13-31;

(xxx) Trafficking in ecstasy in violation of Code Section 16-13-31.1;

(xxxi) Transactions in drug related objects in violation of Code Section 16-13-32;

(xxxii) Transactions in drug related objects in violation of Code Section 16-13-32.1;

(xxxiii) Use of a communication facility in committing or facilitating commission of an act which constitutes a felony in violation of Code Section 16-13-32.3;

(xxxiv) Manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, or possessing controlled substances in, on, or near public or private schools in violation of Code Section 16-13-32.4;

(xxxv) Manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, or possessing controlled substances, marijuana, or counterfeit substances near a park or housing project in violation of Code Section 16-13-32.5;

(xxxvi) Manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, or possessing with intent to distribute controlled substances or marijuana in, on, or within a drug-free commercial zone in violation of Code Section 16-13-32.6;

(xxxvii) Unauthorized distribution and dispensation of a controlled substance in violation of Code Section 16-13-42;

(xxxviii) Unauthorized distribution of a controlled substance in violation of Code Section 16-13-43;

(xxxix) A violation of Article 3 of Chapter 13 of Title 16 involving dangerous drugs;

(xl) A violation of Chapter 14 of Title 16 involving racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations; or

(xli) Participating in gang activity in violation of Code Section 16-15-4.

(2) A grant of pardon, parole, or other relief from sentence shall be rendered only by a written decision which shall be signed by at least the number of board members required for the relief granted and which shall become a part of such individual's permanent record.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 4 of Chapter 18 of Title 50 or any provisions of this chapter relating to the confidentiality of records, a written decision relating to a pardon for a serious offense or commutation of a death sentence shall:

(A) Include the board's findings which reflect the board's consideration of the evidence offered that supports the board's decision; and

(B) Be available for public inspection.

(c) Good conduct, achievement of a fifth-grade level or higher on standardized reading tests, and efficient performance of duties by an inmate shall be considered by the board in his favor and shall merit consideration of an application for pardon or parole. No inmate shall be placed on parole until and unless the board shall find that there is reasonable probability that, if he is so released, he will live and conduct himself as a respectable and law-abiding person and that his release will be compatible with his own welfare and the welfare of society. Furthermore, no person shall be released on pardon or placed on parole unless and until the board is satisfied that he will be suitably employed in self-sustaining employment or that he will not become a public charge. However, notwithstanding other provisions of this chapter, the board may, in its discretion, grant pardon or parole to any aged or disabled persons.

(d) (1) Any person who is paroled shall be released on such terms and conditions as the board shall prescribe. The board shall diligently see that no peonage is allowed in the guise of parole relationship or supervision. The parolee shall remain in the legal custody of the board until the expiration of the maximum term specified in his or her sentence or until he or she is pardoned by the board.

(2) The board may require the payment of a parole supervision fee of at least $10.00 per month as a condition of parole or other conditional release. The monthly amount shall be set by rule of the board and shall be uniform state wide. The board may require or the parolee or person under conditional release may request that up to 24 months of the supervision fee be paid in advance of the time to be spent on parole or conditional release. In such cases, any advance payments are nonreimbursable in the event of parole or conditional release revocation or if parole or conditional release is otherwise terminated prior to the expiration of the sentence being served on parole or conditional release. Such fees shall be collected by the department to be paid into the general fund of the state treasury.

(e) If a parolee violates the terms of his parole, he shall be subject to rearrest or extradition for placement in the actual custody of the board, to be redelivered to any state or county correctional institution of this state.

HISTORY: Ga. L

Idaho (view all subjects for this state)

Idaho § 18-8503. Punishment

(1) An adult, or any juvenile waived to adult court pursuant to Section 20-508 or 20-509, Idaho Code, who is convicted of any felony or misdemeanor enumerated in Section 18-8502(3), Idaho Code, that is knowingly committed for the benefit or at the direction of, or in association with, any criminal gang or criminal gang member, in addition to the punishment provided for the commission of the underlying offense, shall be punished as follows:

(a) An adult, or any juvenile waived to adult court pursuant to Section 20-508 or 20-509, Idaho Code, who is convicted of a misdemeanor shall be punished by an additional term of imprisonment in the county jail for not more than one (1) year.

(b) An adult, or any juvenile waived to adult court pursuant to Section 20-508 or 20-509, Idaho Code, who is convicted of a felony shall be punished by an extended term of not less than two (2) years and not more than five (5) years in prison.

(c) If the underlying offense described in Section 18-8502(3), Idaho Code, is a felony and committed on the grounds of, or within one thousand (1,000) feet of, a public or private elementary, secondary, or vocational school during hours when the facility is open for classes or school-related programs or when minors are using the facility, the extended term shall be not less than two (2) years and not more than five (5) years in prison.

(2) This section does not create a separate offense but provides an additional penalty for the primary offense, the imposition of which is contingent upon the finding of the prescribed facts.

(3) The court shall not impose an extended penalty pursuant to this section unless:

(a) The indictment, information, complaint or petition charging the defendant with the primary offense alleges that the primary offense was committed knowingly for the benefit or at the direction of, or in association with, a criminal gang or criminal gang member with the specific intent to promote, further or assist the activities of the criminal gang; and

(b) The trier of fact finds the allegation to be true beyond a reasonable doubt.

(4) Except in a case of a juvenile who has been waived to adult court pursuant to Section 20-508 or 20-509, Idaho Code, the imposition or execution of the sentences provided in this section may not be suspended.

(5) An extended sentence provided in this section shall run consecutively to the sentence provided for the underlying offense.

(6) Unless waived to adult court pursuant to Section 20-508 or 20-509, Idaho Code, a juvenile who is adjudicated of any felony or misdemeanor enumerated in Section 18-8502(3), Idaho Code, that is knowingly committed for the benefit or at the direction of, or in association with, any criminal gang or criminal gang member shall be sentenced according to the provisions of Section 20-520, Idaho Code.

Illinois (view all subjects for this state)

Illinois § 720 ILCS 5/31-4. Obstructing Justice

(a) A person obstructs justice when, with intent to prevent the apprehension or obstruct the prosecution or defense of any person, he or she knowingly commits any of the following acts:

(1) Destroys, alters, conceals or disguises physical evidence, plants false evidence, furnishes false information; or

(2) Induces a witness having knowledge material to the subject at issue to leave the State or conceal himself or herself; or

(3) Possessing knowledge material to the subject at issue, he or she leaves the State or conceals himself; or

(4) If a parent, legal guardian, or caretaker of a child under 13 years of age reports materially false information to a law enforcement agency, medical examiner, coroner, State's Attorney, or other governmental agency during an investigation of the disappearance or death of a child under circumstances described in subsection (a) or (b) of Section 10-10 of this Code.

(b) Sentence.

(1) Obstructing justice is a Class 4 felony, except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection (b).

(2) Obstructing justice in furtherance of streetgang related or gang- related activity, as defined in Section 10 of the Illinois Streetgang Terrorism Omnibus Prevention Act (740 ILCS 147/10), is a Class 3 felony.

Illinois § 730 ILCS 5/5-5-3.2. Factors in Aggravation and Extended-Term Sentencing

(a) The following factors shall be accorded weight in favor of imposing a term of imprisonment or may be considered by the court as reasons to impose a more severe sentence under Section 5-8-1 or Article 4.5 of Chapter V [730 ILCS 5/5-8-1 or 730 ILCS 5/5-4.5-5 et seq.]:

(1) the defendant's conduct caused or threatened serious harm;

(2) the defendant received compensation for committing the offense;

(3) the defendant has a history of prior delinquency or criminal activity;

(4) the defendant, by the duties of his office or by his position, was obliged to prevent the particular offense committed or to bring the offenders committing it to justice;

(5) the defendant held public office at the time of the offense, and the offense related to the conduct of that office;

(6) the defendant utilized his professional reputation or position in the community to commit the offense, or to afford him an easier means of committing it;

(7) the sentence is necessary to deter others from committing the same crime;

(8) the defendant committed the offense against a person 60 years of age or older or such person's property;

(9) the defendant committed the offense against a person who has a physical disability or such person's property;

(10) by reason of another individual's actual or perceived race, color, creed, religion, ancestry, gender, sexual orientation, physical or mental disability, or national origin, the defendant committed the offense against (i) the person or property of that individual; (ii) the person or property of a person who has an association with, is married to, or has a friendship with the other individual; or (iii) the person or property of a relative (by blood or marriage) of a person described in clause (i) or (ii). For the purposes of this Section, "sexual orientation" has the meaning ascribed to it in paragraph (O-1) of Section 1-103 of the Illinois Human Rights Act [775 ILCS 5/1-103];

(11) the offense took place in a place of worship or on the grounds of a place of worship, immediately prior to, during or immediately following worship services. For purposes of this subparagraph, "place of worship" shall mean any church, synagogue or other building, structure or place used primarily for religious worship;

(12) the defendant was convicted of a felony committed while he was released on bail or his own recognizance pending trial for a prior felony and was convicted of such prior felony, or the defendant was convicted of a felony committed while he was serving a period of probation, conditional discharge, or mandatory supervised release under subsection (d) of Section 5-8-1 [730 ILCS 5/5-8-1] for a prior felony;

(13) the defendant committed or attempted to commit a felony while he was wearing a bulletproof vest. For the purposes of this paragraph (13), a bulletproof vest is any device which is designed for the purpose of protecting the wearer from bullets, shot or other lethal projectiles;

(14) the defendant held a position of trust or supervision such as, but not limited to, family member as defined in Section 11-0.1 of the Criminal Code of 2012 [720 ILCS 5/11-0.1], teacher, scout leader, baby sitter, or day care worker, in relation to a victim under 18 years of age, and the defendant committed an offense in violation of Section 11-1.20, 11-1.30, 11-1.40, 11-1.50, 11-1.60, 11-6, 11-11, 11-14.4 except for an offense that involves keeping a place of juvenile prostitution, 11-15.1, 11-19.1, 11-19.2, 11-20.1, 11-20.1B, 11-20.3, 12-13, 12-14, 12-14.1, 12-15 or 12-16 of the Criminal Code of 1961 [720 ILCS 5/11-1.20, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.30, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.40, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.50, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.60, 720 ILCS 5/11-6, 720 ILCS 5/11-11, 720 ILCS 5/11-14.4, 720 ILCS 5/11-15.1 (now repealed), 720 ILCS 5/11-19.1 (now repealed), 720 ILCS 5/11-19.2 (now repealed), 720 ILCS 5/11-20.1, 720 ILCS 5/11-20.1B (now repealed), 720 ILCS 5/11-20.3, 720 ILCS 5/11-1-20, 720 ILCS 5/11-1-30, 720 ILCS 5/11-1-40, 720 ILCS 5/11-1-50 or 720 ILCS 5/11-1-60] or the Criminal Code of 2012 [720 ILCS 5/1-1 et seq.] against that victim;

(15) the defendant committed an offense related to the activities of an organized gang. For the purposes of this factor, "organized gang" has the meaning ascribed to it in Section 10 of the Streetgang Terrorism Omnibus Prevention Act [740 ILCS 147/1 et seq.];

(16) the defendant committed an offense in violation of one of the following Sections while in a school, regardless of the time of day or time of year; on any conveyance owned, leased, or contracted by a school to transport students to or from school or a school related activity; on the real property of a school; or on a public way within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising any school: Section 10-1, 10-2, 10-5, 11-1.20, 11-1.30, 11-1.40, 11-1.50, 11-1.60, 11-14.4, 11-15.1, 11-17.1, 11-18.1, 11-19.1, 11-19.2, 12-2, 12-4, 12-4.1, 12-4.2, 12-4.3, 12-6, 12-6.1, 12-6.5, 12-13, 12-14, 12-14.1, 12-15, 12-16, 18-2, or 33A-2, or Section 12-3.05 except for subdivision (a) (4) or (g)(1), of the Criminal Code of 1961 [720 ILCS 5/10-1, 720 ILCS 5/10-2, 720 ILCS 5/10-5, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.20, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.30, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.40, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.50, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.60, 720 ILCS 5/11-14.4, 720 ILCS 5/11-15.1 (now repealed), 720 ILCS 5/11-17.1 (now repealed), 720 ILCS 5/11-18.1, 720 ILCS 5/11-19.1 (now repealed), 720 ILCS 5/11-19.2 (now repealed), 720 ILCS 5/12-2, 720 ILCS 5/12-4 (now repealed), 720 ILCS 5/12-4.1 (now repealed), 720 ILCS 5/12-4.2 (now repealed), 720 ILCS 5/12-4.3 (now repealed), 720 ILCS 5/12-6, 720 ILCS 5/12-6.5, 720 ILCS 5/12-6.1, 720 ILCS 5/11-1-20, 720 ILCS 5/11-1-30, 720 ILCS 5/11-1-40, 720 ILCS 5/11-1-50, 720 ILCS 5/11-1-60, 720 ILCS 5/18-2, or 720 ILCS 5/33A-2, or 720 ILCS 5/12-3.05] or the Criminal Code of 2012;

(16.5) the defendant committed an offense in violation of one of the following Sections while in a day care center, regardless of the time of day or time of year; on the real property of a day care center, regardless of the time of day or time of year; or on a public way within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising any day care center, regardless of the time of day or time of year: Section 10-1, 10-2, 10-5, 11-1.20, 11-1.30, 11-1.40, 11-1.50, 11-1.60, 11-14.4, 11-15.1, 11-17.1, 11-18.1, 11-19.1, 11-19.2, 12-2, 12-4, 12-4.1, 12-4.2, 12-4.3, 12-6, 12-6.1, 12-6.5, 12-13, 12-14, 12-14.1, 12-15, 12-16, 18-2, or 33A-2, or Section 12-3.05 except for subdivision (a)(4) or (g) (1), of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012 [720 ILCS 5/10-1, 720 ILCS 5/10-2, 720 ILCS 5/10-5, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.20, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.30, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.40, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.50, 720 ILCS 5/11-1.60, 720 ILCS 5/11-14.4, 720 ILCS 5/11-15.1, 720 ILCS 5/11-17.1, 720 ILCS 5/11-18.1, 720 ILCS 5/11-19.1, 720 ILCS 5/11-19.2, 720 ILCS 5/12-2, 720 ILCS 5/12-4, 720 ILCS 5/12-4.1, 720 ILCS 5/12-4.2, 720 ILCS 5/12-4.3, 720 ILCS 5/12-6, 720 ILCS 5/12-6.1, 720 ILCS 5/12-6.5, 720 ILCS 5/12-13, 720 ILCS 5/12-14, 720 ILCS 5/12-14.1, 720 ILCS 5/12-15, 720 ILCS 5/12-16, 720 ILCS 5/18-2, or 720 ILCS 5/33A-2, or Section 720 ILCS 5/12-3.05]; (17) the defendant committed the offense by reason of any person's activity as a community policing volunteer or to prevent any person from engaging in activity as a community policing volunteer. For the purpose of this Section, "community policing volunteer" has the meaning ascribed to it in Section 2-3.5 of the Criminal Code of 2012 [720 ILCS 5/2-3.5];

(18) the defendant committed the offense in a nursing home or on the real property comprising a nursing home. For the purposes of this paragraph (18), "nursing home" means a skilled nursing or intermediate long term care facility that is subject to license by the Illinois Department of Public Health under the Nursing Home Care Act, the Specialized Mental Health Rehabilitation Act of 2013, the ID/DD Community Care Act, or the MC/DD Act [210 ILCS 45/1-101 et seq., 210 ILCS 49/1-101 et seq., 210 ILCS 47/1-101 et seq. or 210 ILCS 46/1-101 et seq.];

(19) the defendant was a federally licensed firearm dealer and was previously convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of Section 3 of the Firearm Owners Identification Card Act [430 ILCS 65/3] and has now committed either a felony violation of the Firearm Owners Identification Card Act [430 ILCS 65/0.01 et seq.] or an act of armed violence while armed with a firearm;

(20) the defendant (i) committed the offense of reckless homicide under Section 9-3 of the Criminal Code of 1961 [720 ILCS 5/9-3] or the Criminal Code of 2012 or the offense of driving under the influence of alcohol, other drug or drugs, intoxicating compound or compounds or any combination thereof under Section 11-501 of the Illinois Vehicle Code [625 ILCS 5/11-501] or a similar provision of a local ordinance and (ii) was operating a motor vehicle in excess of 20 miles per hour over the posted speed limit as provided in Article VI of Chapter 11 of the Illinois Vehicle Code [625 ILCS 5/11-601];

(21) the defendant (i) committed the offense of reckless driving or aggravated reckless driving under Section 11-503 of the Illinois Vehicle Code [625 ILCS 5/11-503] and (ii) was operating a motor vehicle in excess of 20 miles per hour over the posted speed limit as provided in Article VI of Chapter 11 of the Illinois Vehicle Code;

(22) the defendant committed the offense against a person that the defendant knew, or reasonably should have known, was a member of the Armed Forces of the United States serving on active duty. For purposes of this clause (22), the term "Armed Forces" means any of the Armed Forces of the United States, including a member of any reserve component thereof or National Guard unit called to active duty;

(23) the defendant committed the offense against a person who was elderly or infirm or who was a person with a disability by taking advantage of a family or fiduciary relationship with the elderly or infirm person or person with a disability;

(24) the defendant committed any offense under Section 11-20.1 of the Criminal Code of 1961 [720 ILCS 5/11-20.1] or the Criminal Code of 2012 and possessed 100 or more images;

(25) the defendant committed the offense while the defendant or the victim was in a train, bus, or other vehicle used for public transportation;

(26) the defendant committed the offense of child pornography or aggravated child pornography, specifically including paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), or (7) of subsection (a) of Section 11-20.1 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012 where a child engaged in, solicited for, depicted in, or posed in any act of sexual penetration or bound, fettered, or subject to sadistic, masochistic, or adomasochistic abuse in a sexual context and specifically including paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), or (7) of subsection (a) of Section 11-20.1B or Section 11-20.3 of the Criminal Code of 1961 [720 ILCS 5/11-20.1B (now repealed) or 720 ILCS 5/11-20.3 (Renumbered as 720 ILCS 5/11-20.1B)] where a child engaged in, solicited for, depicted in, or posed in any act of sexual penetration or bound, fettered, or subject to sadistic, masochistic, or sadomasochistic abuse in a sexual context;

(27) the defendant committed the offense of first degree murder, assault, aggravated assault, battery, aggravated battery, robbery, armed robbery, or aggravated robbery against a person who was a veteran and the defendant knew, or reasonably should have known, that the person was a veteran performing duties as a representative of a veterans" organization. For the purposes of this paragraph (27), "veteran" means an Illinois resident who has served as a member of the United States Armed Forces, a member of the Illinois National Guard, or a member of the United States Reserve Forces; and "veterans" organization" means an organization comprised of members
of which substantially all are individuals who are veterans or spouses, widows, or widowers of veterans, the primary purpose of which is to promote the welfare of its members and to provide assistance to the general public in such a way as to confer a public benefit;

(28) the defendant committed the offense of assault, aggravated assault, battery, aggravated battery, robbery, armed robbery, or aggravated robbery against a person that the defendant knew or reasonably should have known was a letter carrier or postal worker while that person was performing his or her duties delivering mail for the United States Postal Service;

(29) the defendant committed the offense of criminal sexual assault, aggravated criminal sexual assault, criminal sexual abuse, or aggravated criminal sexual abuse against a victim with an intellectual disability, and the defendant holds a position of trust, authority, or supervision in relation to the victim; or

(30) the defendant committed the offense of promoting juvenile prostitution, patronizing a prostitute, or patronizing a minor engaged
in prostitution and at the time of the commission of the offense knew that the prostitute or minor engaged in prostitution was in the custody or guardianship of the Department of Children and Family Services. For the purposes of this Section: "School" is defined as a public or private elementary or secondary school, community college, college, or university. "Day care center" means a public or private State certified and licensed day care center as defined in Section 2.09 of the Child Care Act of 1969 [225 ILCS 10/2.09] that displays a sign in plain view stating that the property is a day care center. "Intellectual disability" means significantly subaverage intellectual functioning which exists concurrently with impairment in adaptive behavior. "Public transportation" means the transportation or conveyance of persons by means available to the general public, and includes paratransit services.

(b) The following factors, related to all felonies, may be considered by the court as reasons to impose an extended term sentence under
Section 5-8-2 [730 ILCS 5/5-8-2] upon any offender:

(1) When a defendant is convicted of any felony, after having been previously convicted in Illinois or any other jurisdiction of the same or similar class felony or greater class felony, when such conviction has occurred within 10 years after the previous conviction, excluding time spent in custody, and such charges are separately brought and tried and arise out of different series of acts; or

(2) When a defendant is convicted of any felony and the court finds that the offense was accompanied by exceptionally brutal or heinous behavior indicative of wanton cruelty; or

(3) When a defendant is convicted of any felony committed against:

(i) a person under 12 years of age at the time of the offense or such person's property;

(ii) a person 60 years of age or older at the time of the offense or such person's property; or

(iii) a person who had a physical disability at the time of the offense or such person's property; or

(4) When a defendant is convicted of any felony and the offense involved any of the following types of specific misconduct committed as part of a ceremony, rite, initiation, observance, performance, practice or activity of any actual or ostensible religious, fraternal, or social group:

(i) the brutalizing or torturing of humans or animals;

(ii) the theft of human corpses;

(iii) the kidnapping of humans;

(iv) the desecration of any cemetery, religious, fraternal, business, governmental, educational, or other building or property; or

(v) ritualized abuse of a child; or

(5) When a defendant is convicted of a felony other than conspiracy and the court finds that the felony was committed under an agreement with 2 or more other persons to commit that offense and the defendant, with respect to the other individuals, occupied a position of organizer, supervisor, financier, or any other position of management or leadership, and the court further finds that the felony committed was related to or in furtherance of the criminal activities of an organized gang or was motivated by the defendant's leadership in an organized gang; or

(6) When a defendant is convicted of an offense committed while using a firearm with a laser sight attached to it. For purposes of this paragraph, "laser sight" has the meaning ascribed to it in Section 26-7 of the Criminal Code of 2012; or

(7) When a defendant who was at least 17 years of age at the time of the commission of the offense is convicted of a felony and has been previously adjudicated a delinquent minor under the Juvenile Court Act of 1987 [705 ILCS 405/1-1 et seq.] for an act that if committed by an adult would be a Class X or Class 1 felony when the conviction has occurred within 10 years after the previous adjudication, excluding time spent in custody; or

(8) When a defendant commits any felony and the defendant used, possessed, exercised control over, or otherwise directed an animal to assault a law enforcement officer engaged in the execution of his or her official duties or in furtherance of the criminal activities of an organized gang in which the defendant is engaged; or

(9) When a defendant commits any felony and the defendant knowingly video or audio records the offense with the intent to disseminate the recording.

(c) The following factors may be considered by the court as reasons to impose an extended term sentence under Section 5-8-2 (730 ILCS 5/5-8-2) upon any offender for the listed offenses:

(1) When a defendant is convicted of first degree murder, after having been previously convicted in Illinois of any offense listed under paragraph (c)(2) of Section 5-5-3 (730 ILCS 5/5-5-3), when that conviction has occurred within 10 years after the previous conviction, excluding time spent in custody, and the charges are separately brought and tried and arise out of different series of acts.

