Gang-Related Legislation by Subject Index

Gang Witnesses/Victims

California (view all subjects for this state)

California Evid Code § 1231. Prior Statements of Deceased Declarant; Hearsay Exception

Evidence of a prior statement made by a declarant is not made inadmissible by the hearsay rule if the declarant is deceased and the proponent of introducing the statement establishes each of the following:

(a) The statement relates to acts or events relevant to a criminal prosecution under provisions of the California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act (Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 186.20) of Title 7 of Part 1 of the Penal Code).

(b) A verbatim transcript, copy, or record of the statement exists. A record may include a statement preserved by means of an audio or video recording or equivalent technology.

(c) The statement relates to acts or events within the personal knowledge of the declarant.

(d) The statement was made under oath or affirmation in an affidavit; or was made at a deposition, preliminary hearing, grand jury hearing, or other proceeding in compliance with law, and was made under penalty of perjury.

(e) The declarant died from other than natural causes.

(f) The statement was made under circumstances that would indicate its trustworthiness and render the declarant's statement particularly worthy of belief. For purposes of this subdivision, circumstances relevant to the issue of trustworthiness include, but are not limited to, all of the following:

(1) Whether the statement was made in contemplation of a pending or anticipated criminal or civil matter, in which the declarant had an interest, other than as a witness.

(2) Whether the declarant had a bias or motive for fabricating the statement, and the extent of any bias or motive.

(3) Whether the statement is corroborated by evidence other than statements that are admissible only pursuant to this section.

(4) Whether the statement was a statement against the declarant’s interest.

California Evid Code § 1231.1. Statements Made By Deceased Declarant; Admissibility; Notice of Statement to Adverse Party

A statement is admissible pursuant to Section 1231 only if the proponent of the statement makes known to the adverse party the intention to offer the statement and the particulars of the statement sufficiently in advance of the proceedings to provide the adverse party with a fair opportunity to prepare to meet the statement.

California Evid Code § 1231.2. Administer and Certify Oaths

A peace officer may administer and certify oaths for purposes of this article.

California Evid Code § 1231.3. Testimony of Law Enforcement Officer; Hearsay

Any law enforcement officer testifying as to any hearsay statement pursuant to this article shall either have five years of law enforcement experience or have completed a training course certified by the Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training which includes training in the investigation and reporting of cases and testifying at preliminary hearings and trials.

California Evid Code § 1231.4. Cause of Death; Deceased Declarant

If evidence of a prior statement is introduced pursuant to this article, the jury may not be told that the declarant died from other than natural causes, but shall merely be told that the declarant is unavailable.

California Pen Code § 136.1. Intimidation of Witnesses and Victims; Offenses; Penalties; Enhancement; Aggravation

(a) Except as provided in subdivision (c), any person who does any of the following is guilty of a public offense and shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year or in the state prison:

(1) Knowingly and maliciously prevents or dissuades any witness or victim from attending or giving testimony at any trial, proceeding, or inquiry authorized by law.

(2) Knowingly and maliciously attempts to prevent or dissuade any witness or victim from attending or giving testimony at any trial, proceeding, or inquiry authorized by law.

(3) For purposes of this section, evidence that the defendant was a family member who interceded in an effort to protect the witness or victim shall create a presumption that the act was without malice.

(b) Except as provided in subdivision

(c), every person who attempts to prevent or dissuade another person who has been the victim of a crime or who is witness to a crime from doing any of the following is guilty of a public offense and shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year or in the state prison:

(1) Making any report of that victimization to any peace officer or state or local law enforcement officer or probation or parole or correctional officer or prosecuting agency or to any judge.

(2) Causing a complaint, indictment, information, probation or parole violation to be sought and prosecuted, and assisting in the prosecution thereof.

(3) Arresting or causing or seeking the arrest of any person in connection with that victimization.

(c) Every person doing any of the acts described in subdivision (a) or (b) knowingly and maliciously under any one or more of the following circumstances, is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years under any of the following circumstances:

(1) Where the act is accompanied by force or by an express or implied threat of force or violence, upon a witness or victim or any third person or the property of any victim, witness, or any third person.

(2) Where the act is in furtherance of a conspiracy.

(3) Where the act is committed by any person who has been convicted of any violation of this section, any predecessor law hereto or any federal statute or statute of any other state which, if the act prosecuted was committed in this state, would be a violation of this section.

