Publications

Use the checkboxes below to view publications from relevant categories. You can also request a CD containing a selection of gang-related documents.

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Comprehensive Gang Model

A Guide to Assessing Your Community’s Youth Gang Problem
The 2009 Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency and Prevention revised publication guides communities in conducting comprehensive assessments to address gang problems.
PDF fileAssessment-Guide.pdf | More Information...
OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model: Planning for Implementation
The 2009 revised Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention publication guides communities in developing implementation plans to address community gang problems based on a comprehensive assessment. It focuses on a multidisciplinary approach addressing five basic strategic areas.
PDF fileImplementation-Manual.pdf | More Information...
Best Practices to Address Community Gang Problems
Second Edition of Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention’s Best Practices in the Comprehensive Gang Model.
Web pagewww.ojjdp.gov/publications/PubAbstract.asp?pubi=253257
Street Outreach and the OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model
The June 2012 National Gang Center Bulletin discusses issues related to effective street outreach practices in the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Comprehensive Gang Model.
PDF fileStreet-Outreach-Comprehensive-Gang-Model.pdf
Multidisciplinary Gang Intervention Teams
The 2007 National Gang Center Bulletin outlines the development, role, and practice of multidisciplinary gang intervention teams in addressing gang problems.
PDF fileNYGCbulletin3.pdf
Gang Suppression and Intervention: Problem and Response
This Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention 1994 publication includes a research summary related to the Comprehensive Gang Model.
PDF filegangprob.pdf
Gang Suppression and Intervention: Community Models
This Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention 1994 publication includes a research summary on recommended policy and practices for communities and community stakeholders in addressing gang issues.
PDF filegangcorr.pdf
Implementing the OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention 1999 Fact Sheet on implementing the Comprehensive Gang Model.
PDF filefs99112.pdf

General Gang-Related Publications

City Gangs
Link to Arizona State University’s portico to Walter Miller’s unpublished book based on work in Boston’s Roxbury community.
Web pagegangresearch.asu.edu/walter_miller_library/walter-b.-miller-book
History of Street Gangs in the United States
The 2010 National Gang Center Bulletin details the development of street gangs in the United States.
PDF fileHistory-of-Street-Gangs.pdf
Menacing or Mimicking? Realities of Youth Gangs
A 2007 abstract in the Juvenile and Family Court Journal addressing the realities of youth gangs.
PDF fileMenacing-or-Mimicking.pdf
Mobilizing Communities to Address Gang Problems
A 2009 National Gang Center Bulletin which discusses mobilizing and organizing communities to address gang problems. It provides a number of examples from various communities.
PDF fileNYGC-bulletin-4.pdf
The Impact of Gangs on Communities
The 2006 National Gang Center bulletin discusses the impact of gangs in a number of different contexts.
PDF fileImpact-of-Gangs-on-Communities.pdf
Addressing Community Gang Problems: A Model for Problem Solving
This 1997 Bureau of Justice Assistance monograph provides a problem-solving process to address gang problems.
PDF file156059.pdf
Addressing Community Gang Problems: A Practical Guide
The 1998 Bureau of Justice Assistance monograph discusses practical solutions to address community gang problems.
PDF file164273.pdf
Gangs in Small Towns and Rural Counties
The 2005 National Gang Center bulletin discusses trends and potentially related problems to the emergence of gangs in small towns and rural counties in the United States.
PDF fileGangs-in-Small-Towns-and-Rural-Counties.pdf
Youth Gangs in Rural America
The 2004 National Institute of Justice journal article discusses gangs in rural areas.
PDF filejr000251b.pdf
Youth Gangs in Indian Country
The 2004 OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin discusses findings of surveying tribal police officers regarding tribal gang activity in Indian Country.
PDF file202714.pdf
Modern-Day Youth Gangs
The 2002 OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin addresses the emergence of modern youth gangs over an extended period of time in various settings.
PDF file191524.pdf
Hybrid and Other Modern Gangs
The 2001 OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin discusses the nature of hybrid youth gangs.
PDF fileHybrid-and-Other-Modern-Gangs.pdf
Female Gangs: A Focus on Research
The 2001 OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin represents a step toward rectifying the deficiencies of prior research. It summarizes past and present research and tracks the rise in the number of female gangs.
PDF file186159.pdf
Graffiti
The 2004 U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing publication discusses the topic of graffiti in the Problem Oriented Policing Series.
PDF filee07042448_09update.pdf
The Comprehensive Strategy: Lessons Learned From the Pilot Sites
The March 2000 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin discusses lessons learned from the four Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Comprehensive Gang Model pilot sites.
PDF file178258.pdf
Street Gangs and Interventions: Innovative Problem Solving with Network Analysis
The U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing publication focuses on the subject of network analysis in addressing gangs.
PDF filee09050001.pdf
Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Influences Among Youths: A Compendium of Assessment Tools—Second Edition
Web pagewww.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pub/measuring_violence.html
Violence by Gang Members, 1993–2003
The 2005 Bureau of Justice Statistics brief discusses violence by gang members over a ten-year period (1993–2003).
PDF filevgm03.pdf
Gang Members on the Move
The 1998 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Justice Bulletin seeks to clarify the term “gang” and addresses gang migration.
PDF file171153.pdf