(1.5) When a defendant is convicted of first degree murder, after having been previously convicted of domestic battery (720 ILCS 5/12-3.2) or aggravated domestic battery (720 ILCS 5/12-3.3) committed on the same victim or after having been previously convicted of violation of an order of protection (720 ILCS 5/12-30) in which the same victim was the protected person.

(2) When a defendant is convicted of voluntary manslaughter, second degree murder, involuntary manslaughter, or reckless homicide in which the defendant has been convicted of causing the death of more than one individual.

(3) When a defendant is convicted of aggravated criminal sexual assault or criminal sexual assault, when there is a finding that aggravated criminal sexual assault or criminal sexual assault was also committed on the same victim by one or more other individuals, and the defendant voluntarily participated in the crime with the knowledge of the participation of the others in the crime, and the commission of the crime was part of a single course of conduct during which there was no substantial change in the nature of the criminal objective.

(4) If the victim was under 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the offense, when a defendant is convicted of aggravated criminal sexual assault or predatory criminal sexual assault of a child under subsection (a)(1) of Section 11-1.40 or subsection (a)(1) of Section 12-14.1 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012 (720 ILCS 5/11-1.40 or 5/12-14.1).

(5) When a defendant is convicted of a felony violation of Section 24-1 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012 (720 ILCS 5/24-1) and there is a finding that the defendant is a member of an organized gang.

(6) When a defendant was convicted of unlawful use of weapons under Section 24-1 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012 (720 ILCS 5/24-1) for possessing a weapon that is not readily distinguishable as one of the weapons enumerated in Section 24-1 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012 (720 ILCS 5/24-1).

(7) When a defendant is convicted of an offense involving the illegal manufacture of a controlled substance under Section 401 of the Illinois Controlled Substances Act [720 ILCS 570/401 et seq.], the illegal manufacture of methamphetamine under Section 25 of the Methamphetamine Control and Community Protection Act [720 ILCS 646/25 et seq.], or the illegal possession of explosives and an emergency response officer in the performance of his or her duties is killed or injured at the scene of the offense while responding to the emergency caused by the commission of the offense. In this paragraph, "emergency" means a situation in which a person's life, health, or safety is in jeopardy; and "emergency response officer" means a peace officer, community policing volunteer, fireman, emergency medical technician-ambulance, emergency medical technician-intermediate, emergency medical technician-paramedic, ambulance driver, other medical assistance or first aid personnel, or hospital emergency room personnel.

(8) When the defendant is convicted of attempted mob action, solicitation to commit mob action, or conspiracy to commit mob action under Section 8-1, 8-2, or 8-4 of the Criminal Code of 2012 [720 ILCS 5/8-1, 720 ILCS 5/8-2, or 720 ILCS 5/8-4], where the criminal object is a violation of Section 25-1 of the Criminal Code of 2012 [720 ILCS 5/25-1], and an electronic communication is used in the commission of the offense. For the purposes of this paragraph (8), "electronic communication" shall have the meaning provided in Section 26.5-0.1 of the Criminal Code of 2012 [720 ILCS 5/26.5-0.1].

(d) For the purposes of this Section, "organized gang" has the meaning ascribed to it in Section 10 of the Illinois Streetgang Terrorism Omnibus Prevention Act.

(e) The court may impose an extended term sentence under Article 4.5 of Chapter V [730 ILCS 5/5-4.5-5 et seq.] upon an offender who has been convicted of a felony violation of Section 11-1.20, 11-1.30, 11-1.40, 11-1.50, 11-1.60, 12-13, 12-14, 12-14.1, 12-15, or 12-16 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012 when the victim of the offense is under 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the offense and, during the commission of the offense, the victim was under the influence of alcohol, regardless of whether or not the alcohol was supplied by the offender; and the offender, at the time of the commission of the offense, knew or should have known that the victim had consumed alcohol.

Illinois § 730 ILCS 5/5-9-1.19. Additional Streetgang Fine

In addition to any other penalty imposed, a fine of $ 100 shall be imposed upon a person convicted of any violation of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012 who was, at the time of the commission of the violation a streetgang member, as defined in Section 10 of the Illinois Streetgang Terrorism Omnibus Prevention Act. Such additional fine shall be assessed by the court imposing sentence and shall be collected by the circuit clerk. Of this fee, $ 5 shall be deposited into the Circuit Court Clerk Operation and Administrative Fund created by the Clerk of the Circuit Court to be used to offset the costs incurred by the Circuit Court Clerk in performing the additional duties required to collect and disburse funds as provided by law. Each such additional fine shall be remitted by the Circuit Court Clerk within one month after receipt to the State Police Streetgang-Related Crime Fund in the State treasury.

Indiana (view all subjects for this state)

Indiana § 35-50-2-15. Sentencing enhancement for person committing felony offense while a member of, at the direction of, or in affiliation with a criminal gang -- Expert testimony permitted

(a) This section does not apply to an individual who is convicted of a felony offense under IC 35-45-9.

(b) The state may seek, on a page separate from the rest of a charging instrument, to have a person who allegedly committed a felony offense sentenced to an additional fixed term of imprisonment if the state can show beyond a reasonable doubt that the person:

(1) knowingly or intentionally was a member of a criminal organization while committing the offense; and

(2) committed the felony offense:

(A) at the direction of or in affiliation with a criminal organization; or

(B) with the intent to benefit, promote, or further the interests of a criminal organization, or for the purposes of increasing the person's own standing or position with a criminal organization.

(c) If the person is convicted of the felony offense in a jury trial, the jury shall reconvene to hear evidence in the enhancement hearing. If the trial was to the court, or the judgment was entered on a guilty plea, the court alone shall hear evidence in the enhancement hearing.

(d) If the jury (if the hearing is by jury) or the court (if the hearing is to the court alone) finds that the state has proved beyond a reasonable doubt that the person knowingly or intentionally was a member of a criminal organization while committing the felony offense and committed the felony offense at the direction of or in affiliation with a criminal organization as described in subsection (b), the court shall:

(1) sentence the person to an additional fixed term of imprisonment equal to the sentence imposed for the underlying felony, if the person is sentenced for only one (1) felony; or

(2) sentence the person to an additional fixed term of imprisonment equal to the longest sentence imposed for the underlying felonies, if the person is being sentenced for more than one (1) felony.

(e) A sentence imposed under this section shall run consecutively to the underlying sentence.

(f) A term of imprisonment imposed under this section may not be suspended.

(g) For purposes of subsection (c), evidence that a person was a member of a criminal organization or committed a felony at the direction of or in affiliation with a criminal organization may include the following:

(1) An admission of criminal organization membership by the person.

(2) A statement by:

(A) a member of the person's family;

(B) the person's guardian; or

(C) a reliable member of the criminal organization; stating the person is a member of a criminal organization.

(3) The person having tattoos identifying the person as a member of a criminal organization.

(4) The person having a style of dress that is particular to members of a criminal organization.

(5) The person associating with one (1) or more members of a criminal organization.

(6) Physical evidence indicating the person is a member of a criminal organization.

(7) An observation of the person in the company of a known criminal organization member on at least three (3) occasions.

(8) Communications authored by the person indicating criminal organization membership, promotion of the membership in a criminal organization, or responsibility for an offense committed by a criminal organization.

(9) The person's use of the hand signs of a criminal organization.

(10) The person's involvement in recruiting criminal organization members.

Kansas (view all subjects for this state)

Kansas § 21-6804. Sentencing Grid for Nondrug Crimes; Authority and Responsibility of Sentencing Court; Presumptive Disposition

(k)(1) If it is shown at sentencing that the offender committed any felony violation for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members, the offender's sentence shall be presumed imprisonment. The court may impose an optional nonprison sentence as provided in subsection (q).

(2) As used in this subsection, "criminal street gang" means any organization, association, or group of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, having as one of its primary activities:

(A) The commission of one or more person felonies; or

(B) the commission of felony violations of article 57 of chapter 21 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, K.S.A. 2010 Supp. 21-36a01 through 21-36a17, prior to their transfer, or any felony violation of any provision of the uniform controlled substances act prior to July 1, 2009; and

(C) its members have a common name or common identifying sign or symbol; and

(D) its members, individually or collectively engage in or have engaged in the commission, attempted commission, conspiracy to commit or solicitation of two or more person felonies or felony violations of article 57 of chapter 21 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, K.S.A. 2010 Supp. 21-36a01 through 21-36a17, prior to their transfer, any felony violation of any provision of the uniform controlled substances act prior to July 1, 2009, or any substantially similar offense from another jurisdiction.

Louisiana (view all subjects for this state)

Art. 890.1. Waiver of minimum mandatory sentences; procedure; exceptions.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, if a felony or misdemeanor offense specifies a sentence with a minimum term of confinement or a minimum fine, or that the sentence shall be served without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence, the court, upon conviction, in sentencing the offender shall impose the sentence as provided in the penalty provisions for that offense, unless one of the following occurs:

(1) The defendant pled guilty pursuant to a negotiated plea agreement with the prosecution and the court, which specifies that the sentence shall be served with benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence or specifies a reduced fine or term of confinement.

(2) In cases resulting in trial, the prosecution, the defendant, and the court entered into a post-conviction agreement, which specifies that the sentence shall be served with benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence or specifies a reduced fine or term of confinement.

B. If such agreements are entered into between the prosecution and the defendant, the court, at sentencing, shall not impose a lesser term of imprisonment, lesser fine, or lesser period of sentence served without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence than that expressly provided for under the terms of the plea or post-conviction agreement.

C. No plea or post-conviction agreement shall provide parole eligibility at a time earlier than that provided in R.S. 15:574.4.

D. The provisions of this Article shall not apply to a sex offense as defined in R.S. 15:541or to any of the following crimes of violence:

(1) R.S. 14:28.1 (Solicitation for murder).

(2) R.S. 14:30 (First degree murder).

(3) R.S. 14:30.1 (Second degree murder).

(4) R.S. 14:31 (Manslaughter).

(5) R.S. 14:34.6 (Disarming of a peace officer).

(6) R.S. 14:34.7 (Aggravated second degree battery).

(7) R.S. 14:37.1 (Assault by drive-by shooting).

(8) R.S. 14:37.4 (Aggravated assault with a firearm).

(9) R.S. 14:42 (Aggravated or first degree rape).

(10) R.S. 14:42.1 (Forcible or second degree rape).

(11) R.S. 14:43 (Simple or third degree rape).

(12) R.S. 14:43.1 (Sexual battery).

(13) R.S.14:43.2 (Second degree sexual battery).

(14) R.S. 14:43.5 (Intentional exposure to AIDS virus).

(15) R.S. 14:44 (Aggravated kidnapping).

(16) R.S. 14:44.1 (Second degree kidnapping).

(17) R.S. 14:46.2 (Human trafficking).

(18) R.S.14:46.3 (Trafficking of children for sexual purposes).

(19) R.S.14:51 (Aggravated arson).

(20) R.S. 14:62.8 (Home invasion).

(21) R.S. 14:64 (Armed robbery).

(22) R.S. 14:64.4 (Second degree robbery).

(23) R.S. 14:64.3 (Armed robbery; use of firearm).

(24) R.S. 14:64.2 (Carjacking).

(25) R.S. 14:78.1 (Aggravated incest).

(26) R.S. 14:93.2.3 (Second degree cruelty to juveniles).

(27) R.S.14:128.1 (Terrorism).

(28) R.S. 14:34 (Aggravated battery).

(29) R.S. 14:37 (Aggravated assault).

(30) R.S. 14:34.1 (Second Degree Battery)

(31) R.S. 14:35.3 (Domestic Abuse Battery)

(32) R.S. 14:40.2 (Stalking)

(33) R.S. 14:64.1 (First Degree Robbery)

(34) R.S. 14:32.5 (Feticide)

E. At the time the sentence is imposed pursuant to this Article, the Uniform Commitment Sentencing Order shall specify that the sentence is imposed pursuant to the provisions of this Article.

Art. 905.4. Aggravating circumstances.

A. The following shall be considered aggravating circumstances:

(1) The offender was engaged in the perpetration or attempted perpetration of aggravated or first degree rape, forcible or second degree rape, aggravated kidnapping, second degree kidnapping, aggravated burglary, aggravated arson, aggravated escape, assault by drive-by shooting, armed robbery, first degree robbery, second degree robbery, simple robbery, cruelty to juveniles, second degree cruelty to juveniles, or terrorism.

(2) The victim was a fireman or peace officer engaged in his lawful duties.

(3) The offender has been previously convicted of an unrelated murder, aggravated or first degree rape, aggravated burglary, aggravated arson, aggravated escape, armed robbery, or aggravated kidnapping.

(4) The offender knowingly created a risk of death or great bodily harm to more than one person.

(5) The offender offered or has been offered or has given or received anything of value for the commission of the offense.

(6) The offender at the time of the commission of the offense was imprisoned after sentence for the commission of an unrelated forcible felony.

(7) The offense was committed in an especially heinous, atrocious or cruel manner.

(8) The victim was a witness in a prosecution against the defendant, gave material assistance to the state in any investigation or prosecution of the defendant, or was an eye witness to a crime alleged to have been committed by the defendant or possessed other material evidence against the defendant.

(9) The victim was a correctional officer or any employee of the Department of Public Safety and Corrections who, in the normal course of his employment was required to come in close contact with persons incarcerated in a state prison facility, and the victim was engaged in his lawful duties at the time of the offense.

(10) The victim was under the age of twelve years or sixty-five years of age or older.

(11) The offender was engaged in the distribution, exchange, sale, or purchase, or any attempt thereof, of a controlled dangerous substance listed in Schedule I, II, III, IV, or V of the Uniform Controlled Dangerous Substances Law.

(12) The offender was engaged in the activities prohibited by R.S. 14:107.1(C)(1).

(13) The offender has knowingly killed two or more persons in aseries of separate incidents. B. For the purposes of Paragraph A(2) herein, the term "peace officer" is defined to include any constable, marshal, deputy marshal, sheriff, deputy sheriff, local or state policeman, commissioned wildlife enforcement agent, federal law enforcement officer, jail or prison guard, parole officer, probation officer, judge, attorney general, assistant attorney general, attorney general's investigator, district attorney, assistant district attorney, or district attorney's investigator.

Louisiana § 14:30. First degree murder

A. First degree murder is the killing of a human being:

(1) When the offender has specific intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm and is engaged in the perpetration or attempted perpetration of aggravated kidnapping, second degree kidnapping, aggravated escape, aggravated arson, aggravated or first degree rape, forcible or second degree rape, aggravated burglary, armed robbery, assault by drive-by shooting, first degree robbery, second degree robbery, simple robbery, terrorism, cruelty to juveniles, or second degree cruelty to juveniles.
. . .

C. Penalty provisions.

(1) If the district attorney seeks a capital verdict, the offender shall be punished by death or life imprisonment at hard labor without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence, in accordance with the determination of the jury. The provisions of C.Cr.P. Art 782 relative to cases in which punishment may be capital shall apply.

(2) If the district attorney does not seek a capital verdict, the offender shall be punished by life imprisonment at hard labor without benefit of parole, probation or suspension of sentence. The provisions of C.Cr.P. Art 782 relative to cases in which punishment is necessarily confinement at hard labor shall apply.

Louisiana § 14:30.1. Second degree murder

A. Second degree murder is the killing of a human being:

(1) When the offender has a specific intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm; or

(2) When the offender is engaged in the perpetration or attempted perpetration of aggravated or first degree rape, forcible or second degree rape, aggravated arson, aggravated burglary, aggravated kidnapping, second degree kidnapping, aggravated escape, assault by drive-by shooting, armed robbery, first degree robbery, second degree robbery, simple robbery, cruelty to juveniles, second degree cruelty to juveniles, or terrorism, even though he has no intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm.

(3) When the offender unlawfully distributes or dispenses a controlled dangerous substance listed in Schedules I through V of the Uniform Controlled Dangerous Substances Law, 11 or any combination thereof, which is the direct cause of the death of the recipient who ingested or consumed the controlled dangerous substance.

(4) When the offender unlawfully distributes or dispenses a controlled dangerous substance listed in Schedules I through V of the Uniform Controlled Dangerous Substances Law, 22 or any combination thereof, to another who subsequently distributes or dispenses such controlled dangerous substance which is the direct cause of the death of the person who ingested or consumed the controlled dangerous
substance.

B. Whoever commits the crime of second degree murder shall be punished by life imprisonment at hard labor without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence.

Louisiana § 14:32.6. First degree feticide

A. First degree feticide is:

. . .
(2) The killing of an unborn child when the offender is engaged in the perpetration or attempted perpetration of aggravated or first degree rape, forcible or second degree rape, aggravated arson, aggravated burglary, aggravated kidnapping, second degree kidnapping, assault by drive-by shooting, aggravated escape, armed robbery, first degree robbery, second degree robbery, cruelty to juveniles, second degree cruelty to juveniles, terrorism, or simple robbery, even though he has no intent to kill or inflict great bodily harm.

B. Whoever commits the crime of first degree feticide shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not more than fifteen years.

Louisiana § 15:1403. Criminal Street Gangs and Patterns of Criminal Street Gang Activity: Prohibitions and Criminal Penalties

A. Any person who intentionally directs, participates, conducts, furthers, or assists in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity as defined in this Chapter shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than one year nor more than one-half of the maximum term of imprisonment provided for an underlying offense committed in a pattern of criminal gang activity and may be fined an amount not to exceed ten thousand dollars. Any sentence of imprisonment imposed pursuant to this Section shall be in addition and consecutive to any sentence imposed for an underlying offense committed in the pattern of criminal gang activity.

B. Any person who is convicted of a felony or an attempted felony which is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the intent to promote, further, or assist in the affairs of a criminal gang, shall, upon conviction of that felony, in addition and consecutive to the punishment prescribed for the felony or attempted felony of which he or she has been convicted, be imprisoned for not less than one year nor more than one-half of the maximum term of imprisonment provided for that offense.

C. Any person who is convicted of an offense other than a felony which is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct or enterprise by gang members, shall, in addition and consecutive to the penalty provided for that offense, be imprisoned for an additional period of six months.

D. The court may elect to suspend all or a part of any additional mandatory punishment or enhanced punishment provided for in this Chapter only in an unusual case where the interests of justice would best be served, and if the court specifies on the record and enters into the minutes the reasons that the interests of justice would best be served by that suspension of punishment.

Michigan (view all subjects for this state)

Michigan § 750.316. First Degree Murder; Penalty; Definitions

Sec. 316. (1) Except as provided in sections 25 and 25a of chapter IX of the code of criminal procedure, 1927 PA 175, MCL 769.25 and 769.25a, a person who commits any of the following is guilty of first degree murder and shall be punished by imprisonment for life without eligibility for parole:

(a) Murder perpetrated by means of poison, lying in wait, or any other willful, deliberate, and premeditated killing.

(b) Murder committed in the perpetration of, or attempt to perpetrate, arson, criminal sexual conduct in the first, second, or third degree, child abuse in the first degree, a major controlled substance offense, robbery, carjacking, breaking and entering of a dwelling, home invasion in the first or second degree, larceny of any kind, extortion, kidnapping, vulnerable adult abuse in the first or second degree under section 145n, torture under section 85, aggravated stalking under section 411i, or unlawful imprisonment under section
349b.

(c) A murder of a peace officer or a corrections officer committed while the peace officer or corrections officer is lawfully engaged in the performance of any of his or her duties as a peace officer or corrections officer, knowing that the peace officer or corrections officer is a peace officer or corrections officer engaged in the performance of his or her duty as a peace officer or corrections officer.

(2) As used in this section:

(a) "Arson" means a felony violation of chapter X.

(b) "Corrections officer" means any of the following:

(i) A prison or jail guard or other prison or jail personnel.

(ii) Any of the personnel of a boot camp, special alternative incarceration unit, or other minimum security correctional facility.

(iii) A parole or probation officer.

(c) "Major controlled substance offense" means any of the following:

(i) A violation of section 7401(2)(a)(i) to (iii) of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.7401.

(ii) A violation of section 7403(2)(a)(i) to (iii) of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.7403.

(iii) A conspiracy to commit an offense listed in subparagraph (i) or (ii).

(d) "Peace officer" means any of the following:

(i) A police or conservation officer of this state or a political subdivision of this state.

(ii) A police or conservation officer of the United States.

(iii) A police or conservation officer of another state or a political subdivision of another state.

Michigan § 750.411u. Associate or member of gang; commission or attempt to commit felony; membership in gang as motive, means, or opportunity; penalty; definitions; consecutive sentence.

Sec. 411u. (1) If a person who is an associate or a member of a gang commits a felony or attempts to commit a felony and the person's association or membership in the gang provides the motive, means, or opportunity to commit the felony, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 20 years. As used in this section:

(a) "Gang" means an ongoing organization, association, or group of 5 or more people, other than a nonprofit organization, that identifies itself by all of the following:

(i) A unifying mark, manner, protocol, or method of expressing membership, including a common name, sign or symbol, means of recognition, geographical or territorial sites, or boundary or location.

(ii) An established leadership or command structure.

(iii) Defined membership criteria.

(b) "Gang member" or "member of a gang" means a person who belongs to a gang.

(2) A sentence imposed under this section is in addition to the sentence imposed for the conviction of the underlying felony or the attempt to commit the underlying felony and may be served consecutively with and preceding any term of imprisonment imposed for the conviction of the felony or attempt to commit the felony.

Michigan § 750.411v. Causing, encouraging, recruiting, soliciting, or coercing another to join, participate in, or assist gang in felony; violation as felony; threat of injury or damage as felony; additional sentence; definitions.

Sec. 411v. (1) A person shall not cause, encourage, recruit, solicit, or coerce another to join, participate in, or assist a gang in committing a felony. A person who violates this subsection is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 5 years or a fine of not more than $5,000.00, or both.

(2) A person shall not communicate, directly or indirectly, to another person a threat of injury or damage to the person or property of that person or to an associate or relative of that person with the intent to do either of the following:

(a) Deter the other person from assisting a gang member or associate of a gang to withdraw from the gang.

(b) Punish or retaliate against the other person for having withdrawn from a gang.

(3) A person who violates subsection (2) is guilty of a felony punishable for not more than 20 years or a fine of not more than $20,000.00, or both.

(4) A sentence imposed under this section is in addition to a sentence imposed for the conviction of another felony or attempt to commit a felony arising out of the same transaction and may be ordered to be served consecutively with and preceding a term of imprisonment imposed for the conviction of that felony or attempt to commit that felony.

(5) As used in this section:

(a) "Gang" means an ongoing organization, association, or group of 5 or more people, other than a nonprofit organization, that identifies itself by all of the following:

(i) A unifying mark, manner, protocol, or method of expressing membership, including a common name, sign or symbol, means of recognition, and geographical or territorial sites, or boundary or location.

(ii) An established leadership or command structure.

(iii) Defined membership criteria.

(b) "Gang member" means a person who belongs to a gang.

Minnesota (view all subjects for this state)

Minnesota § 609.11. Minimum sentences of imprisonment

Subdivision 1. Commitments without minimums. -- All commitments to the commissioner of corrections for imprisonment of the defendant are without minimum terms except when the sentence is to life imprisonment as required by law and except as otherwise provided in this chapter.
. . .
Subd. 5. Firearm.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b), any defendant convicted of an offense listed in subdivision 9 in which the defendant or an accomplice, at the time of the offense, had in possession or used, whether by brandishing, displaying, threatening with, or otherwise employing, a firearm, shall be committed to the commissioner of corrections for not less than three years, nor more than the maximum sentence provided by law. Any defendant convicted of a second or subsequent offense in which the defendant or an accomplice, at the time of the offense, had in possession or used a firearm shall be committed to the commissioner of corrections for not less than five years, nor more than the maximum sentence provided by law.