(4) Where the act is committed by any person for pecuniary gain or for any other consideration acting upon the request of any other person. All parties to such a transaction are guilty of a felony.

(d) Every person attempting the commission of any act described in subdivisions (a), (b), and (c) is guilty of the offense attempted without regard to success or failure of the attempt. The fact that no person was injured physically, or in fact intimidated, shall be no defense against any prosecution under this section.

(e) Nothing in this section precludes the imposition of an enhancement for great bodily injury where the injury inflicted is significant or substantial.

(f) The use of force during the commission of any offense described in subdivision (c) shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term of imprisonment under subdivision (b) of Section 1170.

California Pen Code § 13826.4. (Operation Contingent) Enhanced Law Enforcement Efforts

Law enforcement agencies receiving funds under this chapter are encouraged to concentrate enhanced law enforcement efforts and resources upon cases identified under criteria set forth in Section 13826.3. Enhanced law enforcement criteria efforts may include, but not be limited to:

(a) The formation of a specialized gang violence unit whose staff shall be composed of the most highly qualified and trained personnel.

(b) The efforts of the gang violence unit may include, but not be limited to:

(1) Increased efforts to apprehend, prosecute, and convict violent "hard core" target gang members.

(2) Increasing the clearance rate of reported crimes which are targeted as gang related.

(3) Establishing more positive relations with, and encouraging the support of local citizens, community-based organizations, business representatives, and other criminal agencies.

(4) Aiding and assisting other criminal justice and governmental agencies in protecting cooperating witnesses from intimidation or retribution at the hands of gang members and their associates.

(c) Law enforcement agencies receiving funds under this program shall maintain a crime analysis capability which provides the following type of information:

(1) Identification of active gang members who have exhibited a prior criminal background.

(2) Identification of evolving or existing crime patterns that are gang related.

(3) Providing investigative leads.

(4) Maintaining statistical information pertaining to gang related criminal activity.

Connecticut (view all subjects for this state)

Connecticut § 54-82t. Protective Services for Witness at Risk of Harm

(b) In any investigation or prosecution of a serious felony offense, the prosecutorial official shall review all witnesses to the offense and may identify any witness as a witness at risk of harm. Upon such identification, the prosecutorial official shall then determine whether a witness at risk of harm is critical to a criminal investigation or prosecution. If the witness at risk of harm is determined to be critical to such investigation or prosecution, the prosecutorial official may (1) certify that the witness receive protective services or (2) if the prosecutorial official finds a compelling need to temporarily relocate the witness, certify that the witness receive protective services including temporary relocation services. In determining whether a witness should receive protective services, the prosecutorial official shall give special consideration to a witness who is a child, elderly, or handicapped or otherwise more at risk of being intimidated, harassed, threatened, retaliated against, or subjected to physical violence or who is a witness in a case involving organized crime, gang activities, or drug trafficking or involving a high degree of risk to the witness.

Florida (view all subjects for this state)

Florida § 943.031. Florida Violent Crime and Drug Control Council

(1) Findings.--The Legislature finds that there is a need to develop and implement a statewide strategy to address violent criminal activity, including crimes committed by criminal gangs, and drug control efforts by state and local law enforcement agencies, including investigations of illicit money laundering. In recognition of this need, the Florida Violent Crime and Drug Control Council is created within the department. The council shall serve in an advisory capacity to the department.

(5) Duties of council.--Subject to funding provided to the department by the Legislature, the council shall provide advice and make recommendations, as necessary, to the executive director of the department.

(a) The council may advise the executive director on the feasibility of undertaking initiatives which include, but are not limited to, the following:

1. Establishing a program that provides grants to criminal justice agencies that develop and implement effective violent crime prevention and investigative programs and which provides grants to law enforcement agencies for the purpose of drug control, criminal gang, and illicit money laundering investigative efforts or task force efforts that are determined by the council to significantly contribute to achieving the state's goal of reducing drug-related crime, that represent significant criminal gang investigative efforts, that represent a significant illicit money laundering investigative effort, or that otherwise significantly support statewide strategies developed by the Statewide Drug Policy Advisory Council established under s. 397.333, subject to the limitations provided in this section. The grant program may include an innovations grant program to provide startup funding for new initiatives by local and state law enforcement agencies to combat violent crime or to implement drug control, criminal gang, or illicit money laundering investigative efforts or task force efforts by law enforcement agencies, including, but not limited to, initiatives such as:

a. Providing enhanced community-oriented policing.

