Gang-Related Legislation by Subject Index

Gangs and Weapons

Arizona (view all subjects for this state)

Arizona § 13-3102. Misconduct Involving Weapons; Defenses; Classification; Definitions

A. A person commits misconduct involving weapons by knowingly:

9. Discharging a firearm at an occupied structure in order to assist, promote or further the interests of a criminal street gang, a criminal syndicate or a racketeering enterprise.

Arizona § 13-3115. Forensics Firearms Identification System.

The department of public safety is authorized to establish and maintain a forensics firearms identification system designed to provide investigative information on criminal street gangs and the unlawful use of firearms.

California (view all subjects for this state)

California Pen Code § 186.22a. Buildings or Places Used by Criminal Street Gangs; Nuisance; Additional Remedies; Confiscation of Firearms or Deadly or Dangerous Weapons Owned or Possessed by Gang Members

(a) Every building or place used by members of a criminal street gang for the purpose of the commission of the offenses listed in subdivision (e) of Section 186.22 or any offense involving dangerous or deadly weapons, burglary, or rape, and every building or place wherein or upon which that criminal conduct by gang members takes place, is a nuisance which shall be enjoined, abated, and prevented, and for which damages may be recovered, whether it is a public or private nuisance.

(b) Any action for injunction or abatement filed pursuant to subdivision (a), including an action filed by the Attorney General, shall proceed according to the provisions of Article 3 (commencing with Section 11570) of Chapter 10 of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code, except that all of the following shall apply:

(1) The court shall not assess a civil penalty against any person unless that person knew or should have known of the unlawful acts.

(2) No order of eviction or closure may be entered.

(3) All injunctions issued shall be limited to those necessary to protect the health and safety of the residents or the public or those necessary to prevent further criminal activity.

(4) Suit may not be filed until 30-day notice of the unlawful use or criminal conduct has been provided to the owner by mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid, to the last known address.

(c) Whenever an injunction is issued pursuant to subdivision (a), or Section 3479 of the Civil Code, to abate gang activity constituting a nuisance, the Attorney General or any district attorney or any prosecuting city attorney may maintain an action for money damages on behalf of the community or neighborhood injured by that nuisance. Any money damages awarded shall be paid by or collected from assets of the criminal street gang or its members that were derived from the criminal activity being abated or enjoined. Only persons who knew or should have known of the unlawful acts shall be personally liable for the payment of the damages awarded. In a civil action for damages brought pursuant to this subdivision, the Attorney General, district attorney, or city attorney may use, but is not limited to the use of, the testimony of experts to establish damages suffered by the community or neighborhood injured by the nuisance. The damages recovered pursuant to this subdivision shall be deposited into a separate segregated fund for payment to the governing body of the city or county in whose political subdivision the community or neighborhood is located, and that governing body shall use those assets solely for the benefit of the community or neighborhood that has been injured by the nuisance.

(d) No nonprofit or charitable organization which is conducting its affairs with ordinary care or skill, and no governmental entity, shall be abated pursuant to subdivisions (a) and (b).

(e) Nothing in this chapter shall preclude any aggrieved person from seeking any other remedy provided by law.

(f) (1) Any firearm, ammunition which may be used with the firearm, or any deadly or dangerous weapon which is owned or possessed by a member of a criminal street gang for the purpose of the commission of any of the offenses listed in subdivision (e) of Section 186.22, or the commission of any burglary or rape, may be confiscated by any law enforcement agency or peace officer.

(2) In those cases where a law enforcement agency believes that the return of the firearm, ammunition, or deadly weapon confiscated pursuant to this subdivision, is or will be used in criminal street gang activity or that the return of the item would be likely to result in endangering the safety of others, the law enforcement agency shall initiate a petition in the superior court to determine if the item confiscated should be returned or declared a nuisance.

(3) No firearm, ammunition, or deadly weapon shall be sold or destroyed unless reasonable notice is given to its lawful owner if his or her identity and address can be reasonably ascertained. The law enforcement agency shall inform the lawful owner, at that person's last known address by registered mail, that he or she has 30 days from the date of receipt of the notice to respond to the court clerk to confirm his or her desire for a hearing and that the failure to respond shall result in a default order forfeiting the confiscated firearm, ammunition, or deadly weapon as a nuisance.

(4) If the person requests a hearing, the court clerk shall set a hearing no later than 30 days from receipt of that request. The court clerk shall notify the person, the law enforcement agency involved, and the district attorney of the date, time, and place of the hearing.

(5) At the hearing, the burden of proof is upon the law enforcement agency or peace officer to show by a preponderance of the evidence that the seized item is or will be used in criminal street gang activity or that return of the item would be likely to result in endangering the safety of others. All returns of firearms shall be subject to Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 33850) of Division 11 of Title 4 of Part 6.