(b) Any defendant convicted of violating section 609.165 or 624.713, subdivision 1, clause (2), shall be committed to the commissioner of corrections for not less than five years, nor more than the maximum sentence provided by law.
. . .
Subd. 6. No early release. -- Any defendant convicted and sentenced as required by this section is not eligible for probation, parole, discharge, or supervised release until that person has served the full term of imprisonment as provided by law, notwithstanding the provisions of sections 242.19, 243.05, 244.04, 609.12 and 609.135.
. . .
Subd. 9. Applicable offenses. -- The crimes for which mandatory minimum sentences shall be served as provided in this section are: murder in the first, second, or third degree; assault in the first, second, or third degree; burglary; kidnapping; false imprisonment; manslaughter in the first or second degree; aggravated robbery; simple robbery; first-degree or aggravated first-degree witness tampering; criminal sexual conduct under the circumstances described in sections 609.342, subdivision 1, clauses (a) to (f); 609.343, subdivision 1, clauses (a) to (f); and 609.344, subdivision 1, clauses (a) to (e) and (h) to (j); escape from custody; arson in the first, second, or third degree; drive-by shooting under section 609.66, subdivision 1e; stalking under section 609.749, subdivision 3, clause (3); possession or other unlawful use of a firearm or ammunition in violation of section 609.165, subdivision 1b, or 624.713, subdivision 1, clause (2), a felony violation of chapter 152; or any attempt to commit any of these offenses.

Minnesota § 609.229. Crime Committed for Benefit of a Gang

Subdivision 1. Definition. -- As used in this section, "criminal gang" means any ongoing organization, association, or group of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that:

(1) has, as one of its primary activities, the commission of one or more of the offenses listed in section 609.11, subdivision 9;

(2) has a common name or common identifying sign or symbol; and

(3) includes members who individually or collectively engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal activity.

Subd. 2. Crimes. -- A person who commits a crime for the benefit of, at the direction of, in association with, or motivated by involvement with a criminal gang, with the intent to promote, further, or assist in criminal conduct by gang members is guilty of a crime and may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 3.

Subd. 3. Penalty.

(a) If the crime committed in violation of subdivision 2 is a felony, the statutory maximum for the crime is five years longer than the statutory maximum for the underlying crime. If the crime committed in violation of subdivision 2 is a felony, and the victim of the crime is a child under the age of 18 years, the statutory maximum for the crime is ten years longer than the statutory maximum for the underlying crime.

(b) If the crime committed in violation of subdivision 2 is a misdemeanor, the person is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

(c) If the crime committed in violation of subdivision 2 is a gross misdemeanor, the person is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than three years or to payment of a fine of not more than $ 15,000, or both.

Mississippi (view all subjects for this state)

Mississippi § 97-3-2. Crimes of Violence Defined

(1) The following shall be classified as crimes of violence:

(a) Driving under the influence as provided in Sections 63-11-30(5) and 63-11-30(12) (d);

(b) Murder and attempted murder as provided in Sections 97-1-7(2), 97-3-19, 97-3-23 and 97-3-25;
(c) Aggravated assault as provided in Sections 97-3-7(2) (a) and (b) and 97-3-7(4) (a);

(d) Manslaughter as provided in Sections 97-3-27, 97-3-29, 97-3-31, 97-3-33, 97-3-35, 97-3-39, 97-3-41, 97-3-43, 97-3-45 and 97-3-47;

(e) Killing of an unborn child as provided in Sections 97-3-37(2) (a) and 97-3-37(2) (b);

(f) Kidnapping as provided in Section 97-3-53;

(g) Human trafficking as provided in Section 97-3-54.1;

(h) Poisoning as provided in Section 97-3-61;

(i) Rape as provided in Sections 97-3-65 and 97-3-71;

(j) Robbery as provided in Sections 97-3-73 and 97-3-79;

(k) Sexual battery as provided in Section 97-3-95;

(l) Drive-by shooting or bombing as provided in Section 97-3-109;

(m) Carjacking as provided in Section 97-3-117;

(n) Felonious neglect, abuse or battery of a child as provided in Section 97-5-39;

(o) Burglary of a dwelling as provided in Sections 97-17-23 and 97-17-37;

(p) Use of explosives or weapons of mass destruction as provided in Section 97-37-25;

(q) Statutory rape as provided in Section 97-3-65(1), but this classification is rebuttable on hearing by a judge;

(r) Exploitation of a child as provided in Section 97-5-33;

(s) Gratification of lust as provided in Section 97-5-23; and

(t) Shooting into a dwelling as provided in Section 97-37-29.

(2) In any felony offense with a maximum sentence of no less than five (5) years, upon conviction, the judge may find and place in the sentencing order, on the record in open court, that the offense, while not listed in subsection (1) of this section, shall be classified as a crime of violence if the facts show that the defendant used physical force, or made a credible attempt or threat of physical force against another person as part of the criminal act. No person convicted of a crime of violence listed in this section is eligible for parole or for early release from the custody of the Department of Corrections until the person has served at least fifty percent (50%) of the sentence imposed by the court.

Mississippi § 97-44-19. Penalties for criminal street gang activity

(1) Any person who intentionally directs, participates, conducts, furthers, or assists in the commission of illegal gang activity shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than one (1) year nor more than one-half (1/2) of the maximum term of imprisonment provided for an underlying offense and may be fined an amount not to exceed Ten Thousand Dollars ($10,000.00). Any sentence of imprisonment imposed pursuant to this section shall be in addition and consecutive to any sentence imposed for the underlying offense.

(2) Any person who is convicted of a felony or an attempted felony which is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the intent to promote, further, or assist in the affairs of a criminal gang, shall, upon conviction of that felony, in addition and consecutive to the punishment prescribed for the felony or attempted felony of which he or she has been convicted, be imprisoned for not less than one (1) year nor more than one-half (1/2) of the maximum term of imprisonment provided for that offense.

(3) Any person who is convicted of an offense other than a felony which is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further or assist in any criminal conduct or enterprise by gang members, shall, in addition and consecutive to the penalty provided for that offense, be imprisoned for an additional period of not more than one (1) year.

(4) Any person who knowingly and willfully sells or buys goods or performs services for a criminal street gang in furtherance of illegal activity shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than one (1) year nor more than one-half (1/2) of the maximum term of imprisonment provided for the underlying offense and may be fined an amount not to exceed Ten Thousand Dollars ($10,000.00).

(5) The court may elect to suspend all or a part of any additional mandatory punishment or enhanced punishment provided for in this chapter to impose alternative punishment in the form of properly supervised community service or placement in an appropriate adolescent offender program, if available, only in an unusual case where the interest of justice would best be served, and if the court specifies on the record and enters into the minutes the circumstances and reasons that the interests of justice would best be served by that suspension of enhanced punishment.

Missouri (view all subjects for this state)

Missouri § 565.032. Evidence to be considered in assessing punishment in first degree murder cases for which death penalty authorized [Effective January 1, 2017]

1. In all cases of murder in the first degree for which the death penalty is authorized, the judge in a jury-waived trial shall consider, or shall include in his or her instructions to the jury for it to consider:

(1) Whether a statutory aggravating circumstance or circumstances enumerated in subsection 2 of this section is established by the evidence beyond a reasonable doubt; and

(2) If a statutory aggravating circumstance or circumstances is proven beyond a reasonable doubt, whether the evidence as a whole justifies a sentence of death or a sentence of life imprisonment without eligibility for probation, parole, or release except by act of the governor. In determining the issues enumerated in subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection, the trier shall consider all evidence which it finds to be in aggravation or mitigation of punishment, including evidence received during the first stage of the trial and evidence supporting any of the statutory aggravating or mitigating circumstances set out in subsections 2 and 3 of this section. If the trier is a jury, it shall not be instructed upon any specific evidence which may be in aggravation or mitigation of punishment, but shall be instructed that each juror shall consider any evidence which he or she considers to be aggravating or mitigating.

2. Statutory aggravating circumstances for a murder in the first degree offense shall be limited to the following:

(1) The offense was committed by a person with a prior record of conviction for murder in the first degree, or the offense was committed by a person who has one or more serious assaultive criminal convictions;

(2) The murder in the first degree offense was committed while the offender was engaged in the commission or attempted commission of another unlawful homicide;

(3) The offender by his or her act of murder in the first degree knowingly created a great risk of death to more than one person by means of a weapon or device which would normally be hazardous to the lives of more than one person;

(4) The offender committed the offense of murder in the first degree for himself or herself or another, for the purpose of receiving money or any other thing of monetary value from the victim of the murder or another;

(5) The murder in the first degree was committed against a judicial officer, former judicial officer, prosecuting attorney or former prosecuting attorney, circuit attorney or former circuit attorney, assistant prosecuting attorney or former assistant prosecuting attorney, assistant circuit attorney or former assistant circuit attorney, peace officer or former peace officer, elected official or former elected official during or because of the exercise of his official duty;

(6) The offender caused or directed another to commit murder in the first degree or committed murder in the first degree as an agent or employee of another person;

(7) The murder in the first degree was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman in that it involved torture, or depravity of mind;

(8) The murder in the first degree was committed against any peace officer, or fireman while engaged in the performance of his or her official duty;

(9) The murder in the first degree was committed by a person in, or who has escaped from, the lawful custody of a peace officer or place of lawful confinement;

(10) The murder in the first degree was committed for the purpose of avoiding, interfering with, or preventing a lawful arrest or custody in a place of lawful confinement, of himself or herself or another;

(11) The murder in the first degree was committed while the defendant was engaged in the perpetration or was aiding or encouraging another person to perpetrate or attempt to perpetrate a felony of any degree of rape, sodomy, burglary, robbery, kidnapping, or any felony offense in chapter 195 or 579;

(12) The murdered individual was a witness or potential witness in any past or pending investigation or past or pending prosecution, and was killed as a result of his or her status as a witness or potential witness;

(13) The murdered individual was an employee of an institution or facility of the department of corrections of this state or local correction agency and was killed in the course of performing his or her official duties, or the murdered individual was an inmate of such institution or facility;

(14) The murdered individual was killed as a result of the hijacking of an airplane, train, ship, bus or other public conveyance;

(15) The murder was committed for the purpose of concealing or attempting to conceal any felony offense defined in chapter 195 or 579;

(16) The murder was committed for the purpose of causing or attempting to cause a person to refrain from initiating or aiding in the prosecution of a felony offense defined in chapter 195 or 579;

(17) The murder was committed during the commission of an offense which is part of a pattern of criminal street gang activity as defined in section 578.421.

3. Statutory mitigating circumstances shall include the following:

(1) The defendant has no significant history of prior criminal activity;

(2) The murder in the first degree was committed while the defendant was under the influence of extreme mental or emotional disturbance;

(3) The victim was a participant in the defendant's conduct or consented to the act;

(4) The defendant was an accomplice in the murder in the first degree committed by another person and his or her participation was relatively minor;

(5) The defendant acted under extreme duress or under the substantial domination of another person;

(6) The capacity of the defendant to appreciate the criminality of his or her conduct or to conform his or her conduct to the requirements of law was substantially impaired;

(7) The age of the defendant at the time of the offense.

Missouri § 578.425. Felony or misdemeanors committed to promote or assist criminal conduct by gang members, punishment in addition to regular sentences [Effective January 1, 2017]

Any person who is convicted of a felony or a misdemeanor which is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members, shall be punished in the following manner:

(1) Any person who violates this section in the commission of a misdemeanor shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail not to exceed one year, or by imprisonment in a state correctional facility for one, two, or three years;

(2) Any person who violates this section in the commission of a felony shall, upon conviction of that felony, in addition and consecutive to the punishment prescribed for the felony of which he or she has been convicted, be punished by an additional term of one, two, or three years at the court's discretion. If the underlying felony is committed on the grounds of, or within one thousand feet of a public or private elementary, vocational, junior high or high school, the additional term shall be two, three, or four years, at the court's discretion. The court shall order the imposition of the middle term of the sentence enhancement, unless there are circumstances in aggravation or mitigation. The court shall state the reasons for its choice of sentence enhancements on the record at the time of sentencing;

(3) Any person who violates this section in the commission of a felony punishable by death or imprisonment for life shall not be paroled until a minimum of fifteen calendar years have been served in the custody of the department of corrections.

Montana (view all subjects for this state)

Montana § 45-8-404. Additional Sentence for Criminal Street Gang-Related Felony

(1) (a) A person who is convicted of a felony that the person committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang for the purpose of promoting, furthering, or assisting any criminal conduct by criminal street gang members shall, in addition to the punishment provided for the commission of the underlying offense, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment in a state prison of not less than 1 year or more than 3 years, except as provided in 46-18-222.

(b) If the underlying felony described in subsection (1)(a) is committed on the grounds of, or within 1,000 feet of, a public school, as defined in 20-6-501, during hours when the facility is open for classes or school-related programs or when minors are using the facility, the additional term provided for in subsection (1) is 2 to 4 years.

(2) The imposition or execution of the minimum sentences prescribed by this section may not be deferred or suspended, except as provided in 46-18-222.

(3) An additional sentence prescribed by this section shall run consecutively to the sentence provided for the underlying offense.

Nevada (view all subjects for this state)

Nevada § 193.168. Additional Penalty: Felony Committed to Promote Activities of Criminal Gang; Restriction on Probation; Expert Testimony

1. Except as otherwise provided in subsection 5 and NRS 193.169, any person who is convicted of a felony committed knowingly for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in affiliation with, a criminal gang, with the specific intent to promote, further or assist the activities of the criminal gang, shall, in addition to the term of imprisonment prescribed by statute for the crime, be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 20 years. In determining the length of the additional penalty imposed, the court shall consider the following information:

(a) The facts and circumstances of the crime;

(b) The criminal history of the person;

(c) The impact of the crime on any victim;

(d) Any mitigating factors presented by the person; and

(e) Any other relevant information.

The court shall state on the record that it has considered the information described in paragraphs (a) to (e), inclusive, in determining the length of the additional penalty imposed.

2. The sentence prescribed by this section:

(a) Must not exceed the sentence imposed for the crime; and

(b) Runs consecutively with the sentence prescribed by statute for the crime.

3. This section does not create any separate offense but provides an additional penalty for the primary offense, whose imposition is contingent upon the finding of the prescribed fact.

4. The court shall not impose an additional penalty pursuant to this section unless:

(a) The indictment or information charging the defendant with the primary offense alleges that the primary offense was committed knowingly for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in affiliation with, a criminal gang, with the specific intent to promote, further or assist the activities of the criminal gang; and

(b) The trier of fact finds that allegation to be true beyond a reasonable doubt.

5. The court shall not impose an additional penalty pursuant to this section if the primary offense is a violation of NRS 201.570.

6. Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the court shall not grant probation to or suspend the sentence of any person convicted of a felony committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in affiliation with a criminal gang if an additional term of imprisonment may be imposed for that primary offense pursuant to this section. The court may, upon the receipt of an appropriate motion, reduce or suspend the sentence imposed for the primary offense if it finds that the defendant rendered substantial assistance in the arrest or conviction of any other principals, accomplices, accessories or coconspirators to the crime, or of any other persons involved in the commission of a felony which was committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in affiliation with a criminal gang. The agency which arrested the defendant must be given an opportunity to support or oppose such a motion before it is granted or denied. If good cause is shown, the motion may be heard in camera.

7. In any proceeding to determine whether an additional penalty may be imposed pursuant to this section, expert testimony is admissible to show particular conduct, status and customs indicative of criminal gangs, including, but not limited to:

(a) Characteristics of persons who are members of criminal gangs;

(b) Specific rivalries between criminal gangs;

(c) Common practices and operations of criminal gangs and the members of those gangs;

(d) Social customs and behavior of members of criminal gangs;

(e) Terminology used by members of criminal gangs;

(f) Codes of conduct, including criminal conduct, of particular criminal gangs; and

(g) The types of crimes that are likely to be committed by a particular criminal gang or by criminal gangs in general.

8. As used in this section, "criminal gang" means any combination of persons, organized formally or informally, so constructed that the organization will continue its operation even if individual members enter or leave the organization, which:

(a) Has a common name or identifying symbol;

(b) Has particular conduct, status and customs indicative of it; and

(c) Has as one of its common activities engaging in criminal activity punishable as a felony, other than the conduct which constitutes the primary offense

Nevada § 206.330. Placing graffiti on or otherwise defacing property: Fines and penalties; restitution; parent or guardian responsible for fines and penalties if person violating section is under age of 18 years; suspension of driver's license

1. Unless a greater criminal penalty is provided by a specific statute, a person who places graffiti on or otherwise defaces the public or private property, real or personal, of another, without the permission of the owner:

(a) Where the value of the loss is less than $250, is guilty of a misdemeanor.

(b) Where the value of the loss is $250 or more but less than $5,000, is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

(c) Where the value of the loss is $5,000 or more or where the damage results in the impairment of public communication, transportation, or police and fire protection, is guilty of a category E felony and shall be punished as provided in NRS 193.130. If the court grants probation to such person, the court shall require as a condition of probation that the person serve at least 10 days in the county jail.

(d) Where the offense is committed on any protected site in this State, is guilty of a category D felony and shall be punished as provided in NRS 193.130. If the court grants probation to such a person, the court shall require as a condition of probation that the person serve at least 10 days in the county jail.

2. Unless a greater penalty is provided by a specific statute, a person who has previously been convicted of a violation of subsection 1:
(a) Two or more times; or

(b) That was punished as a felony,

and who violates subsection 1, regardless of the value of the loss, is guilty of a category D felony and shall be punished as provided in NRS 193.130.

3. If a person commits more than one offense pursuant to a scheme or continuing course of conduct, the value of all property damaged or destroyed by that person in the commission of those offenses may be aggregated for the purpose of determining the penalty prescribed in subsection 1, but only if the value of the loss when aggregated is $500 or more.

4. A person who violates subsection 1 shall, in addition to any other fine or penalty imposed:

(a) For the first offense, pay a fine of not less than $400 but no more than $1,00 and perform 100 hours of community service.

(b) For the second offense, pay a fine of not less than $750 but no more than $1,000 and perform 200 hours of community service.

(c) For the third and each subsequent offense:

(1) Pay a fine of $1,000; and

(2) Perform up to 300 hours of community service for up to 1 year, as determined by the court. The court may order the person to repair, replace, clean up or keep free of graffiti the property damaged or destroyed by the person or, if it is not practicable for the person to repair, replace, clean up or keep free of graffiti that specific property, the court may order the person to repair, replace, clean up or keep free of graffiti another specified property.

The community service assigned pursuant to this subsection must, if possible, be related to the abatement of graffiti.

5. The court may, in addition to any other fine or penalty imposed, order a person who violates subsection 1 to pay restitution.

6. The parent or legal guardian of a person under 18 years of age who violates this section is liable for all fines and penalties imposed against the person. If the parent or legal guardian is unable to pay the fine and penalties resulting from a violation of this section because of financial hardship, the court may require the parent or legal guardian to perform community service.

7. If a person who is 18 years of age or older is found guilty of violating this section, the court may issue an order suspending the driver's license of the person for not less than 6 months but not more than two years. The court shall require the person to surrender all driver's licenses then held by the person. If the person does not possess a driver's license, the court may issue an order prohibiting the person from applying for a driver's license for not less than 6 months, but not more than 2 years. The court shall, within 5 days after issuing the order, forward to the Department of Motor Vehicles any licenses together with a copy of the order.

8. The Department of Motor Vehicles:

(a) Shall not treat a violation of this section in the manner statutorily required for a moving traffic violation.

(b) Shall report the suspension of a driver's license pursuant to this section to an insurance company or its agent inquiring about the person's driving record. An insurance company shall not use any information obtained pursuant to this paragraph for purposes related to establishing premium rates or determining whether to underwrite the insurance.

9. A criminal penalty imposed pursuant to this section is in addition to any civil penalty or other remedy available pursuant to this section or another statute for the same conduct.

10. As used in this section:

(a) "Impairment" means the disruption of ordinary and incidental services, the temporary loss of use, or the removal of the property from service for repair of damage.

(b) “Protected site” means:

(1) Any site, landmark, monument, building or structure of historical significance pertaining to the history of the settlement of Nevada;

(2)Any site, building, structure, object or district listed in the register of historic resources of a community which is recognized as a Certified Local Government pursuant to the Certified Local Government Program jointly administered by the National Park Service and the Office of Historic Preservation of the State Department of Conservation and Natural Resources;

(3) Any site, building, structure, object or district listed in the State Register of Historic Places pursuant to NRS 383.085 or the National Register of Historic Places;

(4) Any site, building, structure, object or district that is more than 50 years old and is located in a municipal or state park;

(5) Any Indian campgrounds, shelters, petroglyphs, pictographs and burials; or

(6) Any archeological or paleontological site, ruin, deposit, fossilized footprints and other impressions, petroglyphs and pictographs, habitation caves, rock shelters, natural caves, burial ground or sites of religious or cultural importance to an Indian tribe.

(c) “Value of the loss” means the cost of repairing, restoring or replacing the property, including, without limitation, the cost of any materials and labor necessary to repair, restore or replace the item.

New Hampshire (view all subjects for this state)

New Hampshire § 651:6. Extended Term of Imprisonment

I. A convicted person may be sentenced according to paragraph III if the jury also finds beyond a reasonable doubt that such person:

(a) Based on the circumstances for which he or she is to be sentenced, has knowingly devoted himself or herself to criminal activity as a major source of livelihood;

(b) Has been subjected to a court-ordered psychiatric examination on the basis of which the jury finds that such person is a serious danger to others due to a gravely abnormal mental condition;

(c) Has manifested exceptional cruelty or depravity in inflicting death or serious bodily injury on the victim of the crime;

(d) Has committed an offense involving the use of force against a person with the intention of taking advantage of the victim's age or physical disability;

(e) Has committed or attempted to commit any of the crimes defined in RSA 631 or 632-A against a person under 13 years of age;

(f) Was substantially motivated to commit the crime because of hostility towards the victim's religion, race, creed, sexual orientation as defined in RSA 21:49, national origin or sex;

(g) Has knowingly committed or attempted to commit any of the crimes defined in RSA 631 where he or she knows the victim was, at the time of the commission of the crime, a law enforcement officer, a paid firefighter, volunteer firefighter, on-call firefighter, or licensed emergency medical care provider as defined in RSA 153-A:2, V acting in the line of duty;

(h) Was an on-duty law enforcement officer at the time that he or she committed or attempted to commit any of the crimes defined in RSA 631;

(i) Has committed a crime listed in RSA 193-D:1 in a safe school zone under RSA 193-D;

(j) Possesses a radio device with the intent to use that device in the commission of robbery, burglary, theft, gambling, stalking, or a violation of any provision of RSA 318-B. In this section, the term "radio device" means any device capable of receiving a wireless transmission on any frequency allocated for law enforcement use, or any device capable of transmitting and receiving a wireless transmission;

(k) Has committed or attempted to commit negligent homicide as defined in RSA 630:3, I against a person under 13 years of age who was in the care of, or under the supervision of, the defendant at the time of the offense;

(l) Has committed or attempted to commit any of the crimes defined in RSA 637 or RSA 638 against a victim who is 65 years of age or older or who has a physical or mental disability and that in perpetrating the crime, the defendant intended to take advantage of the victim's age or a physical or mental condition that impaired the victim's ability to manage his or her property or financial resources or to protect his or her rights or interests;

(m) Has committed or attempted to commit aggravated felonious sexual assault in violation of RSA 632-A:2, I(l) or RSA 632-A:2, II where the defendant was 18 years of age or older at the time of the offense;

(n) Has committed or attempted to commit aggravated felonious sexual assault in violation of RSA 632-A:2, III, and one or more of the acts comprising the pattern of sexual assault was an offense under RSA 632-A:2, I(l) or RSA 632-A:2, II, or both, and the defendant was 18 years of age or older when the pattern of sexual assault began;

(o) Has purposely, knowingly, or recklessly with extreme indifference to the value of human life committed an act or acts constituting first degree assault as defined in RSA 631:1 against a person under 13 years of age where the serious bodily injury has resulted in brain damage or physical disability to the child that is likely to be permanent;

(p) Has committed murder as defined in RSA 630:1-b against a person under 13 years of age;

(q) Has knowingly committed any of the following offenses as a criminal street gang member, or for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the purpose to promote, further, or assist in any such criminal conduct by criminal street gang members:

(1) Violent crime as defined in RSA 651:5, XIII.