b. Providing additional undercover officers and other investigative officers to assist with violent crime investigations in emergency situations.

c. Providing funding for multiagency or statewide drug control, criminal gang, or illicit money laundering investigative efforts or task force efforts that cannot be reasonably funded completely by alternative sources and that significantly contribute to achieving the state's goal of reducing drug-related crime, that represent significant criminal gang investigative efforts, that represent a significant illicit money laundering investigative effort, or that otherwise significantly support statewide strategies developed by the Statewide Drug Policy Advisory Council established under s. 397.333.

2. Expanding the use of automated biometric identification systems at the state and local levels.

3. Identifying methods to prevent violent crime.

4. Identifying methods to enhance multiagency or statewide drug control, criminal gang, or illicit money laundering investigative efforts or task force efforts that significantly contribute to achieving the state's goal of reducing drug-related crime, that represent significant criminal gang investigative efforts, that represent a significant illicit money laundering investigative effort, or that otherwise significantly support statewide strategies developed by the Statewide Drug Policy Advisory Council established under s. 397.333.

5. Enhancing criminal justice training programs that address violent crime, drug control, illicit money laundering investigative techniques, or efforts to control and eliminate criminal gangs.

6. Developing and promoting crime prevention services and educational programs that serve the public, including, but not limited to:

a. Enhanced victim and witness counseling services that also provide crisis intervention, information referral, transportation, and emergency financial assistance.

b. A well-publicized rewards program for the apprehension and conviction of criminals who perpetrate violent crimes.

7. Enhancing information sharing and assistance in the criminal justice community by expanding the use of community partnerships and community policing programs. Such expansion may include the use of civilian employees or volunteers to relieve law enforcement officers of clerical work in order to enable the officers to concentrate on street visibility within the community.

(b) The full council shall:

1. Receive periodic reports from regional violent crime investigation and statewide drug control strategy implementation coordinating teams which relate to violent crime trends or the investigative needs or successes in the regions, including discussions regarding the activity of significant criminal gangs in the region, factors, and trends relevant to the implementation of the statewide drug strategy, and the results of drug control and illicit money laundering investigative efforts funded in part by the council.

2. Maintain and use criteria for the disbursement of funds from the Violent Crime Investigative Emergency and Drug Control Strategy Implementation Account or any other account from which the council may disburse proactive investigative funds as may be established within the Department of Law Enforcement Operating Trust Fund or other appropriations provided to the Department of Law Enforcement by the Legislature in the General Appropriations Act. The criteria shall allow for the advancement of funds to reimburse agencies regarding violent crime investigations as approved by the full council and the advancement of funds to implement proactive drug control strategies or significant criminal gang investigative efforts as authorized by the Drug Control Strategy and Criminal Gang Committee or the Victim and Witness Protection Review Committee. Regarding violent crime investigation reimbursement, an expedited approval procedure shall be established for rapid disbursement of funds in violent crime emergency situations.

(c) As used in this section, “significant criminal gang investigative efforts” eligible for proactive funding must involve at a minimum an effort against a known criminal gang that:

1. Involves multiple law enforcement agencies.

2. Reflects a dedicated significant investigative effort on the part of each participating agency in personnel, time devoted to the investigation, and agency resources dedicated to the effort.

3. Reflects a dedicated commitment by a prosecuting authority to ensure that cases developed by the investigation will be timely and effectively prosecuted.

4. Demonstrates a strategy and commitment to dismantling the criminal gang via seizures of assets, significant money laundering and organized crime investigations and prosecutions, or similar efforts.

The council may require satisfaction of additional elements, to include reporting criminal investigative and criminal intelligence information related to criminal gang activity and members in a manner required by the department, as a prerequisite for receiving proactive criminal gang funding.