(6) If the person does not request a hearing within 30 days of the notice or the lawful owner cannot be ascertained, the law enforcement agency may file a petition that the confiscated firearm, ammunition, or deadly weapon be declared a nuisance. If the items are declared to be a nuisance, the law enforcement agency shall dispose of the items as provided in Sections 18000 and 18005.

California Pen Code § 186.28. Firearms; Supply, Sell or Give Possession; Participation in Criminal Street Gangs

(a) Any person, corporation, or firm who shall knowingly supply, sell, or give possession or control of any firearm to another shall be punished by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170, or in a county jail for a term not exceeding one year, or by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment if all of the following apply:

(1) The person, corporation, or firm has actual knowledge that the person will use the firearm to commit a felony described in subdivision (e) of Section 186.22, while actively participating in any criminal street gang, as defined in subdivision (f) of Section 186.22, the members of which engage in a pattern of criminal activity, as defined in subdivision (e) of Section 186.22.

(2) The firearm is used to commit the felony.

(3) A conviction for the felony violation under subdivision (e) of Section 186.22 has first been obtained of the person to whom the firearm was supplied, sold, or given possession or control pursuant to this section.

(b) This section shall only be applicable where the person is not convicted as a principal to the felony offense committed by the person to whom the firearm was supplied, sold, or given possession or control pursuant to this section.

California Pen Code § 12022.5. Terms of Imprisonment for Use of Firearms, Assault Weapon, Machinegun, or .50 BMG Rifle while Committing or Attempting to Commit a Felony

(a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), any person who personally uses a firearm in the commission of a felony or attempted felony shall be punished by an additional and consecutive term of imprisonment in the state prison for 3, 4, or 10 years, unless use of a firearm is an element of that offense.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), any person who personally uses an assault weapon, as specified in Section 30510 or Section 30515, or a machinegun, as defined in Section 16880, in the commission of a felony or attempted felony, shall be punished by an additional and consecutive term of imprisonment in the state prison for 5, 6, or 10 years.

(c) Notwithstanding Section 1385 or any other provisions of law, the court shall not strike an allegation under this section or a finding bringing a person within the provisions of this section.

(d) Notwithstanding the limitation in subdivision (a) relating to being an element of the offense, the additional term provided by this section shall be imposed for any violation of Section 245 if a firearm is used, or for murder if the killing is perpetrated by means of shooting a firearm from a motor vehicle, intentionally at another person outside of the vehicle with the intent to inflict great bodily injury or death.

(e) When a person is found to have personally used a firearm, an assault weapon, a machinegun, or a .50 BMG rifle, in the commission of a felony or attempted felony as provided in this section and the firearm, assault weapon, machinegun, or a .50 BMG rifle, is owned by that person, the court shall order that the firearm be deemed a nuisance and disposed of in the manner provided in Sections 18000 and 18005.

(f) For purposes of imposing an enhancement under Section 1170.1, the enhancements under this section shall count as one, single enhancement.

California Pen Code § 12022.55. Additional and Consecutive Term for Discharge of Firearm From Motor Vehicle in Commission of Felony or Attempted Felony; Great Bodily Injury or Death

Notwithstanding Section 12022.5, any person who, with the intent to inflict great bodily injury or death, inflicts great bodily injury, as defined in Section 12022.7, or causes the death of a person, other than an occupant of a motor vehicle, as a result of discharging a firearm from a motor vehicle in the commission of a felony or attempted felony, shall be punished by an additional and consecutive term of imprisonment in the state prison for 5, 6, or 10 years.

California Pen Code § 12031. Carrying Loaded Firearms; Punishment; Exceptions (Repealed)

(a) (1) A person is guilty of carrying a loaded firearm when he or she carries a loaded firearm on his or her person or in a vehicle while in any public place or on any public street in an incorporated city or in any public place or on any public street in a prohibited area of unincorporated territory.

(2) Carrying a loaded firearm in violation of this section is punishable, as follows:

(C) Where the person is an active participant in a criminal street gang, as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 186.22, under the Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act (Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 186.20) of Title 7 of Part 1), as a felony.

California Pen Code § 12034. Driver or Owner of Vehicle Permitting Firearms in Vehicle, or Discharge of Firearms From Vehicle; Punishment; Willful or Malicious Discharge of Firearms From Motor Vehicle; Felony or Public Offense (Repealed)

(a) It is a misdemeanor for a driver of any motor vehicle or the owner of any motor vehicle, whether or not the owner of the vehicle is occupying the vehicle, knowingly to permit any other person to carry into or bring into the vehicle a firearm in violation of Section 12031 of this code or Section 2006 of the Fish and Game Code.

(b) Any driver or owner of any vehicle, whether or not the owner of the vehicle is occupying the vehicle, who knowingly permits any other person to discharge any firearm from the vehicle is punishable by imprisonment in the county jail for not more than one year or in state prison for 16 months or two or three years.