(2) A crime involving the distribution, sale, or manufacture of a controlled drug under RSA 318-B:2.

(3) Class A felony theft where the property stolen was a firearm.

(4) Unlawful sale of a pistol or a revolver.

(5) Witness tampering.

(6) Criminal street gang solicitation as defined in RSA 644:20; or

(r) Has committed an offense under RSA 637 where such person knowingly activated an audible alarm system to avoid detection or apprehension, or cause a distraction during the commission of the offense. I-a. As used in this section:

(a) "Law enforcement officer" means a sheriff or deputy sheriff of any county, a state police officer, a constable or police officer of any city or town, an official or employee of any prison, jail, or corrections institution, a probation-parole officer, a juvenile probation and parole officer, or a conservation officer.

(b) "Criminal street gang member" means an individual to whom 2 or more of the following apply:

(1) Admits to criminal street gang membership;

(2) Is identified as a criminal street gang member by a law enforcement officer, parent, guardian, or documented reliable informant;

(3) Resides in or frequents a particular criminal street gang's area and adopts its style of dress, its use of hand or other signs, tattoos, or other physical markings, and associates with known criminal street gang members; or

(4) Has been arrested more than once in the company of individuals who are identified as criminal street gang members by law enforcement, for offenses that are consistent with usual criminal street gang activity.

(c) "Criminal street gang" means a formal or informal ongoing organization, association, or group of 3 or more persons, which has as one of its primary objectives or activities the commission of criminal activity, whose members share a common name, identifying sign, symbol, physical marking, style of dress, or use of hand sign, and whose members individually or collectively have engaged in the commission, attempted commission, solicitation to commit, or conspiracy to commit 2 or more the following offenses, or a reasonably equivalent offense in another jurisdiction, on separate occasions within the preceding 3 years:

(1) Violent crimes, as defined in RSA 651:5, XIII;

(2) Distribution, sale, or manufacture of a controlled drug in violation of RSA 318-B:2;

(3) Class A felony theft;

(4) Unlawful sale of a pistol or revolver; or

(5) Witness tampering.

II. A convicted person may be sentenced according to the terms of paragraph III if the court finds, and includes such findings in the record, that such person:

(a) Has twice previously been convicted in this state, or in another jurisdiction, on sentences in excess of one year;

(b) Has previously been convicted of a violation of RSA 630:3, II, RSA 265-A:3, I(b) or II(b), or any crime in any other jurisdiction involving driving or attempting to drive a motor vehicle under the influence of controlled drugs, prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, or any other chemical substances, natural or synthetic, which impair a person's ability to drive or intoxicating liquors, or both, and such person has committed a crime as defined under RSA 630:3, II or RSA 265-A:3, I(b) or II(b); or

(c) Has twice previously been convicted in this state or any other jurisdiction, for driving or attempting to drive a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquors or controlled drugs, prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, or any other chemical substances, natural or synthetic, which impair a person's ability to drive, or both, and such person has committed a crime as defined under RSA 630:3, II or RSA 265-A:3, I(b) or II(b).

III. If authorized by paragraph I or II, and if written notice of the possible application of this section is given the defendant at least 21 days prior to the commencement of jury selection for his or her trial, a defendant may be sentenced to an extended term of imprisonment. An extended term is, for a person convicted of:

(a) Any felony, other than murder or manslaughter, a minimum to be fixed by the court of not more than 10 years and a maximum to be fixed by the court of not more than 30 years;

(b) A misdemeanor, a minimum to be fixed by the court of not more than 2 years and a maximum to be fixed by the court of not more than 5 years;

(c) Manslaughter, a minimum to be fixed by the court of not more than 20 years and a maximum to be fixed by the court of not more than 40 years;

(d) Murder, life imprisonment;

(e) Two or more offenses under RSA 632-A:2, life imprisonment without parole;

(f) A third offense under RSA 632-A:3, life imprisonment; or

(g) Any of the crimes listed under RSA 651:6, I(j), a minimum to be fixed by the court of not less than 90 days and a maximum of not more than one year.

IV. If authorized by subparagraphs I(m), (n), or (o) and if notice of the possible application of this section is given to the defendant prior to the commencement of trial:

(a) There is a presumption that a person shall be sentenced to a minimum to be fixed by the court of not less than 25 years and a maximum of life imprisonment unless the court makes a determination that the goals of deterrence, rehabilitation, and punishment would not be served, based on the specific circumstances of the case, by such a sentence and the court makes specific written findings in support of the lesser sentence. Before the court can determine whether the presumption has been overcome, the court shall consider, but is not limited to, the following factors:

(1) Age of victim at time of offense.

(2) Age of the defendant at the time of the offense.

(3) Relationship between defendant and victim.

(4) Injuries to victim.

(5) Use of force, fear, threats, or coercion to the victim or another.

(6) Length of time defendant offended against victim.

(7) Number of times defendant offended against victim.

(8) Number of other victims.

(9) Acceptance of responsibility by defendant.

(10) Defendant's criminal history.

(11) Use of a weapon.

(12) Medical or psychological condition of the victim at the time of the assault.

(b) The sentence shall also include, in addition to any other penalties provided by law, a special sentence of lifetime supervision by the department of corrections. The defendant shall comply with the conditions of lifetime supervision which are imposed by the court or the department of corrections. Violation of any of the conditions of lifetime supervision shall be deemed contempt of court. The special sentence of lifetime supervision shall begin upon the offender's release from incarceration, parole, or probation. A defendant who is sentenced to lifetime supervision pursuant to this paragraph shall not be eligible for release from the lifetime supervision pursuant to RSA 632-A:10-a, V(b).

(c) Any decision by the superior court under subparagraph (a) may be reviewed by the sentence review division of the superior court at the request of the defendant or at the request of the state pursuant to RSA 651:58.

V. If authorized by subparagraph I(p) and if notice of the possible application of this section is given to the defendant prior to the commencement of trial, a person shall be sentenced to an extended term of imprisonment as follows: a minimum to be fixed by the court of not less than 35 years and a maximum of life imprisonment.

VI. A person shall be sentenced according to the terms of paragraph VII if the court finds, and includes such findings in the record, that such person:

(a) (1) Committed a violation of RSA 632-A:2, I(l), RSA 632-A:2, II, or RSA 632-A:2, III, in which one or more of the acts comprising the pattern of sexual assault was an offense under RSA 632-A:2, I(l) or RSA 632-A:2, II, or both, after having previously been convicted of an offense in violation of one of the aforementioned offenses or any other statute prohibiting the same conduct in another state, territory or possession of the United States, and

(2) The person committed the subsequent offense while released on bail on the earlier offense or the sentence for the earlier conviction involved a term of incarceration, probation, parole, or other supervised release; or

(b) (1) Committed a violation of RSA 631:1 after having previously been convicted of an offense in violation of RSA 631:1, or any other statute prohibiting the same conduct in another state, territory or possession of the United States, if the earlier offense also involved a victim under 13 years of age where the serious bodily injury resulted in brain damage or physical disability to the child that is likely to be permanent; and

(2) The person committed the subsequent offense while released on bail on the earlier offense or the sentence for the earlier conviction involved a term of incarceration, probation, parole, or other supervised release; or

(c) (1) Committed a violation of RSA 630:1-b after having previously been convicted of an offense in violation of RSA 630:1-b, or any other statute prohibiting the same conduct in another state, territory, or possession of the United States; and

(2) The person committed the subsequent offense while released on bail on the earlier offense or the sentence for the earlier conviction involved a term of incarceration, probation, parole, or other supervised release.

VII. If the court has made the findings authorized by RSA 651:6, VI, and if notice of the possible application of this section is given to the defendant prior to the commencement of trial, a person shall be sentenced to an extended term of imprisonment of life without parole.

New Jersey (view all subjects for this state)

New Jersey § 2A:4A-26.1. Filing motion seeking waiver of jurisdiction; hearing

a. A prosecutor seeking waiver of jurisdiction of a juvenile delinquency case by the Superior Court, Chancery Division, Family Part to an appropriate court and prosecuting authority without the consent of the juvenile shall file a motion within 60 days after the receipt of the complaint, which time may be extended for good cause shown. The motion shall be accompanied by a written statement of reasons clearly setting forth the facts used in assessing all factors contained in paragraph (3) of subsection c. of this section, together with an explanation as to how evaluation of those facts support waiver for each particular juvenile.

b. At a hearing, the court shall receive the evidence offered by the State and by the juvenile. The State shall provide proof to satisfy the requirements set forth in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection c. of this section. The court also shall review whether the State considered the factors set forth in paragraph (3) of subsection c. of this section.

c. Except as provided in paragraph (3) of this subsection, the court shall waive jurisdiction of a juvenile delinquency case without the juvenile's consent and shall refer the case to the appropriate court and prosecuting authority having jurisdiction if:

(1) The juvenile was 15 years of age or older at the time of the alleged delinquent act; and

(2) There is probable cause to believe that the juvenile committed a delinquent act which if committed by an adult would constitute:

(a) criminal homicide, other than death by auto;

(b) strict liability for drug-induced deaths;

(c) first degree robbery;

(d) carjacking;

(e) aggravated sexual assault;

(f) sexual assault;

(g) second degree aggravated assault;

(h) kidnapping;

(i) aggravated arson;

(j) possession of a firearm with a purpose to use it unlawfully against the person of another under subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:39-4, or possession of a firearm while committing or attempting to commit, including the immediate flight therefrom, aggravated assault, aggravated criminal sexual contact, burglary, or escape;

(k) a violation of N.J.S.2C:35-3 (Leader of a Narcotics Trafficking Network);

(l) a violation of N.J.S.2C:35-4 (Maintaining and Operating a CDS Production Facility);

(m) a violation of section 1 of P.L.1998, c.26 (C.2C:39-4.1) (Weapons Possession while Committing certain CDS Offenses);

(n) an attempt or conspiracy to commit any of the crimes enumerated in subparagraphs (a) through (m) of this paragraph; or

(o) a crime committed at a time when the juvenile previously had been sentenced and confined in an adult correctional facility.

(3) The court may deny a motion by the prosecutor to waive jurisdiction of a juvenile delinquency case if it is clearly convinced that the prosecutor abused his discretion in considering the following factors in deciding whether to seek a waiver:

(a) The nature and circumstances of the offense charged;

(b) Whether the offense was against a person or property, allocating more weight for crimes against the person;

(c) Degree of the juvenile's culpability;

(d) Age and maturity of the juvenile;

(e) Any classification that the juvenile is eligible for special education to the extent this information is provided to the prosecution by the juvenile or by the court;

(f) Degree of criminal sophistication exhibited by the juvenile;

(g) Nature and extent of any prior history of delinquency of the juvenile and dispositions imposed for those adjudications;

(h) If the juvenile previously served a custodial disposition in a State juvenile facility operated by the Juvenile Justice Commission, and the response of the juvenile to the programs provided at the facility to the extent this information is provided to the prosecution by the Juvenile Justice Commission;

(i) Current or prior involvement of the juvenile with child welfare agencies;

(j) Evidence of mental health concerns, substance abuse, or emotional instability of the juvenile to the extent this information is provided to the prosecution by the juvenile or by the court; and (k) If there is an identifiable victim, the input of the victim or victim's family.

The Attorney General may develop for dissemination to the county prosecutors those guidelines or directives deemed necessary or appropriate to ensure the uniform application of this section throughout the State.

d. An order waiving jurisdiction over a case and referring the case to the appropriate court and prosecuting authority shall specify the alleged act upon which the referral is based and all other delinquent acts charged against the juvenile arising out of or related to the same transaction.

e. Testimony of a juvenile at a hearing to determine referral under this section shall not be admissible for any purpose in any subsequent hearing to determine delinquency or guilt of any offense.

f. Upon waiver of jurisdiction and referral to the appropriate court and prosecuting authority having jurisdiction:

(1) The case shall proceed as if it originated in that court and shall be subject to the sentencing provisions available to that court; provided, however, upon conviction for any offense which is subject to waiver pursuant to paragraph (2) of subsection c. of this section, there shall be a presumption that the juvenile shall serve any custodial sentence imposed in a State juvenile facility operated by the Juvenile Justice Commission until the juvenile reaches the age of 21, except that:

(a) a juvenile who has not reached the age of 21 may, in the discretion of the Juvenile Justice Commission, be transferred to the Department of Corrections in accordance with the plan established pursuant to subsection e. of section 7 of P.L.1995, c.284 (C. 52:17B-175) and regulations adopted pursuant to that section; and

(b) a juvenile who has reached or exceeds the age of 21 may continue to serve a sentence in a State juvenile facility operated by the Juvenile Justice Commission in the discretion of the Juvenile Justice Commission and if the juvenile so consents; otherwise the juvenile shall serve the remainder of the custodial sentence in a State correctional facility;

(2) If a juvenile is not convicted of an offense set forth in paragraph (2) of subsection c. of this section, a conviction for any other offense shall be deemed a juvenile adjudication and be remanded to the Superior Court, Chancery Division, Family Part for disposition, in accordance with the dispositional options available to that court and all records related to the act of delinquency shall be subject to the provisions of section 1 of P.L.1982, c.79 (C.2A:4A-60);

(3) With the consent of the defense and the prosecutor, at any point in the proceedings subsequent to the decision ordering waiver the court may remand to the Superior Court, Chancery Division, Family Part if it appears that:

(a) the interests of the public and the best interests of the juvenile require access to programs or procedures uniquely available to that court; and

(b) the interests of the public are no longer served by waiver.

g. (1) The Juvenile Justice Commission, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall establish a program to collect, record, and analyze data regarding waiver of jurisdiction of a juvenile delinquency case by the Superior Court, Chancery Division, Family Part to an appropriate court and prosecuting authority. In furtherance of this program, the Juvenile Justice Commission shall in cooperation with the Administrative Office of the Courts, Attorney General, and county prosecutors, collect data related to the decision to seek waiver of jurisdiction of a juvenile delinquency case, which shall include but not be limited to data concerning:

(a) youth demographics, including age, gender, race, and ethnicity;

(b) case characteristics, including the degree of the offense waived, the degree of the offense convicted, and the final court resolution;

(c) case processing times; and

(d) waiver rates by race and ethnicity.

(2) The commission shall prepare and publish on its Internet website biennial reports summarizing the data collected, recorded, and analyzed pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(3) The commission shall, pursuant to section 2 of P.L. 1991, c.164 (C.52:14-19.1), biennially prepare and transmit to the Governor and the Legislature the reports required in paragraph (2) of this subsection, along with any recommendations the commission may have for legislation concerning waiver of jurisdiction of juvenile delinquency cases.

New Jersey § 2C:33-29. Crime of gang criminality; "criminal street gang" defined; grading of offense

a. A person is guilty of the crime of gang criminality if, while knowingly involved in criminal street gang activity, he commits, attempts to commit, or conspires to commit, whether as a principal or an accomplice, any crime specified in chapters 11 through 18, 20, 33, 35 or 37 of Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes; N.J.S.2C:34-1; N.J.S.2C:39-3; N.J.S.2C:39-4; section 1 of P.L.1998, c.26 (C.2C:39-4.1); N.J.S.2C:39-9. A crime is committed while involved in a criminal street gang related activity if the crime was committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with a criminal street gang.

"Criminal street gang" means three or more persons associated in fact. Individuals are associated in fact if: (1) two of the following seven criteria that indicate criminal street gang membership apply: (a) self-proclamation; (b) witness testimony or official statement; (c) written or electronic correspondence; (d) paraphernalia or photographs; (e) tattoos; (f) clothing or colors; (g) any other indicia of street gang activity; and (2) individually or in combination with other members of a criminal street gang, while engaging in gang related activity, have committed or conspired or attempted to commit, within the preceding five years from the date of the present offense, excluding any period of imprisonment, one or more offenses on separate occasions of robbery, carjacking, aggravated assault, assault, aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault, arson, burglary, kidnapping, extortion, tampering with witnesses and informants or a violation of chapter 11, section 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 of chapter 35 or chapter 39 of Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes.

b. Grading. Gang criminality is a crime of one degree higher than the most serious underlying crime referred to in subsection a. of this section, except that where the underlying crime is a crime of the first degree, gang criminality is a first degree crime and the defendant, upon conviction, and notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:43-6, shall be sentenced to an ordinary term of imprisonment between 15 and 30 years. A sentence imposed upon conviction of the crime of gang criminality shall be ordered to be served consecutively to the sentence imposed upon conviction of any underlying offense referred to in subsection a. of this section.

New York (view all subjects for this state)

New York Penal § 70.02. Sentence of imprisonment for a violent felony offense

1. Definition of a violent felony offense. A violent felony offense is a class B violent felony offense, a class C violent felony offense, a class D violent felony offense, or a class E violent felony offense, defined as follows:

(a) Class B violent felony offenses: an attempt to commit the class A-I felonies of murder in the second degree as defined in section 125.25, kidnapping in the first degree as defined in section 135.25, and arson in the first degree as defined in section 150.20; manslaughter in the first degree as defined in section 125.20, aggravated manslaughter in the first degree as defined in section 125.22, rape in the first degree as defined in section 130.35, criminal sexual act in the first degree as defined in section 130.50, aggravated sexual abuse in the first degree as defined in section 130.70, course of sexual conduct against a child in the first degree as defined in section 130.75; assault in the first degree as defined in section 120.10, kidnapping in the second degree as defined in section 135.20, burglary in the first degree as defined in section 140.30, arson in the second degree as defined in section 150.15, robbery in the first degree as defined in section 160.15, sex trafficking as defined in paragraphs (a) and (b) of subdivision five of section 230.34, incest in the first degree as defined in section 255.27, criminal possession of a weapon in the first degree as defined in section 265.04, criminal use of a firearm in the first degree as defined in section 265.09, criminal sale of a firearm in the first degree as defined in section 265.13, aggravated assault upon a police officer or a peace officer as defined in section 120.11, gang assault in the first degree as defined in section 120.07, intimidating a victim or witness in the first degree as defined in section 215.17, hindering prosecution of terrorism in the first degree as defined in section 490.35, criminal possession of a chemical weapon or biological weapon in the second degree as defined in section 490.40, and criminal use of a chemical weapon or biological weapon in the third degree as defined in section 490.47.

(b) Class C violent felony offenses: an attempt to commit any of the class B felonies set forth in paragraph (a) of this subdivision; aggravated criminally negligent homicide as defined in section 125.11, aggravated manslaughter in the second degree as defined in section 125.21, aggravated sexual abuse in the second degree as defined in section 130.67, assault on a peace officer, police officer, fireman or emergency medical services professional as defined in section 120.08, assault on a judge as defined in section 120.09, gang assault in the second degree as defined in section 120.06, strangulation in the first degree as defined in section 121.13, burglary in the second degree as defined in section 140.25, robbery in the second degree as defined in section 160.10, criminal possession of a weapon in the second degree as defined in section 265.03, criminal use of a firearm in the second degree as defined in section 265.08, criminal sale of a firearm in the second degree as defined in section 265.12, criminal sale of a firearm with the aid of a minor as defined in section 265.14, aggravated criminal possession of a weapon as defined in section 265.19, soliciting or providing support for an act of terrorism in the first degree as defined in section 490.15, hindering prosecution of terrorism in the second degree as defined in section 490.30, and criminal possession of a chemical weapon or biological weapon in the third degree as defined in section 490.37.

(c) Class D violent felony offenses: an attempt to commit any of the class C felonies set forth in paragraph (b); reckless assault of a child as defined in section 120.02, assault in the second degree as defined in section 120.05, menacing a police officer or peace officer as defined in section 120.18, stalking in the first degree, as defined in subdivision one of section 120.60, strangulation in the second degree as defined in section 121.12, rape in the second degree as defined in section 130.30, criminal sexual act in the second degree as defined in section 130.45, sexual abuse in the first degree as defined in section 130.65, course of sexual conduct against a child in the second degree as defined in section 130.80, aggravated sexual abuse in the third degree as defined in section 130.66, facilitating a sex offense with a controlled substance as defined in section 130.90, labor trafficking as defined in paragraphs (a) and (b) of subdivision three of section 135.35, criminal possession of a weapon in the third degree as defined in subdivision five, six, seven, eight, nine or ten of section 265.02, criminal sale of a firearm in the third degree as defined in section 265.11, intimidating a victim or witness in the second degree as defined in section 215.16, soliciting or providing support for an act of terrorism in the second degree as defined in section 490.10, and making a terroristic threat as defined in section 490.20, falsely reporting an incident in the first degree as defined in section 240.60, placing a false bomb or hazardous substance in the first degree as defined in section 240.62, placing a false bomb or hazardous substance in a sports stadium or arena, mass transportation facility or enclosed shopping mall as defined in section 240.63, and aggravated unpermitted use of indoor pyrotechnics in the first degree as defined in section 405.18.

(d) Class E violent felony offenses: an attempt to commit any of the felonies of criminal possession of a weapon in the third degree as defined in subdivision five, six, seven or eight of section 265.02 as a lesser included offense of that section as defined in section 220.20 of the criminal procedure law, persistent sexual abuse as defined in section 130.53, aggravated sexual abuse in the fourth degree as defined in section 130.65-a, falsely reporting an incident in the second degree as defined in section 240.55 and placing a false bomb or hazardous substance in the second degree as defined in section 240.61.

2. Authorized sentence.

(a) [Expires Sept 1, 2017] Except as provided in subdivision six of section 60.05, the sentence imposed upon a person who stands convicted of a class B or class C violent felony offense must be a determinate sentence of imprisonment which shall be in whole or half years. The term of such sentence must be in accordance with the provisions of subdivision three of this section.

(a) [Eff Sept 1, 2017] The sentence imposed upon a person who stands convicted of a class B or class C violent felony offense must be an indeterminate sentence of imprisonment. Except as provided in subdivision five of section 60.05, the maximum term of such sentence must be in accordance with the provisions of subdivision three of this section and the minimum period of imprisonment under such sentence must be in accordance with subdivision four of this section.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (b-1) of this subdivision, subdivision six of section 60.05 and subdivision four of this section, the sentence imposed upon a person who stands convicted of a class D violent felony offense, other than the offense of criminal possession of a weapon in the third degree as defined in subdivision five, seven or eight of section 265.02 or criminal sale of a firearm in the third degree as defined in section 265.11, must be in accordance with the applicable provisions of this chapter relating to sentencing for class D felonies provided, however, that where a sentence of imprisonment is imposed which requires a commitment to the state department of corrections and community supervision, such sentence shall be adeterminate sentence in accordance with paragraph (c) of subdivision three of this section.