(6) Drug Control Strategy and Criminal Gang Committee.--

(a) The Drug Control Strategy and Criminal Gang Committee is created within the Florida Violent Crime and Drug Control Council, consisting of the following council members:

1. The Attorney General or a designate.

2. The designate of the executive director of the Department of Law Enforcement.

3. The secretary of the Department of Corrections or a designate.

4. The director of the Office of Planning and Budgeting in the Executive Office of the Governor or a designate.

5. The state attorney, the two sheriffs, and the two chiefs of police, or their designates.

(b) Subject to funding provided to the department by the Legislature, the committee shall review and approve all requests for disbursement of funds from the Violent Crime Investigative Emergency and Drug Control Strategy Implementation Account within the Department of Law Enforcement Operating Trust Fund and from other appropriations provided to the department by the Legislature in the General Appropriations Act. An expedited approval procedure shall be established for rapid disbursement of funds in violent crime emergency situations. Committee meetings may be conducted by conference call, teleconferencing, or similar technology.

(c) Those receiving any proactive funding provided by the council through the committee shall be required to report the results of the investigations to the council once the investigation has been completed. The committee shall also require ongoing status reports on ongoing investigations using such findings in its closed sessions and may require a recipient to return all or any portion of unexpended proactive funds to the council.

(8) Victim and Witness Protection Review Committee.--

(a) The Victim and Witness Protection Review Committee is created within the Florida Violent Crime and Drug Control Council, consisting of the statewide prosecutor or a state attorney, a sheriff, a chief of police, and the designee of the executive director of the Department of Law Enforcement. The committee shall be appointed from the membership of the council by the chair of the council after the chair has consulted with the executive director of the Department of Law Enforcement. Committee members shall meet in conjunction with the meetings of the council or at other times as required by the department and the chair. The committee meetings may be conducted by conference call, teleconferencing, or similar technology.

(b) Subject to funding provided to the department by the Legislature, the committee shall:

1. Maintain and use criteria for disbursing funds to reimburse law enforcement agencies for costs associated with providing victim and witness temporary protective or temporary relocation services.

2. Review and approve or deny, in whole or in part, all reimbursement requests submitted by law enforcement agencies.

(c) The lead law enforcement agency providing victim or witness protective or temporary relocation services pursuant to the provisions of s. 914.25 may submit a request for reimbursement to the Victim and Witness Protection Review Committee in a format approved by the committee. The lead law enforcement agency shall submit such reimbursement request on behalf of all law enforcement agencies that cooperated in providing protective or temporary relocation services related to a particular criminal investigation or prosecution. As part of the reimbursement request, the lead law enforcement agency must indicate how any reimbursement proceeds will be distributed among the agencies that provided protective or temporary relocation services.

(d) The committee, in its discretion, may use funds available to the committee to provide all or partial reimbursement to the lead law enforcement agency for such costs, or may decline to provide any reimbursement.

Illinois (view all subjects for this state)

Illinois § 20 ILCS 2605/55a. Powers and Duties

(A) The Department of State Police shall have the following powers and duties, and those set forth in Sections 55a-1 through 55c [20 ILCS 2605/55a-1 through 20 ILCS 2605/55c]:

16. To assist victims and witnesses in gang crime prosecutions through the administration of funds appropriated from the Gang Violence Victims and Witnesses Fund to the Department. Such funds shall be appropriated to the Department and shall only be used to assist victims and witnesses in gang crime prosecutions and such assistance may include any of the following:

(a) temporary living costs;

(b) moving expenses;

(c) closing costs on the sale of private residence;

(d) first month's rent;

(e) security deposits;

(f) apartment location assistance;

(g) other expenses which the Department considers appropriate; and

(h) compensation for any loss of or injury to real or personal property resulting from a gang crime to a maximum of $ 5,000, subject to the following provisions:

(1) in the case of loss of property, the amount of compensation shall be measured by the replacement cost of similar or like property which has been incurred by and which is substantiated by the property owner,

(2) in the case of injury to property, the amount of compensation shall be measured by the cost of repair incurred and which can be substantiated by the property owner,

(3) compensation under this provision is a secondary source of compensation and shall be reduced by any amount the property owner receives from any other source as compensation for the loss or injury, including, but not limited to, personal insurance coverage,

(4) no compensation may be awarded if the property owner was an offender or an accomplice of the offender, or if the award would unjustly benefit the offender or offenders, or an accomplice of the offender or offenders.

No victim or witness may receive such assistance if he or she is not a part of or fails to fully cooperate in the prosecution of gang crime members by law enforcement authorities.