Gang Prevention

Changing Course: Preventing Youth From Joining Gangs
PDF file239234.pdf
Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs
This 2010 OJJDP bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention.
PDF file231116.pdf
Gang Prevention: How to Make the “Front End” of Your Anti-Gang Effort Work
This 2006 United States Attorney’s Office Bulletin discusses the research related to gang membership and lays out guidelines for implementation of community prevention and intervention efforts.
PDF fileFront-End.pdf
Preventing Gang Violence and Building Communities Where Young People Thrive
This National League of Cities Toolkit is based on work within the California Cities Gang Prevention Network.
PDF filepreventing-gang-violence-kit-jan10.pdf

Gang Intervention and Reentry

Getting Out of Gangs, Staying Out of Gangs
2013 National Gang Center Bulletin focused on gang intervention and desistence in regard to gang members leaving gangs.
PDF fileGetting-Out-Staying-Out.pdf
APPA’s C.A.R.E. Model: A Framework for Collaboration, Analysis, Reentry, and Evaluation: A Response to Street Gang Violence
The American Probation and Parole Association’s C.A.R.E. model is designed to assist community corrections agencies’ participation in interagency anti-gang collaborative initiatives.
PDF filePSN_CARE_Model.pdf
Multidisciplinary Gang Intervention Teams
The 2007 National Gang Center Bulletin outlining the development, role, and practice of multidisciplinary gang intervention teams in addressing gang problems.
PDF fileNYGCbulletin3.pdf
Guidelines to Gang Reentry
This is a link to access the American Probation and Parole Association CD produced for the Bureau of Justice Assistance, which outlines recommended practices in the various stages of gang member reentry from incarceration to the community.
Web pageGuidelines to Gang Reentry
Developing a Successful Street Outreach Program: Recommendations and Lessons Learned
A 2009 National Council on Crime and Delinquency publication on establishing outreach programs with recommendations and lessons learned.
PDF fileStreet Outreach Final 10.20.09.pdf
Effective Intervention for Serious Juvenile Offenders
The 2001 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin describes the intervention programs that showed the strongest, most consistent impact on recidivism for serious juvenile offenders.
PDF file181201.pdf
Implementation of the Intensive Community-Based Aftercare Program
The 2000 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin on implementing intensive community-based aftercare programming for serious offenders.
PDF file181464.pdf

Gang Suppression

Gang Prosecutions, United States Attorneys’ Bulletin, May 2014, Volume 62, Number 3
This bulletin highlights a number of topics in the investigation and prosecution of gang crime.
PDF fileusab6203.pdf
Guidelines for Establishing and Operating Gang Intelligence Units and Task Forces
The 2008 Bureau of Justice Assistance report provides guidelines to creating and operating gang task force and gang intelligence units.
PDF fileGuidelines-for-Establishing-Gang-Intelligence-Units.pdf
Property Abatements—The Other Gang Injunction: Project T.O.U.G.H.
The 2009 National Gang Center Bulletin by staff from the Los Angeles City Attorney’s Office highlights that entity’s Project T.O.U.G.H.
PDF fileProject-TOUGH.pdf
OJJDP Gang Prosecution Manual
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention manual provides guidance to law enforcement and prosecutors from investigation through prosecution of gang crime.
PDF fileGang-Prosecution-Manual.pdf
Civil Gang Injunctions: A Guide for Prosecutors
A 2009 publication providing guidelines by the National District Attorney’s Association for prosecutors seeking gang injunctions.
PDF fileNDAA_Civil_Gang_Injunctions.pdf
Prosecuting Gang Cases: What Local Prosecutors Need to Know
A 2004 Bureau of Justice Assistance abstract by the American Prosecutor’s Research Institute provides guidance for prosecutors in prosecuting local gang cases.
PDF filegang_cases.pdf
Gang Issues, United States Attorneys’ Bulletin, July 2008, Volume 56, Number 4
This bulletin highlights a number of topics in the investigation and prosecution of gang crime.
PDF fileGang-Issues-July-2008.pdf
Can Civil Gang Injunctions Change Communities? A Community Assessment of the Impact of Civil Gang Injunctions
The 2004 Department of Justice publication addresses the impact of gang injunctions on neighborhoods in San Bernardino, California.
PDF file208345.pdf
Preventing Gang- and Drug-Related Witness Intimidation
The 1996 Office of Justice Programs publication addresses a variety of issues related to witness intimidation, including the act of intimidation, legal issues, and methods to combat the act and the establishment of witness security programs.
PDF file163067.pdf
Gangs Toolkit
Link to the Community Oriented Policing Office Web site toolkit, which provides resource information for various gang-related issues.
Web pageGangs Toolkit
Specialized Gang Units: Form and Function in Community Policing
The 2004 report was submitted to the National Institute of Justice. It addresses the efficacy of when and whether it is advisable to create specialized gang units.
PDF file207204.pdf
Strategies to Address Gang Crime: A Guidebook for Local Law Enforcement
The 2008 guide published by the Office of Justice Programs Office of Community Oriented Policing Services to assist local law enforcement investigating gang crime.
PDF filee060810142Gang-book-web.pdf
Drive-By Shootings
The March 2007 Office of Justice Programs Office of Community Oriented Policing Services problem-solving guide for police officers investigating drive-by shootings.
PDF filee02072864.pdf