(b-1) Except as provided in subdivision six of section 60.05, the sentence imposed upon a person who stands convicted of the class D violent felony offense of menacing a police officer or peace officer as defined in section 120.18 of this chapter must be a determinate sentence of imprisonment.

(c) Except as provided in subdivision six of section 60.05, the sentence imposed upon a person who stands convicted of the class D violent felony offenses of criminal possession of a weapon in the third degree as defined in subdivision five, seven, eight or nine of section 265.02, criminal sale of a firearm in the third degree as defined in section 265.11 or the class E violent felonies of attempted criminal possession of a weapon in the third degree as defined in subdivision five, seven, eight or nine of section 265.02 must be a sentence to a determinate period of imprisonment, or, in the alternative, a definite sentence of imprisonment for a period of no less than one year, except that:

(i) the court may impose any other sentence authorized by law upon a person who has not been previously convicted in the five years immediately preceding the commission of the offense for a class A misdemeanor defined in this chapter, if the court having regard to the nature and circumstances of the crime and to the history and character of the defendant, finds on the record that such sentence would be unduly harsh and that the alternative sentence would be consistent with public safety and does not deprecate the seriousness of the crime; and

(ii) the court may apply the provisions of paragraphs (b) and (c) of subdivision four of this section when imposing a sentence upon a person who has previously been convicted of a class A misdemeanor defined in this chapter in the five years immediately preceding the commission of the offense.

3. Term of sentence. The term of a determinate sentence for a violent felony offense must be fixed by the court as follows:

(a) For a class B felony, the term must be at least five years and must not exceed twenty-five years, provided, however, that the term must be: (i) at least ten years and must not exceed thirty years where the sentence is for the crime of aggravated assault upon a police officer or peace officer as defined in section 120.11 of this chapter; and (ii) at least ten years and must not exceed thirty years where the sentence is for the crime of aggravated manslaughter in the first degree as defined in section 125.22 of this chapter;

(b) For a class C felony, the term must be at least three and onehalf years and must not exceed fifteen years, provided, however, that the term must be: (i) at least seven years and must not exceed twenty years where the sentence is for the crime of aggravated manslaughter in the second degree as defined in section 125.21 of this chapter; (ii) at least seven years and must not exceed twenty years where the sentence is for the crime of attempted aggravated assault upon a police officer or peace officer as defined in section 120.11 of this chapter; (iii) at least three and one-half years and must not exceed twenty years where the sentence is for the crime of aggravated criminally negligent homicide as defined in section 125.11 of this chapter; and (iv) at least five years and must not exceed fifteen years where the sentence is imposed for the crime of aggravated criminal possession of a weapon as defined in section 265.19 of this chapter;

(c) For a class D felony, the term must be at least two years and must not exceed seven years, provided, however, that the term must be: (i) at least two years and must not exceed eight years where the sentence is for the crime of menacing a police officer or peace officer as defined in section 120.18 of this chapter; and (ii) at least three and one-half years and must not exceed seven years where the sentence is imposed for the crime of criminal possession of a weapon in the third degree as defined in subdivision ten of section 265.02 of this chapter;

(d) For a class E felony, the term must be at least one and one-half years and must not exceed four years.

4. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subdivision, where a plea of guilty to a class D violent felony offense is entered pursuant to section 220.10 or 220.30 of the criminal procedure law in satisfaction of an indictment charging the defendant with an armed felony, as defined in subdivision forty-one of section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law, the court must impose a determinate sentence of imprisonment.

(b) In any case in which the provisions of paragraph (a) of this subdivision or the provisions of subparagraph (ii) of paragraph (c) of subdivision two of this section apply, the court may impose a sentence other than a determinate sentence of imprisonment, or a definite sentence of imprisonment for a period of no less than one year, if it finds that the alternate sentence is consistent with public safety and does not deprecate the seriousness of the crime and that one or more of the following factors exist:

(i) mitigating circumstances that bear directly upon the manner in which the crime was committed; or

(ii) where the defendant was not the sole participant in the crime, the defendant's participation was relatively minor although not so minor as to constitute a defense to the prosecution; or

(iii) possible deficiencies in proof of the defendant's commission of an armed felony.

(c) The defendant and the district attorney shall have an opportunity to present relevant information to assist the court in making a determination pursuant to paragraph (b) of this subdivision, and the court may, in its discretion, conduct a hearing with respect to any issue bearing upon such determination. If the court determines that a determinate sentence of imprisonment should not be imposed pursuant to the provisions of such paragraph (b), it shall make a statement on the record of the facts and circumstances upon which such determination is based. A transcript of the court's statement, which shall set forth the recommendation of the district attorney, shall be forwarded to the state division of criminal justice services along with a copy of the accusatory instrument.

North Carolina (view all subjects for this state)

North Carolina § 14-50.22. Enhanced Offense for Criminal Gang Activity

A person age 15 or older who is convicted of a misdemeanor offense that is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, any criminal street gang is guilty of an offense that is one class higher than the offense committed. A Class A1 misdemeanor shall be enhanced to a Class I felony under this section.

North Carolina § 15A-1340.16. Aggravated and Mitigated Sentences

(a) Generally, Burden of Proof. -- The court shall consider evidence of aggravating or mitigating factors present in the offense that make an aggravated or mitigated sentence appropriate, but the decision to depart from the presumptive range is in the discretion of the court. The State bears the burden of proving beyond a reasonable doubt that an aggravating factor exists, and the offender bears the burden of proving by a preponderance of the evidence that a mitigating factor exists.

(a1) Jury to Determine Aggravating Factors; Jury Procedure if Trial Bifurcated. -- The defendant may admit to the existence of an aggravating factor, and the factor so admitted shall be treated as though it were found by a jury pursuant to the procedures in this subsection. Admissions of the existence of an aggravating factor must be consistent with the provisions of G.S. 15A-1022.1. If the defendant does not so admit, only a jury may determine if an aggravating factor is present in an offense. The jury impaneled for the trial of the felony may, in the same trial, also determine if one or more aggravating factors is present, unless the court determines that the interests of justice require that a separate sentencing proceeding be used to make that determination. If the court determines that a separate proceeding is required, the proceeding shall be conducted by the trial judge before the trial jury as soon as practicable after the guilty verdict is returned. If prior to the time that the trial jury begins its deliberations on the issue of whether one or more aggravating factors exist, any juror dies, becomes incapacitated or disqualified, or is discharged for any reason, an alternate juror shall become a part of the jury and serve in all respects as those selected on the regular trial panel. An alternate juror shall become a part of the jury in the order in which the juror was selected. If the trial jury is unable to reconvene for a hearing on the issue of whether one or more aggravating factors exist after having determined the guilt of the accused, the trial judge shall impanel a new jury to determine the issue. A jury selected to determine whether one or more aggravating factors exist shall be selected in the same manner as juries are selected for the trial of criminal cases.

(a2) Procedure if Defendant Admits Aggravating Factor Only. -- If the defendant admits that an aggravating factor exists, but pleads not guilty to the underlying felony, a jury shall be impaneled to dispose of the felony charge. In that case, evidence that relates solely to the establishment of an aggravating factor shall not be admitted in the felony trial.

(a3) Procedure if Defendant Pleads Guilty to the Felony Only. -- If the defendant pleads guilty to the felony, but contests the existence of one or more aggravating factors, a jury shall be impaneled to determine if the aggravating factor or factors exist.

(a4) Pleading of Aggravating Factors. -- Aggravating factors set forth in subsection (d) of this section need not be included in an indictment or other charging instrument. Any aggravating factor alleged under subdivision (d)(20) of this section shall be included in an indictment or other charging instrument, as specified in G.S. 15A-924.

(a5) Procedure to Determine Prior Record Level Points Not Involving Prior Convictions. -- If the State seeks to establish the existence of a prior record level point under G.S. 15A-1340.14(b)(7), the jury shall determine whether the point should be assessed using the procedures specified in subsections (a1) through (a3) of this section. The State need not allege in an indictment or other pleading that it intends to establish the point.

(a6) Notice of Intent to Use Aggravating Factors or Prior Record Level Points. -- The State must provide a defendant with written notice of its intent to prove the existence of one or more aggravating factors under subsection (d) of this section or a prior record level point under G.S. 15A-1340.14(b)(7) at least 30 days before trial or the entry of a guilty or no contest plea. A defendant may waive the right to receive such notice. The notice shall list all the aggravating factors the State seeks to establish.

(a7) Procedure When Jury Trial Waived. -- If a defendant waives the right to a jury trial under G.S. 15A-1201, the trial judge shall make all findings that are conferred upon the jury under the provisions of this section.

(b) When Aggravated or Mitigated Sentence Allowed. -- If the jury, or with respect to an aggravating factor under G.S. 15A-1340.16(d)(12a) or (18a), the court, finds that aggravating factors exist or the court finds that mitigating factors exist, the court may depart from the presumptive range of sentences specified in G.S. 15A-1340.17(c)(2). If aggravating factors are present and the court determines they are sufficient to outweigh any mitigating factors that are present, it may impose a sentence that is permitted by the aggravated range described in G.S. 15A-1340.17(c)(4). If the court finds that mitigating factors are present and are sufficient to outweigh any aggravating factors that are present, it may impose a sentence that is permitted by the mitigated range described in G.S. 15A-1340.17(c)(3).

(c) Written Findings; When Required. -- The court shall make findings of the aggravating and mitigating factors present in the offense only if, in its discretion, it departs from the presumptive range of sentences specified in G.S. 15A-1340.17(c)(2). If the jury finds factors in aggravation, the court shall ensure that those findings are entered in the court's determination of sentencing factors form or any comparable document used to record the findings of sentencing factors. Findings shall be in writing. The requirement to make findings in order to depart from the presumptive range applies regardless of whether the sentence of imprisonment is activated or suspended.

(d) Aggravating Factors. -- The following are aggravating factors:

(1) The defendant induced others to participate in the commission of the offense or occupied a position of leadership or dominance of other participants.

(2) The defendant joined with more than one other person in committing the offense and was not charged with committing a conspiracy.

(2a) The offense was committed for the benefit of, or at the direction of, any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by gang members, and the defendant was not charged with committing a conspiracy. A "criminal street gang" means any ongoing organization, association, or group of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, having as one of its primary activities the commission of felony or violent misdemeanor offenses, or delinquent acts that would be felonies or violent misdemeanors if committed by an adult, and having a common name or common identifying sign, colors, or symbols.

(3) The offense was committed for the purpose of avoiding or preventing a lawful arrest or effecting an escape from custody.

(4) The defendant was hired or paid to commit the offense.

(5) The offense was committed to disrupt or hinder the lawful exercise of any governmental function or the enforcement of laws.

(6) The offense was committed against or proximately caused serious injury to a present or former law enforcement officer, employee of the Division of Adult Correction of the Department of Public Safety, jailer, fireman, emergency medical technician, ambulance attendant, social worker, justice or judge, clerk or assistant or deputy clerk of court, magistrate, prosecutor, juror, or witness against the defendant, while engaged in the performance of that person's official duties or because of the exercise of that person's official duties.

(6a) The offense was committed against or proximately caused serious harm as defined in G.S. 14-163.1 or death to a law enforcement agency animal, an assistance animal, or a search and rescue animal as defined in G.S. 14-163.1, while engaged in the performance of the animal's official duties.

(7) The offense was especially heinous, atrocious, or cruel.

(8) The defendant knowingly created a great risk of death to more than one person by means of a weapon or device which would normally be hazardous to the lives of more than one person.

(9) The defendant held public elected or appointed office or public employment at the time of the offense and the offense directly related to the conduct of the office or employment.

(9a) The defendant is a firefighter or rescue squad worker, and the offense is directly related to service as a firefighter or rescue squad worker.

(10) The defendant was armed with or used a deadly weapon at the time of the crime.

(11) The victim was very young, or very old, or mentally or physically infirm, or handicapped.

(12) The defendant committed the offense while on pretrial release on another charge.

(12a) The defendant has, during the 10-year period prior to the commission of the offense for which the defendant is being sentenced, been found by a court of this State to be in willful violation of the conditions of probation imposed pursuant to a suspended sentence or been found by the Post-Release Supervision and Parole Commission to be in willful violation of a condition of parole or post-release supervision imposed pursuant to release from incarceration.

(13) The defendant involved a person under the age of 16 in the commission of the crime.

(13a) The defendant committed an offense and knew or reasonably should have known that a person under the age of 18 who was not involved in the commission of the offense was in a position to see or hear the offense.

(14) The offense involved an attempted or actual taking of property of great monetary value or damage causing great monetary loss, or the offense involved an unusually large quantity of contraband.

(15) The defendant took advantage of a position of trust or confidence, including a domestic relationship, to commit the offense.

(16) The offense involved the sale or delivery of a controlled substance to a minor.

(16a) The offense is the manufacture of methamphetamine and was committed where a person under the age of 18 lives, was present, or was otherwise endangered by exposure to the drug, its ingredients, its by-products, or its waste.

(16b) The offense is the manufacture of methamphetamine and was committed in a dwelling that is one of four or more contiguous dwellings.

(17) The offense for which the defendant stands convicted was committed against a victim because of the victim's race, color, religion, nationality, or country of origin.

(18) The defendant does not support the defendant's family.

(18a) The defendant has previously been adjudicated delinquent for an offense that would be a Class A, B1, B2, C, D, or E felony if committed by an adult.

(19) The serious injury inflicted upon the victim is permanent and debilitating.

(19a) The offense is a violation of G.S. 14-43.11 (human trafficking), G.S. 14-43.12 (involuntary servitude), or G.S. 14-43.13 (sexual servitude) and involved multiple victims.

(19b) The offense is a violation of G.S. 14-43.11 (human trafficking), G.S. 14-43.12 (involuntary servitude), or G.S. 14-43.13 (sexual servitude), and the victim suffered serious injury as a result of the offense.

(20) Any other aggravating factor reasonably related to the purposes of sentencing. Evidence necessary to prove an element of the offense shall not be used to prove any factor in aggravation, and the same item of evidence shall not be used to prove more than one factor in aggravation. Evidence necessary to establish that an enhanced sentence is required under G.S. 15A-1340.16A may not be used to prove any factor in aggravation. The judge shall not consider as an aggravating factor the fact that the defendant exercised the right to a jury trial. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a1) of this section, the determination that an aggravating factor under G.S. 15A-1340.16(d)(18a) is present in a case shall be made by the court, and not by the jury. That determination shall be made in the sentencing hearing.

(e) Mitigating Factors. -- The following are mitigating factors:

(1) The defendant committed the offense under duress, coercion, threat, or compulsion that was insufficient to constitute a defense but significantly reduced the defendant's culpability.

(2) The defendant was a passive participant or played a minor role in the commission of the offense.

(3) The defendant was suffering from a mental or physical condition that was insufficient to constitute a defense but significantly reduced the defendant's culpability for the offense.

(4) The defendant's age, immaturity, or limited mental capacity at the time of commission of the offense significantly reduced the defendant's culpability for the offense.

(5) The defendant has made substantial or full restitution to the victim.

(6) The victim was more than 16 years of age and was a voluntary participant in the defendant's conduct or consented to it.

(7) The defendant aided in the apprehension of another felon or testified truthfully on behalf of the prosecution in another prosecution of a felony.

(8) The defendant acted under strong provocation, or the relationship between the defendant and the victim was otherwise extenuating.

(9) The defendant could not reasonably foresee that the defendant's conduct would cause or threaten serious bodily harm or fear, or the defendant exercised caution to avoid such consequences.

(10) The defendant reasonably believed that the defendant's conduct was legal.

(11) Prior to arrest or at an early stage of the criminal process, the defendant voluntarily acknowledged wrongdoing in connection with the
offense to a law enforcement officer.

(12) The defendant has been a person of good character or has had a good reputation in the community in which the defendant lives.

(13) The defendant is a minor and has reliable supervision available.

(14) The defendant has been honorably discharged from the Armed Forces of the United States.

(15) The defendant has accepted responsibility for the defendant's criminal conduct.

(16) The defendant has entered and is currently involved in or has successfully completed a drug treatment program or an alcohol treatment program subsequent to arrest and prior to trial.

(17) The defendant supports the defendant's family.

(18) The defendant has a support system in the community.

(19) The defendant has a positive employment history or is gainfully employed.

(20) The defendant has a good treatment prognosis, and a workable treatment plan is available.

(21) Any other mitigating factor reasonably related to the purposes of sentences.

(f) Notice to State Treasurer of Finding. -- If the court determines that an aggravating factor under subdivision (9) of subsection (d) of this section has been proven, the court shall notify the State Treasurer of the fact of the conviction as well as the finding of the aggravating factor. The indictment charging the defendant with the underlying offense must include notice that the State seeks to prove the defendant acted in accordance with subdivision (9) of subsection (d) of this section and that the State will seek to prove that as an aggravating factor.

North Dakota (view all subjects for this state)

North Dakota § 12.1-06.2-02. Criminal Street Gang Crime—Penalty.

Any person who commits a felony or class A misdemeanor crime of violence or crime of pecuniary gain for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the intent to promote, further, or assist in the affairs of a criminal gang, or obtain membership into a criminal gang, is guilty of a class C felony.

Ohio (view all subjects for this state)

Ohio § 2929.14. Basic Prison terms

(A) Except as provided in division (B)(1), (B)(2), (B)(3), (B)(4), (B)(5), (B)(6), (B)(7), (B)(8), (E), (G), (H), (J), or (K) of this section or in division (D)(6) of section 2919.25 of the Revised Code and except in relation to an offense for which a sentence of death or life imprisonment is to be imposed, if the court imposing a sentence upon an offender for a felony elects or is required to impose a prison term on the offender pursuant to this chapter, the court shall impose a definite prison term that shall be one of the following:

(1) For a felony of the first degree, the prison term shall be three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, or eleven years.

(2) For a felony of the second degree, the prison term shall be two, three, four, five, six, seven, or eight years.

(3) (a) For a felony of the third degree that is a violation of section 2903.06, 2903.08, 2907.03, 2907.04, or 2907.05 of the Revised Code or that is a violation of section 2911.02 or 2911.12 of the Revised Code if the offender previously has been convicted of or pleaded guilty in two or more separate proceedings to two or more violations of section 2911.01, 2911.02, 2911.11, or 2911.12 of the Revised Code, the prison term shall be twelve, eighteen, twenty-four, thirty, thirty-six, forty-two, forty-eight, fifty-four, or sixty months.

(b) For a felony of the third degree that is not an offense for which division (A)(3)(a) of this section applies, the prison term shall be nine, twelve, eighteen, twenty-four, thirty, or thirty-six months.

(4) For a felony of the fourth degree, the prison term shall be six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, or eighteen months.

(5) For a felony of the fifth degree, the prison term shall be six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, or twelve months.

(B) (1) (a) Except as provided in division (B)(1)(e) of this section, if an offender who is convicted of or pleads guilty to a felony also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.141, 2941.144, or 2941.145 of the Revised Code, the court shall impose on the offender one of the following prison terms:

(i) A prison term of six years if the specification is of the type described in division (A) of section 2941.144 of the Revised Code that charges the offender with having a firearm that is an automatic firearm or that was equipped with a firearm muffler or suppressor on or about the offender's person or under the offender's control while committing the offense;

(ii) A prison term of three years if the specification is of the type described in division (A) of section 2941.145 of the Revised Code that charges the offender with having a firearm on or about the offender's person or under the offender's control while committing the offense and displaying the firearm, brandishing the firearm, indicating that the offender possessed the firearm, or using it to facilitate the offense;

(iii) A prison term of one year if the specification is of the type described in division (A) of section 2941.141 of the Revised Code that charges the offender with having a firearm on or about the offender's person or under the offender's control while committing the offense;

(iv) A prison term of nine years if the specification is of the type described in division (D) of section 2941.144 of the Revised Code that charges the offender with having a firearm that is an automatic firearm or that was equipped with a firearm muffler or suppressor on or about the offender's person or under the offender's control while committing the offense and specifies that the offender previously has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.141, 2941.144, 2941.145, 2941.146, or 2941.1412 of the Revised Code;

(v) A prison term of fifty-four months if the specification is of the type described in division (D) of section 2941.145 of the Revised Code that charges the offender with having a firearm on or about the offender's person or under the offender's control while committing the offense and displaying the firearm, brandishing the firearm, indicating that the offender possessed the firearm, or using the firearm to facilitate the offense and that the offender previously has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.141, 2941.144, 2941.145, 2941.146, or 2941.1412 of the Revised Code;

(vi) A prison term of eighteen months if the specification is of the type described in division (D) of section 2941.141 of the Revised Code that charges the offender with having a firearm on or about the offender's person or under the offender's control while committing the offense and that the offender previously has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.141, 2941.144, 2941.145, 2941.146, or 2941.1412 of the Revised Code.

(b) If a court imposes a prison term on an offender under division (B)(1)(a) of this section, the prison term shall not be reduced pursuant to section 2967.19, section 2929.20, section 2967.193, or any other provision of Chapter 2967. or Chapter 5120. of the Revised Code. Except as provided in division (B)(1)(g) of this section, a court shall not impose more than one prison term on an offender under division (B)(1)(a) of this section for felonies committed as part of the same act or transaction.

(c) (i) Except as provided in division (B)(1)(e) of this section, if an offender who is convicted of or pleads guilty to a violation of section 2923.161 of the Revised Code or to a felony that includes, as an essential element, purposely or knowingly causing or attempting to cause the death of or physical harm to another, also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in division (A) of section 2941.146 of the Revised Code that charges the offender with committing the offense by discharging a firearm from a motor vehicle other than a manufactured home, the court, after imposing a prison term on the offender for the violation of section 2923.161 of the Revised Code or for the other felony offense under division (A), (B)(2), or (B)(3) of this section, shall impose an additional prison term of five years upon the offender that shall not be reduced pursuant to section 2929.20, section 2967.19, section 2967.193, or any other provision of Chapter 2967. or Chapter 5120. of the Revised Code.

(ii) Except as provided in division (B)(1)(e) of this section, if an offender who is convicted of or pleads guilty to a violation of section 2923.161 of the Revised Code or to a felony that includes, as an essential element, purposely or knowingly causing or attempting to cause the death of or physical harm to another, also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in division (C) of section 2941.146 of the Revised Code that charges the offender with committing the offense by discharging a firearm from a motor vehicle other than a manufactured home and that the offender previously has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.141, 2941.144, 2941.145, 2941.146, or 2941.1412 of the Revised Code, the court, after imposing a prison term on the offender for the violation of section 2923.161 of the Revised Code or for the other felony offense under division (A), (B)(2), or (3) of this section, shall impose an additional prison term of ninety months upon the offender that shall not be reduced pursuant to section 2929.20, 2967.19, 2967.193, or any other provision of Chapter 2967. or Chapter 5120. of the Revised Code.

(iii) A court shall not impose more than one additional prison term on an offender under division (B)(1)(c) of this section for felonies committed as part of the same act or transaction. If a court imposes an additional prison term on an offender under division (B)(1)(c) of this section relative to an offense, the court also shall impose a prison term under division (B)(1)(a) of this section relative to the same offense, provided the criteria specified in that division for imposing an additional prison term are satisfied relative to the offender and the offense.