Illinois § 20 ILCS 2605/2605-420. Assisting Victims and Witnesses of Gang Crime

To assist victims and witnesses in gang crime prosecutions through the administration of funds appropriated from the Gang Violence Victims and Witnesses Fund to the Department. Those funds shall be appropriated to the Department and shall only be used to assist victims and witnesses in gang crime prosecutions. The assistance may include any of the following:

(1) Temporary living costs.

(2) Moving expenses.

(3) Closing costs on the sale of a private residence.

(4) First month's rent.

(5) Security deposits.

(6) Apartment location assistance.

(7) Other expenses that the Department considers appropriate.

(8) Compensation for any loss of or injury to real or personal property resulting from a gang crime to a maximum of $ 5,000, subject to the following provisions:

(A) In the case of loss of property, the amount of compensation shall be measured by the replacement cost of similar or like property that has been incurred by and that is substantiated by the property owner.

(B) In the case of injury to property, the amount of compensation shall be measured by the cost of repair incurred and that can be substantiated by the property owner.

(C) Compensation under this provision is a secondary source of compensation and shall be reduced by any amount the property owner receives from any other source as compensation for the loss or injury, including, but not limited to, personal insurance coverage.

(D) No compensation may be awarded if the property owner was an offender or an accomplice of the offender or if the award would unjustly benefit the offender or offenders or an accomplice of the offender or offenders.

No victim or witness may receive assistance under this Section if he or she is not a part of or fails to fully cooperate in the prosecution of gang crime members by law enforcement authorities.

Illinois § 725 ILCS 172/5-15. Funding. (Repealed July 1, 2012)

(For postponed repeal of this Act, see 725 ILCS 172/5-30)

The Department of State Police, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall promulgate rules for the implementation of the Gang Crime Witness Protection Program. Assistance shall be subject to the following limitations:

(a) Funds shall be limited to payment of the following:

(1) temporary living costs;

(2) moving expenses;

(3) rent;

(4) security deposits; and

(5) other appropriate expenses of relocation or transition;

(b) Approval of applications made by State's Attorneys shall be conditioned upon county funding for costs at a level of at least 25%, unless this requirement is waived by the administrator, in accordance with promulgated rules, for good cause shown;

(c) Counties providing assistance consistent with the limitations in this Act may apply for reimbursement of up to 75% of their costs; and

(d) No more than 50% of funding available in any given fiscal year may be used for costs associated with any single county.

Illinois § 725 ILCS 172/5-20. Gang Crime Witness Protection Fund. (Repealed July 1, 2012)

(For postponed repeal of this Act, see 725 ILCS 172/5-30)

There is created in the State Treasury the Gang Crime Witness Protection Fund into which shall be deposited appropriated funds, grants, or other funds made available to the Department of State Police to assist State's Attorneys and the Attorney General in protecting victims and witnesses who are aiding in the prosecution of perpetrators of gang crime and appropriate related persons.

Illinois § 725 ILCS 173/1. Short Title [Effective July 1, 2013]

This Act may be cited as the Gang Crime Witness Protection Act of 2013.

Illinois § 725 ILCS 173/5. Definition

As used in this Act, “gang crime” means any criminal offense committed by a member of a “gang” as that term is defined in Section 10 of the Illinois Streetgang Terrorism Omnibus Prevention Act when the offense is in furtherance of any activity, enterprise, pursuit, or undertaking of a gang.

Illinois § 725 ILCS 173/10. Program

Subject to appropriation, the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority shall establish and administer a program to assist victims and witnesses who are actively aiding in the prosecution of perpetrators of gang crime, and appropriate related persons. Financial assistance may be provided, upon application by a State's Attorney or the Attorney General, or a chief executive of a police agency with the approval from the State's Attorney or Attorney General, investigating or prosecuting a gang crime occurring under the State's Attorney's or Attorney General's respective jurisdiction, from funds deposited in the Gang Crime Witness Protection Program Fund and appropriated from that Fund for the purposes of this Act.

Illinois § 725 ILCS 173/15. Funding

The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall adopt rules for the implementation of the Gang Crime Witness Protection Program. Assistance shall be subject to the following limitations:

(a) Funds shall be limited to payment of the following:

(1) temporary living costs;

(2) moving expenses;

(3) rent;

(4) security deposits; and

(5) other appropriate expenses of relocation or transition;

(b) Approval of applications made by State's Attorneys shall be conditioned upon county funding for costs at a level of at least 25%, unless this requirement is waived by the administrator, in accordance with adopted rules, for good cause shown;

(c) Counties providing assistance consistent with the limitations in this Act may apply for reimbursement of up to 75% of their costs; and

(d) No more than 50% of funding available in any given fiscal year may be used for costs associated with any single county.