Gangs, Drugs, and Guns

Project Safe Neighborhoods—A National Program to Reduce Gun Crime: Final Project Report
The 2006 final report prepared by Michigan State University in regard to Project Safe Neighborhoods for the United States Office of Justice.
PDF file226686.pdf
Promising Strategies to Reduce Gun Violence
A 1999 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention report outlining strategies to reduce gun violence.
PDF file173950.pdf
Gun Violence Among Serious Young Offenders
A guide for police-related gun violence by serious young offenders. The guide was developed as part of the problem-oriented policing series for the Office of Community Oriented Policing.
PDF filee0507882-web.pdf
Kids and Guns (1999 National Report Series)
The 2000 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention report titled “Kids and Guns” was published as part of the National Report Series.
PDF file178994.pdf
The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin was published in 1999 to bring an understanding of the interrelationship of the three title issues.
PDF file93920.pdf
Youth Gang Drug Trafficking
The 1999 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin analyzes data from the 1996 National Youth Gang Survey to provide a picture of youth gang involvement in drug trafficking.
PDF file178282.pdf

Gangs and Schools

Bullying in Schools: An Overview
A December 2011 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin providing an overview of the findings of funded studies related to bullying in schools.
PDF file234205.pdf
Responding to Gangs in the School Setting
A 2010 National Gang Center Bulletin addressing the problem and assessment of gangs in schools and potential solutions.
PDF fileBulletin-5.pdf
Youth Gangs in Schools
A 2000 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin providing research insight into the issue of youth gangs in schools.
PDF file183015.pdf
Bullying in Schools
A May 2012 update of the Office of Community Oriented Policing’s Problem Solving Guide regarding bullying in schools.
PDF filee07063414-guide.pdf
Balancing Student Privacy and School Safety: A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act for Elementary and Secondary Schools
Link to a United States Department of Education Web site providing guidance regarding the Family Educational and Privacy Act (FERPA).
PDF fileelsec.pdf

Research

Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research
The 2002 National Institute of Justice publication provides a collection of the Institute’s research on gangs.
PDF file190351.pdf
Gang Members and Delinquent Behavior
This 1997 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin summarizes the findings of the Rochester Youth Development study.
PDF file165154.pdf
Gang Membership, Delinquent Peers, and Delinquent Behavior
A 2008 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin in the Youth Gang Series summarizing the research on various issues related to gangs, including female gangs and gang migration.
PDF file171119.pdf
Predictors of Youth Violence
A 2000 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin summarizing predictors of youth gang violence at various stages of youth development and implications for violence prevention.
PDF file179065.pdf
Police Response to Gangs: A Multi-Site Study
A 2003 research report prepared by Arizona State University faculty for the National Institute of Justice summarizing law enforcement responses to gangs in different jurisdictions.
PDF file205003.pdf
Homicide in Los Angeles: An Analysis of the Differential Character of Adolescent and Other Homicides
A 2000 research study prepared for the United States Justice Department by University of Southern California faculty.
PDF file193812.pdf
Highlights of Findings From the Rochester Youth Development Study
An Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention FACT Sheet published in 1999 highlighting findings of the Rochester Youth Development Study.
PDF filefs99103.pdf
Highlights of Findings From the Pittsburgh Youth Study
An Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention FACT Sheet published in 1999 highlighting findings of the Pittsburgh Youth Development Study.
PDF filefs9995.pdf
Highlights of Findings From the Denver Youth Survey
An Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention FACT Sheet published in 1999 highlighting findings of the Denver Youth Development Study.
PDF filefs99106.pdf
Early Precursors of Gang Membership: A Study of Seattle Youth
An Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin published in 2001 drawing on data from the Seattle Social Development project to discuss the impact of risk factors on 10- to 12-year-olds.
PDF file190106.pdf