(d) If an offender who is convicted of or pleads guilty to an offense of violence that is a felony also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.1411 of the Revised Code that charges the offender with wearing or carrying body armor while committing the felony offense of violence, the court shall impose on the offender a prison term of two years. The prison term so imposed, subject to divisions (C) to (I) of section 2967.19 of the Revised Code, shall not be reduced pursuant to section 2929.20, section 2967.19, section 2967.193, or any other provision of Chapter 2967. or Chapter 5120. of the Revised Code. A court shall not impose more than one prison term on an offender under division (B)(1)(d) of this section for felonies committed as part of the same act or transaction. If a court imposes an additional prison term under division (B)(1)(a) or (c) of this section, the court is not precluded from imposing an additional prison term under division (B)(1)(d) of this section.

(e) The court shall not impose any of the prison terms described in division (B)(1)(a) of this section or any of the additional prison terms described in division (B)(1)(c) of this section upon an offender for a violation of section 2923.12 or 2923.123 of the Revised Code. The court shall not impose any of the prison terms described in division (B)(1)(a) or (b) of this section upon an offender for a violation of section 2923.122 that involves a deadly weapon that is a firearm other than a dangerous ordnance, section 2923.16, or section 2923.121 of the Revised Code. The court shall not impose any of the prison terms described in division (B)(1)(a) of this section or any of the additional prison terms described in division (B)(1)(c) of this section upon an offender for a violation of section 2923.13 of the Revised Code unless all of the following apply:

(i) The offender previously has been convicted of aggravated murder, murder, or any felony of the first or second degree.

(ii) Less than five years have passed since the offender was released from prison or post-release control, whichever is later, for the prior offense.

(f) (i) If an offender is convicted of or pleads guilty to a felony that includes, as an essential element, causing or attempting to cause the death of or physical harm to another and also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in division (A) of section 2941.1412 of the Revised Code that charges the offender with committing the offense by discharging a firearm at a peace officer as defined in section 2935.01 of the Revised Code or a corrections officer, as defined in section 2941.1412 of the Revised Code, the court, after imposing a prison term on the offender for the felony offense under division (A), (B)(2), or (B)(3) of this section, shall impose an additional prison term of seven years upon the offender that shall not be reduced pursuant to section 2929.20, section 2967.19, section 2967.193, or any other provision of Chapter 2967. or Chapter 5120. of the Revised Code.

(ii) If an offender is convicted of or pleads guilty to a felony that includes, as an essential element, causing or attempting to cause the death of or physical harm to another and also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in division (B) of section 2941.1412 of the Revised Code that charges the offender with committing the offense by discharging a firearm at a peace officer, as defined in section 2935.01 of the Revised Code, or a corrections officer, as defined in section 2941.1412 of the Revised Code, and that the offender previously has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.141, 2941.144, 2941.145, 2941.146, or 2941.1412 of the Revised Code, the court, after imposing a prison term on the offender for the felony offense under division (A), (B)(2), or (3) of this section, shall impose an additional prison term of one hundred twenty-six months upon the offender that shall not be reduced pursuant to section 2929.20, 2967.19, 2967.193, or any other provision of Chapter 2967. or 5120. of the Revised Code.

(iii) If an offender is convicted of or pleads guilty to two or more felonies that include, as an essential element, causing or attempting to cause the death or physical harm to another and also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described under division (B)(1)(f) of this section in connection with two or more of the felonies of which the offender is convicted or to which the offender pleads guilty, the sentencing court shall impose on the offender the prison term specified under division (B)(1)(f) of this section for each of two of the specifications of which the offender is convicted or to which the offender pleads guilty and, in its discretion, also may impose on the offender the prison term specified under that division for any or all of the remaining specifications. If a court imposes an additional prison term on an offender under division (B)(1) (f) of this section relative to an offense, the court shall not impose a prison term under division (B)(1)(a) or (c) of this section relative to the same offense.

(g) If an offender is convicted of or pleads guilty to two or more felonies, if one or more of those felonies are aggravated murder, murder, attempted aggravated murder, attempted murder, aggravated robbery, felonious assault, or rape, and if the offender is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described under division (B)(1)(a) of this section in connection with two or more of the felonies, the sentencing court shall impose on the offender the prison term specified under division (B)(1)(a) of this section for each of the two most serious specifications of which the offender is convicted or to which the offender pleads guilty and, in its discretion, also may impose on the offender the prison term specified under that division for any or all of the remaining specifications.

(2) (a) If division (B)(2)(b) of this section does not apply, the court may impose on an offender, in addition to the longest prison term authorized or required for the offense, an additional definite prison term of one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten years if all of the following criteria are met:

(i) The offender is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.149 of the Revised Code that the offender is a repeat violent offender.

(ii) The offense of which the offender currently is convicted or to which the offender currently pleads guilty is aggravated murder and the court does not impose a sentence of death or life imprisonment without parole, murder, terrorism and the court does not impose a sentence of life imprisonment without parole, any felony of the first degree that is an offense of violence and the court does not impose a sentence of life imprisonment without parole, or any felony of the second degree that is an offense of violence and the trier of fact finds that the offense involved an attempt to cause or a threat to cause serious physical harm to a person or resulted in serious physical harm to a person.

(iii) The court imposes the longest prison term for the offense that is not life imprisonment without parole.

(iv) The court finds that the prison terms imposed pursuant to division (B)(2)(a)(iii) of this section and, if applicable, division (B) (1) or (3) of this section are inadequate to punish the offender and protect the public from future crime, because the applicable factors under section 2929.12 of the Revised Code indicating a greater likelihood of recidivism outweigh the applicable factors under that section indicating a lesser likelihood of recidivism.

(v) The court finds that the prison terms imposed pursuant to division (B)(2)(a)(iii) of this section and, if applicable, division (B)(1) or (3) of this section are demeaning to the seriousness of the offense, because one or more of the factors under section 2929.12 of the Revised Code indicating that the offender's conduct is more serious than conduct normally constituting the offense are present, and they outweigh the applicable factors under that section indicating that the offender's conduct is less serious than conduct normally constituting the offense.

(b) The court shall impose on an offender the longest prison term authorized or required for the offense and shall impose on the offender an additional definite prison term of one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten years if all of the following criteria are met:

(i) The offender is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.149 of the Revised Code that the offender is a repeat violent offender.

(ii) The offender within the preceding twenty years has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to three or more offenses described in division (CC)(1) of section 2929.01 of the Revised Code, including all offenses described in that division of which the offender is convicted or to which the offender pleads guilty in the current prosecution and all offenses described in that division of which the offender previously has been convicted or to which the offender previously pleaded guilty, whether prosecuted together or separately.

(iii) The offense or offenses of which the offender currently is convicted or to which the offender currently pleads guilty is aggravated murder and the court does not impose a sentence of death or life imprisonment without parole, murder, terrorism and the court does not impose a sentence of life imprisonment without parole, any felony of the first degree that is an offense of violence and the court does not impose a sentence of life imprisonment without parole, or any felony of the second degree that is an offense of violence and the trier of fact finds that the offense involved an attempt to cause or a threat to cause serious physical harm to a person or resulted in serious physical harm to a person.

(c) For purposes of division (B)(2)(b) of this section, two or more offenses committed at the same time or as part of the same act or event shall be considered one offense, and that one offense shall be the offense with the greatest penalty.

(d) A sentence imposed under division (B)(2)(a) or (b) of this section shall not be reduced pursuant to section 2929.20, section 2967.19, or section 2967.193, or any other provision of Chapter 2967. or Chapter 5120. of the Revised Code. The offender shall serve an additional prison term imposed under this section consecutively to and prior to the prison term imposed for the underlying offense.

(e) When imposing a sentence pursuant to division (B)(2)(a) or (b) of this section, the court shall state its findings explaining the imposed sentence.

(3) Except when an offender commits a violation of section 2903.01 or 2907.02 of the Revised Code and the penalty imposed for the violation is life imprisonment or commits a violation of section 2903.02 of the Revised Code, if the offender commits a violation of section 2925.03 or 2925.11 of the Revised Code and that section classifies the offender as a major drug offender, if the offender commits a felony violation of section 2925.02, 2925.04, 2925.05, 2925.36, 3719.07, 3719.08, 3719.16, 3719.161, 4729.37, or 4729.61, division (C) or (D) of section 3719.172, division (C) of section 4729.51, or division (J) of section 4729.54 of the Revised Code that includes the sale, offer to sell, or possession of a schedule I or II controlled substance, with the exception of marijuana, and the court imposing sentence upon the offender finds that the offender is guilty of a specification of the type described in section 2941.1410 of the Revised Code charging that the offender is a major drug offender, if the court imposing sentence upon an offender for a felony finds that the offender is guilty of corrupt activity with the most serious offense in the pattern of corrupt activity being a felony of the first degree, or if the offender is guilty of an attempted violation of section 2907.02 of the Revised Code and, had the offender completed the violation of section 2907.02 of the Revised Code that was attempted, the offender would have been subject to a sentence of life imprisonment or life imprisonment without parole for the violation of section 2907.02 of the Revised Code, the court shall impose upon the offender for the felony violation a mandatory prison term of the maximum prison term prescribed for a felony of the first degree that, subject to divisions (C) to (I) of section 2967.19 of the Revised Code, cannot be reduced pursuant to section 2929.20, section 2967.19, or any other provision of Chapter 2967. or 5120. of the Revised Code.

(4) If the offender is being sentenced for a third or fourth degree felony OVI offense under division (G)(2) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code, the sentencing court shall impose upon the offender a mandatory prison term in accordance with that division. In addition to the mandatory prison term, if the offender is being sentenced for a fourth degree felony OVI offense, the court, notwithstanding division (A)(4) of this section, may sentence the offender to a definite prison term of not less than six months and not more than thirty months, and if the offender is being sentenced for a third degree felony OVI offense, the sentencing court may sentence the offender to an additional prison term of any duration specified in division (A)(3) of this section. In either case, the additional prison term imposed shall be reduced by the sixty or one hundred twenty days imposed upon the offender as the mandatory prison term. The total of the additional prison term imposed under division (B)(4) of this section plus the sixty or one hundred twenty days imposed as the mandatory prison term shall equal a definite term in the range of six months to thirty months for a fourth degree felony OVI offense and shall equal one of the authorized prison terms specified in division (A)(3) of this section for a third degree felony OVI offense. If the court imposes an additional prison term under division (B)(4) of this section, the offender shall serve the additional prison term after the offender has served the mandatory prison term required for the offense. In addition to the mandatory prison term or mandatory and additional prison term imposed as described in division (B)(4) of this section, the court also may sentence the offender to a community control sanction under section 2929.16 or 2929.17 of the Revised Code, but the offender shall serve all of the prison terms so imposed prior to serving the community control sanction. If the offender is being sentenced for a fourth degree felony OVI offense under division (G) (1) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code and the court imposes a mandatory term of local incarceration, the court may impose a prison term as described in division (A)(1) of that section.

(5) If an offender is convicted of or pleads guilty to a violation of division (A)(1) or (2) of section 2903.06 of the Revised Code and also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.1414 of the Revised Code that charges that the victim of the offense is a peace officer, as defined in section 2935.01 of the Revised Code, or an investigator of the bureau of criminal identification and investigation, as defined in section 2903.11 of the Revised Code, the court shall impose on the offender a prison term of five years. If a court imposes a prison term on an offender under division (B)(5) of this section, the prison term, subject to divisions (C) to (I) of section 2967.19 of the Revised Code, shall not be reduced pursuant to section 2929.20, section 2967.19, section 2967.193, or any other provision of Chapter 2967. or Chapter 5120. of the Revised Code. A court shall not impose more than one prison term on an offender under division (B) (5) of this section for felonies committed as part of the same act.

(6) If an offender is convicted of or pleads guilty to a violation of division (A)(1) or (2) of section 2903.06 of the Revised Code and also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.1415 of the Revised Code that charges that the offender previously has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to three or more violations of division (A) or (B) of section 4511.19 of the Revised Code or an equivalent offense, as defined in section 2941.1415 of the Revised Code, or three or more violations of any combination of those divisions and offenses, the court shall impose on the offender a prison term of three years. If a court imposes a prison term on an offender under division (B)(6) of this section, the prison term, subject to divisions (C) to (I) of section 2967.19 of the Revised Code, shall not be reduced pursuant to section 2929.20, section 2967.19, section 2967.193, or any other provision of Chapter 2967. or Chapter 5120. of the Revised Code. A court shall not impose more than one prison term on an offender under division (B)(6) of this section for felonies committed as part of the same act.

(7) (a) If an offender is convicted of or pleads guilty to a felony violation of section 2905.01, 2905.02, 2907.21, 2907.22, or 2923.32, division (A)(1) or (2) of section 2907.323, or division (B)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of section 2919.22 of the Revised Code and also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.1422 of the Revised Code that charges that the offender knowingly committed the offense in furtherance of human trafficking, the court shall impose on the offender a mandatory prison term that is one of the following:

(i) If the offense is a felony of the first degree, a definite prison term of not less than five years and not greater than ten years;

(ii) If the offense is a felony of the second or third degree, a definite prison term of not less than three years and not greater than the maximum prison term allowed for the offense by division (A) of section 2929.14 of the Revised Code;

(iii) If the offense is a felony of the fourth or fifth degree, a definite prison term that is the maximum prison term allowed for the offense by division (A) of section 2929.14 of the Revised Code.

(b) Subject to divisions (C) to (I) of section 2967.19 of the Revised Code, the prison term imposed under division (B)(7)(a) of this section shall not be reduced pursuant to section 2929.20, section 2967.19, section 2967.193, or any other provision of Chapter 2967. of the Revised Code. A court shall not impose more than one prison term on an offender under division (B)(7)(a) of this section for felonies committed as part of the same act, scheme, or plan.

(8) If an offender is convicted of or pleads guilty to a felony violation of section 2903.11, 2903.12, or 2903.13 of the Revised Code and also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.1423 of the Revised Code that charges that the victim of the violation was a woman whom the offender knew was pregnant at the time of the violation, notwithstanding the range of prison terms prescribed in division (A) of this section for felonies of the same degree as the violation, the court shall impose on the offender a mandatory prison term that is either a definite prison term of six months or one of the prison terms prescribed in section 2929.14 of the Revised Code for felonies of the same degree as the violation.

(C) (1) (a) Subject to division (C)(1)(b) of this section, if a mandatory prison term is imposed upon an offender pursuant to division (B)(1)(a) of this section for having a firearm on or about the offender's person or under the offender's control while committing a felony, if a mandatory prison term is imposed upon an offender pursuant to division (B)(1)(c) of this section for committing a felony specified in that division by discharging a firearm from a motor vehicle, or if both types of mandatory prison terms are imposed, the offender shall serve any mandatory prison term imposed under either division consecutively to any other mandatory prison term imposed under either division or under division (B)(1)(d) of this section, consecutively to and prior to any prison term imposed for the underlying felony pursuant to division (A), (B)(2), or (B)(3) of this section or any other section of the Revised Code, and consecutively to any other prison term or mandatory prison term previously or subsequently imposed upon the offender.

(b) If a mandatory prison term is imposed upon an offender pursuant to division (B)(1)(d) of this section for wearing or carrying body armor while committing an offense of violence that is a felony, the offender shall serve the mandatory term so imposed consecutively to any other mandatory prison term imposed under that division or under division (B)(1)(a) or (c) of this section, consecutively to and prior to any prison term imposed for the underlying felony under division (A), (B)(2), or (B)(3) of this section or any other section of the Revised Code, and consecutively to any other prison term or mandatory prison term previously or subsequently imposed upon the offender.

(c) If a mandatory prison term is imposed upon an offender pursuant to division (B)(1)(f) of this section, the offender shall serve the mandatory prison term so imposed consecutively to and prior to any prison term imposed for the underlying felony under division (A), (B)(2), or (B)(3) of this section or any other section of the Revised Code, and consecutively to any other prison term or mandatory prison term previously or subsequently imposed upon the offender.

(d) If a mandatory prison term is imposed upon an offender pursuant to division (B)(7) or (8) of this section, the offender shall serve the mandatory prison term so imposed consecutively to any other mandatory prison term imposed under that division or under any other provision of law and consecutively to any other prison term or mandatory prison term previously or subsequently imposed upon the offender.

(2) If an offender who is an inmate in a jail, prison, or other residential detention facility violates section 2917.02, 2917.03, or 2921.35 of the Revised Code or division (A)(1) or (2) of section 2921.34 of the Revised Code, if an offender who is under detention at a detention facility commits a felony violation of section 2923.131 of the Revised Code, or if an offender who is an inmate in a jail, prison, or other residential detention facility or is under detention at a detention facility commits another felony while the offender is an escapee in violation of division (A)(1) or (2) of section 2921.34 of the Revised Code, any prison term imposed upon the offender for one of those violations shall be served by the offender consecutively to the prison term or term of imprisonment the offender was serving when the offender committed that offense and to any other prison term previously or subsequently imposed upon the offender.

(3) If a prison term is imposed for a violation of division (B) of section 2911.01 of the Revised Code, a violation of division (A) of section 2913.02 of the Revised Code in which the stolen property is a firearm or dangerous ordnance, or a felony violation of division (B) of section 2921.331 of the Revised Code, the offender shall serve that prison term consecutively to any other prison term or mandatory prison term previously or subsequently imposed upon the offender.

(4) If multiple prison terms are imposed on an offender for convictions of multiple offenses, the court may require the offender to serve the prison terms consecutively if the court finds that the consecutive service is necessary to protect the public from future crime or to punish the offender and that consecutive sentences are not disproportionate to the seriousness of the offender's conduct and to the danger the offender poses to the public, and if the court also finds any of the following:

(a) The offender committed one or more of the multiple offenses while the offender was awaiting trial or sentencing, was under a sanction imposed pursuant to section 2929.16, 2929.17, or 2929.18 of the Revised Code, or was under post-release control for a prior offense.

(b) At least two of the multiple offenses were committed as part of one or more courses of conduct, and the harm caused by two or more of the multiple offenses so committed was so great or unusual that no single prison term for any of the offenses committed as part of any of the courses of conduct adequately reflects the seriousness of the offender's conduct.

(c) The offender's history of criminal conduct demonstrates that consecutive sentences are necessary to protect the public from future crime by the offender.

(5) If a mandatory prison term is imposed upon an offender pursuant to division (B)(5) or (6) of this section, the offender shall serve the mandatory prison term consecutively to and prior to any prison term imposed for the underlying violation of division (A)(1) or (2) of section 2903.06 of the Revised Code pursuant to division (A) of this section or section 2929.142 of the Revised Code. If a mandatory prison term is imposed upon an offender pursuant to division (B)(5) of this section, and if a mandatory prison term also is imposed upon the offender pursuant to division (B)(6) of this section in relation to the same violation, the offender shall serve the mandatory prison term imposed pursuant to division (B)(5) of this section consecutively to and prior to the mandatory prison term imposed pursuant to division (B)(6) of this section and consecutively to and prior to any prison term imposed for the underlying violation of division (A)(1) or (2) of section 2903.06 of the Revised Code pursuant to division (A) of this section or section 2929.142 of the Revised Code.

(6) When consecutive prison terms are imposed pursuant to division (C)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) or division (H)(1) or (2) of this section, the term to be served is the aggregate of all of the terms so imposed.

(D) (1) If a court imposes a prison term for a felony of the first degree, for a felony of the second degree, for a felony sex offense, or for a felony of the third degree that is not a felony sex offense and in the commission of which the offender caused or threatened to cause physical harm to a person, it shall include in the sentence a requirement that the offender be subject to a period of post-release control after the offender's release from imprisonment, in accordance with that division. If a court imposes a sentence including a prison term of a type described in this division on or after July 11, 2006, the failure of a court to include a post-release control requirement in the sentence pursuant to this division does not negate, limit, or otherwise affect the mandatory period of post-release control that is required for the offender under division (B) of section 2967.28 of the Revised Code. Section 2929.191 of the Revised Code applies if, prior to July 11, 2006, a court imposed a sentence including a prison term of a type described in this division and failed to include in the sentence pursuant to this division a statement regarding post-release control.

(2) If a court imposes a prison term for a felony of the third, fourth, or fifth degree that is not subject to division (D)(1) of this section, it shall include in the sentence a requirement that the offender be subject to a period of post-release control after the offender's release from imprisonment, in accordance with that division, if the parole board determines that a period of post-release control is necessary. Section 2929.191 of the Revised Code applies if, prior to July 11, 2006, a court imposed a sentence including a prison term of a type described in this division and failed to include in the sentence pursuant to this division a statement regarding post-release control.

(E) The court shall impose sentence upon the offender in accordance with section 2971.03 of the Revised Code, and Chapter 2971. of the Revised Code applies regarding the prison term or term of life imprisonment without parole imposed upon the offender and the service of that term of imprisonment if any of the following apply:

(1) A person is convicted of or pleads guilty to a violent sex offense or a designated homicide, assault, or kidnapping offense, and, in relation to that offense, the offender is adjudicated a sexually violent predator.

(2) A person is convicted of or pleads guilty to a violation of division (A)(1)(b) of section 2907.02 of the Revised Code committed on or after January 2, 2007, and either the court does not impose a sentence of life without parole when authorized pursuant to division (B) of section 2907.02 of the Revised Code, or division (B) of section 2907.02 of the Revised Code provides that the court shall not sentence the offender pursuant to section 2971.03 of the Revised Code.

(3) A person is convicted of or pleads guilty to attempted rape committed on or after January 2, 2007, and a specification of the type described in section 2941.1418, 2941.1419, or 2941.1420 of the Revised Code.

(4) A person is convicted of or pleads guilty to a violation of section 2905.01 of the Revised Code committed on or after January 1, 2008, and that section requires the court to sentence the offender pursuant to section 2971.03 of the Revised Code.

(5) A person is convicted of or pleads guilty to aggravated murder committed on or after January 1, 2008, and division (A)(2)(b)(ii) of section 2929.022, division (A)(1)(e), (C)(1)(a)(v), (C) (2)(a)(ii), (D) (2)(b), (D)(3)(a)(iv), or (E)(1)(d) of section 2929.03, or division (A) or (B) of section 2929.06 of the Revised Code requires the court to sentence the offender pursuant to division (B)(3) of section 2971.03 of the Revised Code.

(6) A person is convicted of or pleads guilty to murder committed on or after January 1, 2008, and division (B)(2) of section 2929.02 of the Revised Code requires the court to sentence the offender pursuant to section 2971.03 of the Revised Code.

(F) If a person who has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a felony is sentenced to a prison term or term of imprisonment under this section, sections 2929.02 to 2929.06 of the Revised Code, section 2929.142 of the Revised Code, section 2971.03 of the Revised Code, or any other provision of law, section 5120.163 of the Revised Code applies regarding the person while the person is confined in a state correctional institution.

(G) If an offender who is convicted of or pleads guilty to a felony that is an offense of violence also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.142 of the Revised Code that charges the offender with having committed the felony while participating in a criminal gang, the court shall impose upon the offender an additional prison term of one, two, or three years.

(H) (1) If an offender who is convicted of or pleads guilty to aggravated murder, murder, or a felony of the first, second, or third degree that is an offense of violence also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.143 of the Revised Code that charges the offender with having committed the offense in a school safety zone or towards a person in a school safety zone, the court shall impose upon the offender an additional prison term of two years. The offender shall serve the additional two years consecutively to and prior to the prison term imposed for the underlying offense.