(e) Before the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority distributes moneys from the Gang Crime Witness Protection Program Fund as provided in this Section, it shall retain 2% of those moneys for administrative purposes.

Illinois § 725 ILCS 173/20. Gang Crime Witness Protection Program Fund

There is created in the State Treasury the Gang Crime Witness Protection Program Fund into which shall be deposited appropriated funds, grants, or other funds made available to the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority to assist State's Attorneys and the Attorney General in protecting victims and witnesses who are aiding in the prosecution of perpetrators of gang crime, and appropriate related persons. Within 30 days after the effective date of this Act, all moneys in the Gang Crime Witness Protection Fund shall be transferred into the Gang Crime Witness Protection Program Fund.

Illinois § 725 ILCS 173/25. Beginning of Operation

The program created by this Act shall begin operation on July 1, 2013.

Indiana (view all subjects for this state)

Indiana § 5-2-6-21. Gang Crime Witness Protection Program

(a) The gang crime witness protection program is established.

(b) The gang crime witness protection program shall be developed and maintained to assist witnesses of gang crimes with:

(1) Temporary living costs;

(2) Moving expenses;

(3) Rent;

(4) Security deposits; and

(5) Other appropriate expenses of relocation or transitional housing.

(c) The institute shall develop and maintain procedures to award funds for the purposes described in subsection (b) to an individual who witnesses a gang crime.

Indiana § 5-2-6-22. Gang Crime Witness Protection Fund Established.

(a) The gang crime witness protection fund is established. The institute shall administer the fund.

(b) The fund consists of:

(1) Money identified and obtained by the institute under subsection (d);

(2) Appropriations made to the fund by the general assembly; and

(3) Grants, gifts, and donations to the fund.

(c) The institute shall use money in the fund for costs described in section 21(b) [IC 5-2-6-21(b)] of this chapter.

(d) The institute shall identify and obtain grants and other funds that can be used to fund the gang crime witness protection program under section 21 [IC 5-2-6-21] of this chapter.

(e) Money in the gang crime witness protection fund at the end of a state fiscal year does not revert to the state general fund.

Indiana § 35-45-9-6. Restitution to Victim.

In addition to any sentence or fine imposed on a criminal gang member for committing a felony or misdemeanor, the court shall order a criminal gang member convicted of a felony or misdemeanor to make restitution to the victim of the crime under IC 35-50-5-3.

South Carolina (view all subjects for this state)

South Carolina § 16-8-250. Preventing Witness or Victim From Testifying; Penalty; Coerced Person's Right to Bring Civil Action.

(A) It is unlawful for a criminal gang member by threat or force to:

(1) prevent a witness or victim from attending or giving testimony at a trial, proceeding, or inquiry authorized by law that concerns or relates to any criminal activity; or

(2) attempt to prevent a witness or victim from attending or giving testimony at a trial, proceeding, or inquiry authorized by law that concerns or relates to any criminal activity.

(B) A criminal gang member who violates a provision of this section is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, must be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than 10 years, or both.

(C) A person who has been coerced, intimidated, threatened, or injured in violation of this section has a civil cause of action against a criminal gang or criminal gang member violating this section for treble the amount of his actual damages, for punitive damages, an injunction, and any other appropriate relief in law or equity. Upon prevailing in the civil action, the plaintiff may recover reasonable attorney's fees and costs from the criminal gang or criminal gang member.

(D) Nothing in this section limits prosecution under any other provision of law.

Washington (view all subjects for this state)

Washington § 7.69.035. Protection of Witnesses Who Testify Against Criminal Gang Members—Intent

The legislature recognizes that witnesses are often fearful of testifying against criminal gang members. Witnesses may be subject to harassment, intimidation, and threats. While the state does not ensure protection of witnesses, the state intends to provide resources to assist local prosecutors in combating gang-related crimes and to help citizens perform their civic duty to testify in these cases.


Top | Index | Disclaimer | National Gang Center Home