Evaluations

Findings From the Evaluation of OJJDP’s Gang Reduction Program
A 2010 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin highlighting findings from the Urban Institute evaluation of the Gang Reduction Program.
PDF file230106.pdf
Evaluation of CeaseFire–Chicago
A 2008 unpublished evaluation funded by National Institute of Justice of Chicago Ceasefire (now known as Cure Violence) by Northwestern University.
PDF file227181.pdf
Evaluation and Evolution of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program
A 2011 evaluation of the G.R.E.A.T. Program.
Web pageEvaluation and Evolution of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program
Gang Intervention Partnership: Evaluation of and Recommendations Regarding a Program to Reduce Criminal Activity of Latino Gangs in the District of Columbia
A 2006 Evaluation conducted for the Office of the District of Columbia Mayor’s Office of Latino Affairs.
PDF filegip_1106_0.pdf

Surveys, Statistics, and Analyses

National Youth Gang Surveys:

Highlights of the 2011 National Youth Gang Survey
PDF file242884.pdf | Previous Fact Sheets
U.S. Gang Problem Trends and Seriousness, 1996–2009
PDF fileBulletin-6.pdf

Related Surveys and Statistics:

2000 Survey of Youth Gangs in Indian Country
PDF fileYouth-Gangs-in-Indian-Country-2000.pdf
Youth Gang Homicides in the 1990’s
PDF filefs200103.pdf
The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970–98, Part 1
PDF file181868-1.pdf
The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970–98, Part 2
PDF file181868-2.pdf

State Reports:

2011 Montana Gang Threat Assessment
Web pagembcc.mt.gov/Data/SAC/Gang/Gang.asp
Florida Gang Reduction Strategy 2011 Annual Report
PDF fileGang_Report_2011_WebFinal.pdf
Gangs in North Carolina: An Analysis of GangNET Data
PDF filegangs2011.pdf
Gangs and Crime in South Carolina: How Much, How Bad?
PDF file2010GangReport.pdf
Gangs in New Jersey: Municipal Law Enforcement Response to the 2010 NJSP Gang Survey
PDF filegangs_in_nj_2010.pdf
2008 Arizona Gang Threat Assessment
PDF file2008_Gang_Threat_Assessment_final.pdf
Criminal Gangs in Maryland
PDF fileGangs.pdf
2009 Gangland Behind Bars: How and Why Organized Criminal Street Gangs Thrive in New Jersey’s Prisons . . . And What Can Be Done About It
PDF fileGangs SCI Report Full.pdf
Northern Virginia Comprehensive Gang Assessment 2003–2008
PDF fileNoVaGangAssessmentSept212009.pdf
Responding to Gang, Crew and Youth Violence in the District of Columbia
PDF fileblueprint.pdf
Youth Gang Violence and Guns: Data Collection in California
PDF fileCAgang.pdf
Northeast Wisconsin Gang Assessment
PDF file111008_01.pdf
2007 Statewide Gang Survey Results (Florida)
PDF file2007GangSurvey.aspx
2007 Pennsylvania Youth Survey Report
Web pagewww.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/pennsylvania_youth_survey/5396/2007/494708
Organized Crime in California: 2005 Annual Report to the California Legislature
PDF fileorg_crime2005.pdf

National Gang Center Bibliography of Gang Literature

Gang Bibliography
PDF fileBibliography-of-Gang-Literature.pdf

Victims and Witnesses

Working With Victims of Gun Violence
The 2001 Office of Victims of Crimes Bulletin provides guidelines for working with victims of gun violence.
PDF fileNCJ186155.pdf
Preventing Gang- and Drug-Related Witness Intimidation
The 1996 National Institute of Justice abstract addresses issues related to witness intimidation in gang and drug-related crime.
PDF file163067.pdf
Victim and Witness Intimidation: New Developments and Emerging Responses
The 1995 National Institute of Justice bulletin discusses emerging topics and practices in the area of intimidation of victims and witnesses to crime.
PDF filewitintim.pdf
Witness Intimidation
A 2006 Office of Community Oriented Policing abstract with guidelines for law enforcement related to intimidation of witnesses to crime.
PDF filee07063407.pdf
Gang-Related Witness Intimidation
A 2007 National Gang Center Bulletin regarding the issue of intimidation of witnesses specific to gang-related crimes.
PDF fileGang-Related-Witness-Intimidation.pdf

Program Sustainability and Replication

Building Sustainability in Demonstration Projects for Children, Youth, and Families
Guidelines for Building Sustainable Projects by the Institute for Educational Leadership funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Planning.
PDF filetoolkit_02.pdf
Program Sustainability: Developing Strategies For Maintaining Programs Over the Long-term
A 2001 presentation developed by American Indian Development Associates.
PDF fileSustainability.pdf
Sustaining Your Gang Prevention Efforts
Sustainability guidelines developed by the National Crime Prevention Council.
PDF file11788-NCPC-Gang-FactSheet.pdf