(2) (a) If an offender is convicted of or pleads guilty to a felony violation of section 2907.22, 2907.24, 2907.241, or 2907.25 of the Revised Code and to a specification of the type described in section 2941.1421 of the Revised Code and if the court imposes a prison term on the offender for the felony violation, the court may impose upon the offender an additional prison term as follows:

(i) Subject to division (H)(2)(a)(ii) of this section, an additional prison term of one, two, three, four, five, or six months;

(ii) If the offender previously has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to one or more felony or misdemeanor violations of section 2907.22, 2907.23, 2907.24, 2907.241, or 2907.25 of the Revised Code and also was convicted of or pleaded guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.1421 of the Revised Code regarding one or more of those violations, an additional prison term of one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, or twelve months.

(b) In lieu of imposing an additional prison term under division (H)(2)(a) of this section, the court may directly impose on the offender a sanction that requires the offender to wear a real-time processing, continual tracking electronic monitoring device during the period of time specified by the court. The period of time specified by the court shall equal the duration of an additional prison term that the court could have imposed upon the offender under division (H)(2)(a) of this section. A sanction imposed under this division shall commence on the date specified by the court, provided that the sanction shall not commence until after the offender has served the prison term imposed for the felony violation of section 2907.22, 2907.24, 2907.241, or 2907.25 of the Revised Code and any residential sanction imposed for the violation under section 2929.16 of the Revised Code. A sanction imposed under this division shall be considered to be a community control sanction for purposes of section 2929.15 of the Revised Code, and all provisions of the Revised Code that pertain to community control sanctions shall apply to a sanction imposed under this division, except to the extent that they would by their nature be clearly inapplicable. The offender shall pay all costs associated with a sanction imposed under this division, including the cost of the use of the monitoring device.

(I) At the time of sentencing, the court may recommend the offender for placement in a program of shock incarceration under section 5120.031 of the Revised Code or for placement in an intensive program prison under section 5120.032 of the Revised Code, disapprove placement of the offender in a program of shock incarceration or an intensive program prison of that nature, or make no recommendation on placement of the offender. In no case shall the department of rehabilitation and correction place the offender in a program or prison of that nature unless the department determines as specified in section 5120.031 or 5120.032 of the Revised Code, whichever is applicable, that the offender is eligible for the placement. If the court disapproves placement of the offender in a program or prison of that nature, the department of rehabilitation and correction shall not place the offender in any program of shock incarceration or intensive program prison. If the court recommends placement of the offender in a program of shock incarceration or in an intensive program prison, and if the offender is subsequently placed in the recommended program or prison, the department shall notify the court of the placement and shall include with the notice a brief description of the placement. If the court recommends placement of the offender in a program of shock incarceration or in an intensive program prison and the department does not subsequently place the offender in the recommended program or prison, the department shall send a notice to the court indicating why the offender was not placed in the recommended program or prison. If the court does not make a recommendation under this division with respect to an offender and if the department determines as specified in section 5120.031 or 5120.032 of the Revised Code, whichever is applicable, that the offender is eligible for placement in a program or prison of that nature, the department shall screen the offender and determine if there is an available program of shock incarceration or an intensive program prison for which the offender is suited. If there is an available program of shock incarceration or an intensive program prison for which the offender is suited, the department shall notify the court of the proposed placement of the offender as specified in section 5120.031 or 5120.032 of the Revised Code and shall include with the notice a brief description of the placement. The court shall have ten days from receipt of the notice to disapprove the placement.

(J) If a person is convicted of or pleads guilty to aggravated vehicular homicide in violation of division (A)(1) of section 2903.06 of the Revised Code and division (B)(2)(c) of that section applies, the person shall be sentenced pursuant to section 2929.142 of the Revised Code.

(K) (1) The court shall impose an additional mandatory prison term of two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, or eleven years on an offender who is convicted of or pleads guilty to a violent felony offense if the offender also is convicted of or pleads guilty to a specification of the type described in section 2941.1424 of the Revised Code that charges that the offender is a violent career criminal and had a firearm on or about the offender's person or under the offender's control while committing the presently charged violent felony offense and displayed or brandished the firearm, indicated that the offender possessed a firearm, or used the firearm to facilitate the offe nse. The offender shall serve the prison term imposed under this division consecutively to and prior to the prison term imposed for the underlying offense. The prison term shall not be reduced pursuant to section 2929.20 or 2967.19 or any other provision of Chapter 2967. or 5120. of the Revised Code. A court may not impose more than one sentence under division (B)(2)(a) of this section and this division for acts committed as part of the same act or transaction.

(2) As used in division (K)(1) of this section, "violent career criminal" and "violent felony offense" have the same meanings as in section 2923.132 of the Revised Code.

Ohio § 2941.142. Specification that offender participated in criminal gang

(A) Imposition of a mandatory prison term of one, two, or three years pursuant to division (G) of section 2929.14 of the Revised Code upon an offender who committed a felony that is an offense of violence while participating in a criminal gang is precluded unless the indictment, count in the indictment, or information charging the felony specifies that the offender committed the felony that is an offense of violence while participating in a criminal gang. The specification shall be stated at the end of the body of the indictment, count, or information, and shall be in substantially the following form:

"SPECIFICATION (or, SPECIFICATION TO THE FIRST COUNT). The grand jurors (or insert the person’s or the prosecuting attorney’s name when appropriate) further find and specify that (set forth that the offender committed the felony that is an offense of violence while participating in a criminal gang.)"

(B) The specification described in division (A) of this section may be used in a delinquent child proceeding in the manner and for the purpose described in section 2152.17 of the Revised Code.

(C) As used in this section, "criminal gang" has the same meaning as in section 2923.41 of the Revised Code.

Pennsylvania (view all subjects for this state)

42 Pennsylvania § 9720.4. Sentencing for Offenses Committed in Association With a Criminal Gang

(a) Sentencing enhancement.—In addition to any minimum term of imprisonment authorized or established by law for the offense, the Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing, in accordance with section 2154 (relating to adoption of guidelines for sentencing), shall provide for a sentence enhancement within its guidelines for a crime of violence, as defined in section 9714(g)(relating to sentences for second and subsequent offenses) or a violation of section 13(a)(30) of the act of April 14, 1972 (P.L. 233, No. 64), known as The Controlled Substance, Drug, Device and Cosmetic Act, if the offense was knowingly committed at the direction of or for the purpose of benefiting, promoting or furthering the interests of a criminal gang.

(b) Definition.—As used in this section, the term “criminal gang” has the meaning given in 18 Pa.C.S. § 5131(e)(relating to recruiting criminal gang members).

Rhode Island (view all subjects for this state)

Rhode Island § 12-19-39. Criminal Street Gang Enhancement

(a) "Criminal street gang" means an ongoing organization, association, or group of three (3) or more persons, whether formal or informal, having as one of its primary activities the commission of criminal or delinquent acts; having an identifiable name or common identifiable signs, colors, or symbols; and whose members individually or collectively engage in, or have engaged in, a pattern of criminal gang activity.

(b) Any person who is convicted of any felony that is knowingly committed for the benefit, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang or criminal street gang member, with the intent to promote, further, or assist in the affairs of a criminal street gang or criminal conduct by criminal street gang members, in addition to the sentence provided for the commission of the underlying offense, shall be subject to imprisonment for an additional term of not more than ten (10) years.

(c) Whenever it appears that a person may be subject to the enhanced sentence in this section, the attorney general, in no case later than the first pretrial conference, shall file with the court a notice specifying that the defendant, upon conviction, is subject to the imposition of sentencing in accordance with this section.

(d) Upon any plea of guilt or nolo contendere, or verdict or finding of guilt of the defendant, the court shall conduct a sentencing hearing. At the hearing, the court shall permit the attorney general and the defense to present additional evidence to the jury relevant to the determination of whether the defendant knowingly committed the offense for the benefit, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang or criminal street gang member, with the intent to promote, further, or assist in the affairs of a criminal street gang or criminal conduct by criminal street gang members. If the jury at the hearing, or in the case of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, the court at sentencing, determines beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant's actions were so motivated, he or she shall be sentenced as provided in subsection (b).

(e) This section does not create a separate offense but provides an additional enhanced sentence for the underlying offense.

(f) The enhanced sentence provided in this section shall run consecutively to the sentences provided for the underlying offenses.

South Carolina (view all subjects for this state)

South Carolina § 17-25-45. Life sentence for person convicted for certain crimes

(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, except in cases in which the death penalty is imposed, upon a conviction for a most serious offense as defined by this section, a person must be sentenced to a term of imprisonment for life without the possibility of parole if that person has either:

(1) one or more prior convictions for:

(a) a most serious offense; or

(b) a federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that would be classified as a most serious offense under this section; or

(2) two or more prior convictions for:

(a) a serious offense; or

(b) a federal or out-of-state conviction for an offense that would be classified as a serious offense under this section.

(B) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, except in cases in which the death penalty is imposed, upon a conviction for a serious offense as defined by this section, a person must be sentenced to a term of imprisonment for life without the possibility of parole if that person has two or more prior convictions for:

(1) a serious offense;

(2) a most serious offense;

(3) a federal or out-of-state offense that would be classified as a serious offense or most serious offense under this section; or

(4) any combination of the offenses listed in items (1), (2), and (3) above.

(C) As used in this section:

(2) "Serious offense" means:

(a) any offense which is punishable by a maximum term of imprisonment for thirty years or more which is not referenced in subsection (C)(1);

(3) "Conviction" means any conviction, guilty plea, or plea of nolo contendere.

(D) Except as provided in this subsection or subsection (E), no person sentenced pursuant to this section shall be eligible for early release or discharge in any form, whether by parole, work release, release to ameliorate prison overcrowding, or any other early release program, nor shall they be eligible for earned work credits, education credits, good conduct credits, or any similar program for early release. A person is eligible for work release if the person is sentenced for voluntary manslaughter (Section 16-3-50), kidnapping (Section 16-3-910), carjacking (Section 16-3-1075), burglary in the second degree (Section 16-11-312(B)), armed robbery (Section 16-11-330(A)), or attempted armed robbery (Section 16-11-330(B)), the crime did not involve any criminal sexual conduct or an additional violent crime as defined in Section 16-1-60, and the person is within three years of release from imprisonment.

(E) For the purpose of this section only, a person sentenced pursuant to this section may be paroled if:

(1) the Department of Corrections requests the Department of Probation, Parole and Pardon Services to consider the person for parole; and

(2) the Department of Probation, Parole and Pardon Services determines that due to the person's health or age he is no longer a threat to society; and

(a) the person has served at least thirty years of the sentence imposed pursuant to this section and has reached at least sixty-five years of age; or

(b) the person has served at least twenty years of the sentence imposed pursuant to this section and has reached at least seventy years of age; or

(c) the person is afflicted with a terminal illness where life expectancy is one year or less; or

(d) the person can produce evidence comprising the most extraordinary circumstances.

(F) For the purpose of determining a prior or previous conviction under this section and Section 17-25-50, a prior or previous conviction shall mean the defendant has been convicted of a most serious or serious offense, as may be applicable, on a separate occasion, prior to the instant adjudication. There is no requirement that the sentence for the prior or previous conviction must have been served or completed before a sentence of life without parole can be imposed under this section.

(G) The decision to invoke sentencing under this section is in the discretion of the solicitor.

(H) Where the solicitor is required to seek or determines to seek sentencing of a defendant under this section, written notice must be given by the solicitor to the defendant and defendant's counsel not less than ten days before trial.

South Dakota (view all subjects for this state)

South Dakota § 22-10A-2. Reclassification of Offense if Part of Street Gang Activity

The penalty for conviction of any offense shall be reclassified to the next highest classification in the penalty schedule if the commission of such offense is part of a pattern of street gang activity.

Tennessee (view all subjects for this state)

Tennessee § 40-35-121. Criminal Gang Offenses—Enhanced Punishment—Procedure

(a) As used in this section, unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) "Criminal gang" means a formal or informal ongoing organization, association or group consisting of three (3) or more persons that has:

(A) As one (1) of its primary activities, the commission of criminal gang offenses;

(B) Two (2) or more members who, individually or collectively, engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal gang activity;

(2) "Criminal gang member" is a person who is a member of a criminal gang, as defined in subdivision (a)(1), who meets two (2) or more of the following criteria:

(A) Admits to criminal gang involvement;

(B) Is identified as a criminal gang member by a parent or guardian;

(C) Is identified as a criminal gang member by a documented reliable informant;

(D) Resides in or frequents a particular criminal gang's area, adopts their style or dress, their use of hand signs or their tattoos and associates with known criminal gang members;

(E) Is identified as a criminal gang member by an informant of previously untested reliability and the identification is corroborated by independent information;

(F) Has been arrested more than once in the company of identified criminal gang members for offenses that are consistent with usual criminal gang activity; or

(G) Is identified as a criminal gang member by physical evidence such as photographs or other documentation;

(3) "Criminal gang offense" means:

(A) A criminal offense committed prior to July 1, 2013 that:

(i) During the perpetration of which the defendant knowingly causes, or threatens to cause, death or bodily injury to another person or persons and specifically includes rape of a child, aggravated rape and rape; or

(ii) Results, or was intended to result, in the defendant's receiving income, benefit, property, money or anything of value from the commission of any aggravated burglary, or from the illegal sale, delivery, or manufacture of a controlled substance, controlled substance analogue, or firearm; or (B) The commission or attempted commission, facilitation of, solicitation of, or conspiracy to commit any of the following offenses on or after July 1, 2013:

(i) First degree murder, as defined in § 39-13-202;

(ii) Second degree murder, as defined in § 39-13-210;

(iii) Voluntary manslaughter, as defined in § 39-13-211;

(iv) Assault, as defined in § 39-13-101;

(v) Aggravated assault, as defined in § 39-13-102;

(vi) Kidnapping, as defined in § 39-13-303;

(vii) Aggravated kidnapping, as defined in § 39-13-304;

(viii) Especially aggravated kidnapping, as defined in § 39-13-305;

(ix) Robbery, as defined in § 39-13-401;

(x) Aggravated robbery, as defined in § 39-13-402;

(xi) Especially aggravated robbery, as defined in § 39-13-403;

(xii) Carjacking, as defined in § 39-13-404;

(xiii) Rape, as defined in § 39-13-503;

(xiv) Aggravated rape, as defined in § 39-13-502;

(xv) Rape of a child, as defined in § 39-13-522;

(xvi) Aggravated burglary, as defined in § 39-14-403;

(xvii) Especially aggravated burglary, as defined in § 39-14-404;

(xviii) Aggravated criminal trespass, as defined in § 39-14-406;

(xix) Coercion of witness, as defined in § 39-16-507;

(xx) Retaliation for past action, as defined in § 39-16-510;

(xxi) Riot, as defined in § 39-17-302;

(xxii) Aggravated riot, as defined in § 39-17-303;

(xxiii) Inciting to riot, as defined in § 39-17-304;

(xxiv) The illegal sale, delivery or manufacture of a controlled substance or controlled substance analogue, as defined in §§ 39-17-417 and 39-17-454;

(xxv) Possession of a controlled substance or controlled substance analogue with intent to sell, deliver, or manufacture, as defined in § 39-17-417(a)(4) and § 39-17-454;

(xxvi) Unlawful carrying or possession of a weapon, as defined in § 39-17-1307;

(xxvii) Trafficking for commercial sex acts, as defined in § 39-13-309.

(4) (A) "Pattern of criminal gang activity" means prior convictions for the commission or attempted commission of, facilitation of, solicitation of, or conspiracy to commit:

(i) Two (2) or more criminal gang offenses that are classified as felonies; or

(ii) Three (3) or more criminal gang offenses that are classified as misdemeanors; or

(iii) One (1) or more criminal gang offenses that are classified as felonies and two (2) or more criminal gang offenses that are classified as misdemeanors; and

(iv) The criminal gang offenses are committed on separate occasions; and

(v) The criminal gang offenses are committed within a five-year period;

(B) (i) As used in this subsection (a), "prior conviction" means a criminal gang offense for which a criminal gang member was convicted prior to the commission of the instant criminal gang offense by the defendant and includes convictions occurring prior to July 1, 1997;

(ii) "Prior conviction" includes convictions under the laws of any other state, government or country that, if committed in this state, would have constituted a criminal gang offense. In the event that a conviction from a jurisdiction other than Tennessee is not specifically named the same as a criminal gang offense, the elements of the offense in the other jurisdiction shall be used by the Tennessee court to determine if the offense is a criminal gang offense;

(iii) Convictions for multiple criminal gang offenses committed as part of a single course of conduct within twenty-four (24) hours are not committed on "separate occasions." However, acts that constitute criminal gang offenses under subdivision (a)(3)(A) shall not be construed to be a single course of conduct.

(b) A criminal gang offense committed by a defendant shall be punished one (1) classification higher than the classification established by the specific statute creating the offense committed if:

(1) The defendant was a criminal gang member at the time of the offense; and

(2) The criminal gang offense was committed at the direction of, in association with, or for the benefit of the defendant's criminal gang or a member of the defendant's criminal gang.

(c) A criminal gang offense committed by a defendant who was not a criminal gang member at the time of the offense but who committed the offense for the purpose of and with the intent to fulfill an initiation or other requirement for joining a criminal gang as defined in subdivision (a)(1) shall be punished one (1) classification higher than the classification established by the specific statute creating the offense committed.

(d) If the criminal gang offense subject to enhancement under subsection (b) or (c) is a Class A felony, the presumptive sentence for the offense shall be the maximum sentence within the range from which the defendant is to be sentenced.

(e) A criminal gang offense committed by a defendant shall be punished two (2) classifications higher than the classification established by the specific statute creating the offense committed if, at the time the offense was committed:

(1) The defendant was a criminal gang member;

(2) The defendant was also a leader or organizer of the criminal gang; and

(3) The offense was at the direction of, in association with, or for the benefit of the defendant's criminal gang or a member of the defendant's criminal gang.

(f) If the criminal gang offense subject to enhancement under subsection (e) is a Class A or B felony, the criminal gang member shall be sentenced as a Class A felon and the presumptive sentence for the offense shall be the maximum sentence within the range from which the defendant is to be sentenced.

(g) If the defendant is charged with a criminal gang offense and the district attorney general intends to seek enhancement of the punishment under subsection (b), (c) or (e), the indictment, in a separate count, shall specify, charge and give notice of the subsection under which enhancement is alleged applicable and of the required prior convictions constituting the gang's pattern of criminal gang activity.

(h) (1) If the defendant is convicted of the underlying criminal gang offense, the jury shall then separately consider whether the defendant was at the time of the offense:

(A) A criminal gang member;

(B) A criminal gang member and a leader or organizer of the gang; or

(C) Not a criminal gang member but committed the offense for the purpose of joining a criminal gang.

(2) If the jury convicts the defendant under subdivision (h)(1)(A), (h)(1)(B) or (h)(1)(C), the court shall pronounce judgment and sentence the defendant as provided in this section.

(i) For purposes of establishing a "pattern of criminal gang activity" the following offenses may be considered:

(1) Criminal gang offenses, as defined by subdivision (a)(3)(A), committed prior to July 1, 2013; and

(2) Criminal gang offenses, as defined by subdivision (a)(3)(B), committed on or after July 1, 2013.

Texas (view all subjects for this state)

Texas Penal Code § 71.02. Engaging in Organized Criminal Activity

(a) A person commits an offense if, with the intent to establish, maintain, or participate in a combination or in the profits of a combination or as a member of a criminal street gang, the person commits or conspires to commit one or more of the following:

(1) murder, capital murder, arson, aggravated robbery, robbery, burglary, theft, aggravated kidnapping, kidnapping, aggravated assault, aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault, continuous sexual abuse of young child or children, solicitation of a minor, forgery, deadly conduct, assault punishable as a Class A misdemeanor, burglary of a motor vehicle, or unauthorized use of a motor vehicle;

(2) any gambling offense punishable as a Class A misdemeanor;

(3) promotion of prostitution, aggravated promotion of prostitution, or compelling prostitution;

(4) unlawful manufacture, transportation, repair, or sale of firearms or prohibited weapons;

(5) unlawful manufacture, delivery, dispensation, or distribution of a controlled substance or dangerous drug, or unlawful possession of a controlled substance or dangerous drug through forgery, fraud, misrepresentation, or deception;

(5-a) causing the unlawful delivery, dispensation, or distribution of a controlled substance or dangerous drug in violation of Subtitle B, Title 3, Occupations Code;

(6) any unlawful wholesale promotion or possession of any obscene material or obscene device with the intent to wholesale promote the same;

(7) any offense under Subchapter B, Chapter 43,1 depicting or involving conduct by or directed toward a child younger than 18 years of age;

(8) any felony offense under Chapter 32;

(9) any offense under Chapter 36;

(10) any offense under Chapter 34, 35, or 35A;

(11) any offense under Section 37.11(a);

(12) any offense under Chapter 20A;

(13) any offense under Section 37.10;

(14) any offense under Section 38.06, 38.07, 38.09, or 38.11;

(15) any offense under Section 42.10; or

(16) any offense under Section 46.06(a)(1) or 46.14.

(17) any offense under Section 20.05; or 20.06; or

(18) any offense classified as a felony under the Tax Code.

(b) Except as provided in Subsections (c) and (d), an offense under this section is one category higher than the most serious offense listed in Subsection (a) that was committed, and if the most serious offense is a Class A misdemeanor, the offense is a state jail felony, except that the offense is a felony of the first degree punishable by imprisonment in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice for:

(1) life without parole, if the most serious offense is an aggravated sexual assault and if at the time of that offense the defendant is 18 years of age or older and:

(A) the victim of the offense is younger than six years of age;

(B) the victim of the offense is younger than 14 years of age and the actor commits the offense in a manner described by Section 22.021(a)(2)(A); or

(C) the victim of the offense is younger than 17 years of age and suffered serious bodily injury as a result of the offense; or

(2) life or for any term of not more than 99 years or less than 30 years if the most serious offense is an offense under Section 20.06 that is punishable under Subsection (g) of that section; or

(3) life or for any term of not more than 99 years or less than 15 years if the most serious offense is an offense punishable as a felony of the first degree, other than an offense described by Subdivision (1) or (2).

(c) Conspiring to commit an offense under this section is of the same degree as the most serious offense listed in Subsection (a) that the person conspired to commit.

(d) At the punishment stage of a trial, the defendant may raise the issue as to whether in voluntary and complete renunciation of the offense he withdrew from the combination before commission of an offense listed in Subsection (a) and made substantial effort to prevent the commission of the offense. If the defendant proves the issue in the affirmative by a preponderance of the evidence the offense is the same category of offense as the most serious offense listed in Subsection (a) that is committed, unless the defendant is convicted of conspiring to commit the offense, in which event the offense is one category lower than the most serious offense that the defendant conspired to commit.

Texas Penal Code § 71.028. Gang-Free Zones

(a) In this section:

(1) "Institution of higher education," "playground," "premises," "school," "video arcade facility," and "youth center" have the meanings assigned by Section 481.134, Health and Safety Code.

(2) "Shopping mall" means an enclosed public walkway or hall area that connects retail, service, or professional establishments.

(b) This section applies to an offense listed in Section 71.02(a)(1), (4), or (7), other than burglary, theft, burglary of a motor vehicle, or unauthorized use of a motor vehicle.

(c) Except as provided by Subsection (d), the punishment prescribed for an offense described by Subsection (b) is increased to the punishment prescribed for the next highest category of offense if the actor is 17 years of age or older and it is shown beyond a reasonable doubt on the trial of the offense that the actor committed the offense at a location that was:

(1) in, on, or within 1,000 feet of any:

(A) real property that is owned, rented, or leased by a school or school board;

(B) premises owned, rented, or leased by an institution of higher education;

(C) premises of a public or private youth center; or

(D) playground;

(2) in, on, or within 300 feet of any:

(A) shopping mall;

(B) movie theater;

(C) premises of a public swimming pool; or

(D) premises of a video arcade facility; or

(3) on a school bus.

(d) The punishment for an offense described by Subsection (b) may not be increased under this section if the offense is punishable under Section 71.02 as a felony of the first degree.

Utah (view all subjects for this state)

Utah § 76-3-203.1. Offenses Committed in Concert With Two or More Persons or in Relation to a Criminal Street Gang—Notice—Enhanced Penalties

(1) As used in this section:

(a) "Criminal street gang" has the same definition as in Section 76-9-802.

(b) "In concert with two or more persons" means:

(i) the defendant was aided or encouraged by at least two other persons in committing the offense and was aware of this aid or encouragement; and

(ii) each of the other persons:

(A) was physically present; or

(B) participated as a party to any offense listed in Subsection (5).

(c) "In concert with two or more persons" means, regarding intent:

(i) other persons participating as parties need not have the intent to engage in the same offense or degree of offense as the defendant; and

(ii) a minor is a party if the minor's actions would cause the minor to be a party if the minor were an adult.

(2) A person who commits any offense listed in Subsection (5) is subject to an enhanced penalty for the offense as provided in Subsection (4) if the trier of fact finds beyond a reasonable doubt that the person acted:

(a) in concert with two or more persons;

(b) for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang as defined in Section 76-9-802; or

(c) to gain recognition, acceptance, membership, or increased status with a criminal street gang as defined in Section 76-9-802.

(3) The prosecuting attorney, or grand jury if an indictment is returned, shall cause to be subscribed upon the information or indictment notice that the defendant is subject to the enhanced penalties provided under this section.

(4) The enhanced penalty for a:

(a) class B misdemeanor is a class A misdemeanor;

(b) class A misdemeanor is a third degree felony;

(c) third degree felony is a second degree felony;

(d) second degree felony is a first degree felony; and

(e) first degree felony is an indeterminate prison term of not less than five years in addition to the statutory minimum prison term for the offense, and which may be for life.

(5) Offenses referred to in Subsection (2) are:

(a) any criminal violation of the following chapters of Title 58, Occupations and Professions:

(i) Chapter 37, Utah Controlled Substances Act;

(ii) Chapter 37a, Utah Drug Paraphernalia Act;

(iii) Chapter 37b, Imitation Controlled Substances Act; or

(iv) Chapter 37c, Utah Controlled Substance Precursor Act;

(b) assault and related offenses under Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 1, Assault and Related Offenses;

(c) any criminal homicide offense under Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 2, Criminal Homicide;

(d) kidnapping and related offenses under Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 3, Kidnapping, Trafficking, and Smuggling;

(e) any felony sexual offense under Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 4, Sexual Offenses;

(f) sexual exploitation of a minor as defined in Section 76-5b-201;

(g) any property destruction offense under Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 1, Property Destruction;

(h) burglary, criminal trespass, and related offenses under Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 2, Burglary and Criminal Trespass;

(i) robbery and aggravated robbery under Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 3, Robbery;

(j) theft and related offenses under Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 4, Theft, or Part 6, Retail Theft;

(k) any fraud offense under Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 5, Fraud, except Sections 76-6-504, 76-6-505, 76-6-507, 76-6-508, 76-6-509, 76-6-510, 76-6-511, 76-6-512, 76-6-513, 76-6-514, 76-6-516, 76-6-517, 76-6-518, and 76-6-520;

(l) any offense of obstructing government operations under Title 76, Chapter 8, Part 3, Obstructing Governmental Operations, except
Sections 76-8-302, 76-8-303, 76-8-304, 76-8-307, 76-8-308, and 76-8-312;

(m) tampering with a witness or other violation of Section 76-8-508;

(n) retaliation against a witness, victim, informant, or other violation of Section 76-8-508.3;

(o) extortion or bribery to dismiss criminal proceeding as defined in Section 76-8-509;

(p) any explosives offense under Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 3, Explosives;

(q) any weapons offense under Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 5, Weapons;

(r) pornographic and harmful materials and performances offenses under Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 12, Pornographic and Harmful Materials and Performances;

(s) prostitution and related offenses under Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 13, Prostitution;

(t) any violation of Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 15, Bus Passenger Safety Act;

(u) any violation of Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 16, Pattern of Unlawful Activity Act;

(v) communications fraud as defined in Section 76-10-1801;

(w) any violation of Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 19, Money Laundering and Currency Transaction Reporting Act; and

(x) burglary of a research facility as defined in Section 76-10-2002.

(6) It is not a bar to imposing the enhanced penalties under this section that the persons with whom the actor is alleged to have acted in concert are not identified, apprehended, charged, or convicted, or that any of those persons are charged with or convicted of a different or lesser offense.6-3-203.1

Utah § 78A-6-1113. Property Damage Caused By a Minor—Liability of Parent or Legal Guardian—Criminal Conviction or Adjudication for Criminal Mischief or Criminal Trespass Not a Prerequisite for Civil Action Under Chapter—When Parent or Guardian Not Liable

(1) The parent or legal guardian having legal custody of the minor is liable for damages sustained to property not to exceed $ 2,000 when:

(a) the minor intentionally damages, defaces, destroys, or takes the property of another;

(b) the minor recklessly or willfully shoots or propels a missile, or other object at or against a motor vehicle, bus, airplane, boat, locomotive, train, railway car, or caboose, whether moving or standing; or

(c) the minor intentionally and unlawfully tampers with the property of another and thereby recklessly endangers human life or recklessly causes or threatens a substantial interruption or impairment of any public utility service.

(2) The parent or legal guardian having legal custody of the minor is liable for damages sustained to property not to exceed $ 5,000 when the minor commits an offense under Section (1):

(a) for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang as defined in Section 76-9-802; or

(b) to gain recognition, acceptance, membership, or increased status with a criminal street gang.

(3) The court may make an order for the restitution authorized in this section to be paid by the minor's parent or guardian as part of the minor's disposition order.

(4) As used in this section, property damage described under Subsection (1)(a) or (c), or Subsection (2), includes graffiti, as defined in Section 76-6-107.

(5) A court may waive part or all of the liability for damages under this section by the parent or legal guardian if the offender is adjudicated in the juvenile court under Section 78A-6-117 only upon stating on the record that the court finds:

(a) good cause; or

(b) the parent or legal guardian:

(i) made a reasonable effort to restrain the wrongful conduct; and

(ii) reported the conduct to the property owner involved or the law enforcement agency having primary jurisdiction after the parent or guardian knew of the minor's unlawful act.

(6) A report is not required under Subsection (5)(b) from a parent or legal guardian if the minor was arrested or apprehended by a peace officer or by anyone acting on behalf of the property owner involved.

(7) A conviction for criminal mischief under Section 76-6-106, criminal trespass under Section 76-6-206, or an adjudication under Section 78A-6-117 is not a condition precedent to a civil action authorized under Subsection (1) or (2).

(8) A parent or guardian is not liable under Subsection (1) or (2) if the parent or guardian made a reasonable effort to supervise and direct their minor child, or, in the event the parent or guardian knew in advance of the possible taking, injury, or destruction by their minor child, made a reasonable effort to restrain the child.

Virginia (view all subjects for this state)

Virginia § 18.2-46.3:3. Enhanced Punishment for Gang Activity Taking Place in a Gang-Free Zone; Penalties

Any person who violates § 18.2-46.2 (i) upon the property, including buildings and grounds, of any public or private elementary, secondary, or postsecondary school, or any public or private two-year or four-year institution of higher education; (ii) upon public property or any property open to public use within 1,000 feet of such school property; (iii) on any school bus as defined in § 46.2-100; or (iv) upon the property, including buildings and grounds, of any publicly owned or operated community center or any publicly owned or operated recreation center is guilty of a felony punishable as specified in § 18.2-46.2, and shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of two years to be served consecutively with any other sentence. A person who violates subsection A of § 18.2-46.3 upon any property listed in this section is guilty of a Class 6 felony, except that any person 18 years of age or older who violates subsection A of § 18.2-46.3 upon any property listed in this section, when such offense is committed against a juvenile, is guilty of a Class 5 felony. Any person who violates subsection B of § 18.2-46.3 upon any property listed in this section is guilty of a Class 5 felony. It is a violation of this section if the person violated § 18.2-46.2 or 18.2-46.3 on the property described in clauses (i) through (iii) regardless of where the person intended to commit such violation.

Washington (view all subjects for this state)

Washington § 9.94A.533. Adjustments to standard sentences

(1) The provisions of this section apply to the standard sentence ranges determined by RCW 9.94A.510 or 9.94A.517.

(2) For persons convicted of the anticipatory offenses of criminal attempt, solicitation, or conspiracy under chapter 9A.28 RCW, the standard sentence range is determined by locating the sentencing grid sentence range defined by the appropriate offender score and the seriousness level of the completed crime, and multiplying the range by seventy-five percent.

(3) The following additional times shall be added to the standard sentence range for felony crimes committed after July 23, 1995, if the offender or an accomplice was armed with a firearm as defined in RCW 9.41.010 and the offender is being sentenced for one of the crimes listed in this subsection as eligible for any firearm enhancements based on the classification of the completed felony crime. If the offender is being sentenced for more than one offense, the firearm enhancement or enhancements must be added to the total period of confinement for all offenses, regardless of which underlying offense is subject to a firearm enhancement. If the offender or an accomplice was armed with a firearm as defined in RCW 9.41.010 and the offender is being sentenced for an anticipatory offense under chapter 9A.28 RCW to commit one of the crimes listed in this subsection as eligible for any firearm enhancements, the following additional times shall be added to the standard sentence range determined under subsection (2) of this section based on the felony crime of conviction as classified under RCW 9A.28.020:

(a) Five years for any felony defined under any law as a class A felony or with a statutory maximum sentence of at least twenty years, or both, and not covered under (f) of this subsection;

(b) Three years for any felony defined under any law as a class B felony or with a statutory maximum sentence of ten years, or both, and not covered under (f) of this subsection;

(c) Eighteen months for any felony defined under any law as a class C felony or with a statutory maximum sentence of five years, or both, and not covered under (f) of this subsection;

(d) If the offender is being sentenced for any firearm enhancements under (a), (b), and/or (c) of this subsection and the offender has previously been sentenced for any deadly weapon enhancements after July 23, 1995, under (a), (b), and/or (c) of this subsection or subsection (4)(a), (b), and/or (c) of this section, or both, all firearm enhancements under this subsection shall be twice the amount of the enhancement listed;

(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all firearm enhancements under this section are mandatory, shall be served in total confinement, and shall run consecutively to all other sentencing provisions, including other firearm or deadly weapon enhancements, for all offenses sentenced under this chapter. However, whether or not a mandatory minimum term has expired, an offender serving a sentence under this subsection may be:

(i) Granted an extraordinary medical placement when authorized under RCW 9.94A.728(1)(c); or

(ii) Released under the provisions of RCW 9.94A.730;

(f) The firearm enhancements in this section shall apply to all felony crimes except the following: Possession of a machine gun, possessing a stolen firearm, drive-by shooting, theft of a firearm, unlawful possession of a firearm in the first and second degree, and use of a machine gun in a felony;

(g) If the standard sentence range under this section exceeds the statutory maximum sentence for the offense, the statutory maximum sentence shall be the presumptive sentence unless the offender is a persistent offender. If the addition of a firearm enhancement increases the sentence so that it would exceed the statutory maximum for the offense, the portion of the sentence representing the enhancement may not be reduced.

(4) The following additional times shall be added to the standard sentence range for felony crimes committed after July 23, 1995, if the offender or an accomplice was armed with a deadly weapon other than a firearm as defined in RCW 9.41.010 and the offender is being sentenced for one of the crimes listed in this subsection as eligible for any deadly weapon enhancements based on the classification of the completed felony crime. If the offender is being sentenced for more than one offense, the deadly weapon enhancement or enhancements must be added to the total period of confinement for all offenses, regardless of which underlying offense is subject to a deadly weapon
enhancement. If the offender or an accomplice was armed with a deadly weapon other than a firearm as defined in RCW 9.41.010 and the offender is being sentenced for an anticipatory offense under chapter 9A.28 RCW to commit one of the crimes listed in this subsection as eligible for any deadly weapon enhancements, the following additional times shall be added to the standard sentence range determined under subsection (2) of this section based on the felony crime of conviction as classified under RCW 9A.28.020:

(a) Two years for any felony defined under any law as a class A felony or with a statutory maximum sentence of at least twenty years, or both, and not covered under (f) of this subsection;

(b) One year for any felony defined under any law as a class B felony or with a statutory maximum sentence of ten years, or both, and not covered under (f) of this subsection;

(c) Six months for any felony defined under any law as a class C felony or with a statutory maximum sentence of five years, or both, and not covered under (f) of this subsection;

(d) If the offender is being sentenced under (a), (b), and/or (c) of this subsection for any deadly weapon enhancements and the offender has previously been sentenced for any deadly weapon enhancements after July 23, 1995, under (a), (b), and/or (c) of this subsection or subsection (3)(a), (b), and/or (c) of this section, or both, all deadly weapon enhancements under this subsection shall be twice the amount of the enhancement listed;

(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all deadly weapon enhancements under this section are mandatory, shall be served in total confinement, and shall run consecutively to all other sentencing provisions, including other firearm or deadly weapon enhancements, for all offenses sentenced under this chapter. However, whether or not a mandatory minimum term has expired, an offender serving a sentence under this subsection may be:

(i) Granted an extraordinary medical placement when authorized under RCW 9.94A.728 (1)(c); or

(ii) Released under the provisions of RCW 9.94A.730;

(f) The deadly weapon enhancements in this section shall apply to all felony crimes except the following: Possession of a machine gun, possessing a stolen firearm, drive-by shooting, theft of a firearm, unlawful possession of a firearm in the first and second degree, and use of a machine gun in a felony;

(g) If the standard sentence range under this section exceeds the statutory maximum sentence for the offense, the statutory maximum sentence shall be the presumptive sentence unless the offender is a persistent offender. If the addition of a deadly weapon enhancement increases the sentence so that it would exceed the statutory maximum for the offense, the portion of the sentence representing the enhancement may not be reduced.

(5) The following additional times shall be added to the standard sentence range if the offender or an accomplice committed the offense while in a county jail or state correctional facility and the offender is being sentenced for one of the crimes listed in this subsection. If the offender or an accomplice committed one of the crimes listed in this subsection while in a county jail or state correctional facility, and the offender is being sentenced for an anticipatory offense under chapter 9A.28 RCW to commit one of the crimes listed in this subsection, the following additional times shall be added to the standard sentence range determined under subsection (2) of this section:

(a) Eighteen months for offenses committed under RCW 69.50.401(2) (a) or (b) or 69.50.410;

(b) Fifteen months for offenses committed under RCW 9.50.401(2) (c), (d), or (e);

(c) Twelve months for offenses committed under RCW 69.50.4013. For the purposes of this subsection, all of the real property of a state correctional facility or county jail shall be deemed to be part of that facility or county jail.

(6) An additional twenty-four months shall be added to the standard sentence range for any ranked offense involving a violation of chapter 69.50 RCW if the offense was also a violation of RCW 69.50.435 or 9.94A.827. All enhancements under this subsection shall run consecutively to all other sentencing provisions, for all offenses sentenced under this chapter.

(7) An additional two years shall be added to the standard sentence range for vehicular homicide committed while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug as defined by RCW 46.61.502 for each prior offense as defined in RCW 46.61.5055.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all impaired driving enhancements under this subsection are mandatory, shall be served in total confinement, and shall run consecutively to all other sentencing provisions, including other impaired driving enhancements, for all offenses sentenced under this chapter.

An offender serving a sentence under this subsection may be granted an extraordinary medical placement when authorized under RCW 9.94A.728(1)(c).

(8) (a) The following additional times shall be added to the standard sentence range for felony crimes committed on or after July 1, 2006, if the offense was committed with sexual motivation, as that term is defined in RCW 9.94A.030. If the offender is being sentenced for more than one offense, the sexual motivation enhancement must be added to the total period of total confinement for all offenses, regardless of which underlying offense is subject to a sexual motivation enhancement. If the offender committed the offense with sexual motivation and the offender is being sentenced for an anticipatory offense under chapter 9A.28 RCW, the following additional times shall be added to the standard sentence range determined under subsection (2) of this section based on the felony crime of conviction as classified under RCW 9A.28.020:

(i) Two years for any felony defined under the law as a class A felony or with a statutory maximum sentence of at least twenty years, or both;

(ii) Eighteen months for any felony defined under any law as a class B felony or with a statutory maximum sentence of ten years, or both;

(iii) One year for any felony defined under any law as a class C felony or with a statutory maximum sentence of five years, or both;

(iv) If the offender is being sentenced for any sexual motivation enhancements under (a) (i), (ii), and/or (iii) of this subsection and the offender has previously been sentenced for any sexual motivation enhancements on or after July 1, 2006, under (a) (i), (ii), and/or (iii) of this subsection, all sexual motivation enhancements under this subsection shall be twice the amount of the enhancement listed;

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all sexual motivation enhancements under this subsection are mandatory, shall be served in total confinement, and shall run consecutively to all other sentencing provisions, including other sexual motivation enhancements, for all offenses sentenced under this chapter. However, whether or not a mandatory minimum term has expired, an offender serving a sentence under this subsection may be:

(i) Granted an extraordinary medical placement when authorized under RCW 9.94A.728(1)(c); or (ii) Released under the provisions of RCW 9.94A.730;

(c) The sexual motivation enhancements in this subsection apply to all felony crimes;

(d) If the standard sentence range under this subsection exceeds the statutory maximum sentence for the offense, the statutory maximum sentence shall be the presumptive sentence unless the offender is a persistent offender. If the addition of a sexual motivation enhancement increases the sentence so that it would exceed the statutory maximum for the offense, the portion of the sentence representing the enhancement may not be reduced;

(e) The portion of the total confinement sentence which the offender must serve under this subsection shall be calculated before any earned early release time is credited to the offender;

(f) Nothing in this subsection prevents a sentencing court from imposing a sentence outside the standard sentence range pursuant to
RCW 9.94A.535.

(9) An additional one-year enhancement shall be added to the standard sentence range for the felony crimes of RCW 9A.44.073, 9A. 44.076, 9A.44.079, 9A.44.083, 9A.44.086, or 9A.44.089 committed on or after July 22, 2007, if the offender engaged, agreed, or offered to engage the victim in the sexual conduct in return for a fee. If the offender is being sentenced for more than one offense, the one-year enhancement must be added to the total period of total confinement for all offenses, regardless of which underlying offense is subject to the enhancement. If the offender is being sentenced for an anticipatory offense for the felony crimes of RCW 9A.44.073, 9A. 44.076, 9A.44.079, 9A.44.083, 9A.44.086, or 9A.44.089, and the offender attempted, solicited another, or conspired to engage, agree, or offer to engage the victim in the sexual conduct in return for a fee, an additional one-year enhancement shall be added to the standard sentence range determined under subsection (2) of this section. For purposes of this subsection, "sexual conduct" means sexual intercourse or sexual contact, both as defined in chapter 9A.44 RCW.

(10) (a) For a person age eighteen or older convicted of any criminal street gang-related felony offense for which the person compensated, threatened, or solicited a minor in order to involve the minor in the commission of the felony offense, the standard sentence range is determined by locating the sentencing grid sentence range defined by the appropriate offender score and the seriousness level of the completed crime, and multiplying the range by one hundred twenty-five percent. If the standard sentence range under this subsection exceeds the statutory maximum sentence for the offense, the statutory maximum sentence is the presumptive sentence unless the offender is a persistent offender.

(b) This subsection does not apply to any criminal street gang-related felony offense for which involving a minor in the commission of the felony offense is an element of the offense.

(c) The increased penalty specified in (a) of this subsection is unavailable in the event that the prosecution gives notice that it will seek an exceptional sentence based on an aggravating factor under RCW 9.94A.535.

(11) An additional twelve months and one day shall be added to the standard sentence range for a conviction of attempting to elude a police vehicle as defined by RCW 46.61.024, if the conviction included a finding by special allegation of endangering one or more persons under RCW 9.94A.834.

(12) An additional twelve months shall be added to the standard sentence range for an offense that is also a violation of RCW 9.94A. 831.

(13) An additional twelve months shall be added to the standard sentence range for vehicular homicide committed while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug as defined by RCW 46.61.520 or for vehicular assault committed while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug as defined by RCW 46.61.522, or for any felony driving under the influence (RCW 46.61.502(6)) or felony physical control under the influence (RCW 46.61.504(6)) for each child passenger under the age of sixteen who is an occupant in the defendant's vehicle. These enhancements shall be mandatory, shall be served in total confinement, and shall run consecutively to all other sentencing provisions. If the addition of a minor child enhancement increases the sentence so that it would exceed the statutory maximum for the offense, the portion of the sentence representing the enhancement may not be reduced.

(14) An additional twelve months shall be added to the standard sentence range for an offense that is also a violation of RCW 9.94A.832.

Washington § 9.94A.701. Community Custody—Offenders Sentenced to the Custody of the Department

(1) If an offender is sentenced to the custody of the department for one of the following crimes, the court shall, in addition to the other terms of the sentence, sentence the offender to community custody for three years:

(a) A sex offense not sentenced under RCW 9.94A.507; or

(b) A serious violent offense.

(2) A court shall, in addition to the other terms of the sentence, sentence an offender to community custody for eighteen months when the court sentences the person to the custody of the department for a violent offense that is not considered a serious violent offense.

(3) A court shall, in addition to the other terms of the sentence, sentence an offender to community custody for one year when the court sentences the person to the custody of the department for:

(a) Any crime against persons under RCW 9.94A.411(2);

(b) An offense involving the unlawful possession of a firearm under RCW 9.41.040, where the offender is a criminal street gang member or associate;

(c) A felony offense under chapter 69.50 or 69.52 RCW, committed on or after July 1, 2000; or

(d) A felony violation of RCW 9A.44.132(1) (failure to register) that is the offender's first violation for a felony failure to register.

(4) If an offender is sentenced under the drug offender sentencing alternative, the court shall impose community custody as provided in RCW 9.94A.660.

(5) If an offender is sentenced under the special sex offender sentencing alternative, the court shall impose community custody as provided in RCW 9.94A.670.

(6) If an offender is sentenced to a work ethic camp, the court shall impose community custody as provided in RCW 9.94A.690.

(7) If an offender is sentenced under the parenting sentencing alternative, the court shall impose a term of community custody as provided in RCW 9.94A.655.

(8) If a sex offender is sentenced as a nonpersistent offender pursuant to RCW 9.94A.507, the court shall impose community custody as provided in that section.

(9) The term of community custody specified by this section shall be reduced by the court whenever an offender's standard range term of confinement in combination with the term of community custody exceeds the statutory maximum for the crime as provided in RCW 9A. 20.021.


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