(c) Any person who willfully and maliciously discharges a firearm from a motor vehicle at another person other than an occupant of a motor vehicle is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment in state prison for three, five, or seven years.

(d) Except as provided in Section 3002 of the Fish and Game Code, any person who willfully and maliciously discharges a firearm from a motor vehicle is guilty of a public offense punishable by imprisonment in the county jail for not more than one year or in the state prison.

Delaware (view all subjects for this state)

Delaware § 7103. Definitions

As used in this chapter, unless the context indicates differently:

(1) “Adverse impact” means the presence of one or more of the following conditions:

a. Diminished real property value related to nuisances associated with drug activity, illegal firearms, criminal gangs, violent felonies, prostitution, and other public nuisances in or near the property;

b. Increased fear of residents to walk through or in public areas, including sidewalks, streets, and parks, due to the presence of nuisances associated with drug activity, illegal firearms, criminal gangs, violent felonies, prostitution, and other public nuisances;

c. Increased volume of vehicular and pedestrian traffic to and from the property that is related to nuisances associated with drug activity, illegal firearms, criminal gangs, violent felonies, prostitution, and other public nuisances;

d. An increase in the number of police calls to the property that are related to nuisances associated with drug activity, illegal firearms, criminal gangs, violent felonies, prostitution, and other public nuisances;

f. The presence, use, or display or discharge of illegal firearms at or near the property;

h. Arrests of persons on or near the property for criminal conduct relating to nuisances associated with drug activity, illegal firearms, criminal gangs, violent felonies, prostitution, and other public nuisances;

i. Search warrants served or executed at the property relating to nuisances associated with drug activity, illegal firearms, criminal gangs, violent felonies, prostitution, and other public nuisances;

j. A substantial number of complaints made to law enforcement and other government officials regarding nuisances associated with drug activity, illegal firearms, criminal gangs, violent felonies, prostitution, and other public nuisances;

k. Increased number of housing or health code violations relating to nuisances associated with drug activity, illegal firearms, criminal gangs, violent felonies, prostitution, and other public nuisances;

(4) “Criminal gangs” means any criminal street gangs or youth gangs as defined in Sections 616-617 of Title 11. “Pattern of criminal gang activity” shall have the same meaning as defined in Section 616(a)(2) of Title 11.

(5) “Criminal nuisance” means any real property at which:

a. An illegal drug event has occurred within the period of 1 year prior to the commencement of the civil action under this chapter; or

b. The illegal use, manufacture, causing to be manufactured, importation, possession, possession for sale, sale, furnishing, storing or delivery of ammunition or firearms has occurred, or any act or acts which constitute any felony set forth in Subpart E of Subchapter VII of Chapter 5 of Title 11 of the Delaware Code or an unlawful attempt or conspiracy to commit such an act; or

d. Criminal gangs are engaging in a pattern of criminal gang activity; or

e. An act that would constitute a violent felony, as defined by Section 4201(c) of Title 11 of the Delaware Code, has occurred within the period of 1 year prior to the commencement of the civil action under this chapter; or

f. A material annoyance, inconvenience, discomfort, or a tangible injury occurs to neighboring properties or persons, and which a court considers objectionable under the circumstances, or any other public nuisance defined by state or municipal codes or Delaware law.

Florida (view all subjects for this state)

Florida § 775.0846. Possession of Bulletproof Vest While Committing Certain Offenses

(1) As used in this section, the term "bulletproof vest" means a bullet-resistant soft body armor providing, as a minimum standard, the level of protection known as "threat level I," which shall mean at least seven layers of bullet-resistant material providing protection from three shots of 158-grain lead ammunition fired from a .38 caliber handgun at a velocity of 850 feet per second.

(2) No person may possess a bulletproof vest while, acting alone or with one or more other persons, he or she commits or attempts to commit any murder, sexual battery, robbery, burglary, arson, aggravated assault, aggravated battery, kidnapping, escape, breaking and entering with intent to commit a felony, criminal gang-related offense under chapter 874, controlled substance offense under chapter 893, or aircraft piracy and such possession is in the course of and in furtherance of any such crime.

(3) Any person who violates this section commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

Georgia (view all subjects for this state)

Georgia § 16-11-160. Use of Machine Guns, Sawed-Off Rifles, Sawed-Off Shotguns, or Firearms With Silencers During Commission of Certain Offenses; Penalties

(a)(1) It shall be unlawful for any person to possess or to use a machine gun, sawed-off rifle, sawed-off shotgun, or a firearm equipped with a silencer, as those terms are defined in Code Section 16-11-121, during the commission or the attempted commission of any of the following offenses:

(L) Participation in criminal gang activity as defined in Code Section 16-15-4.

Idaho (view all subjects for this state)

Idaho § 18-8505. Supplying Firearms to a Criminal Gang

(1) A person commits the offense of supplying firearms to a criminal gang if the person knows an individual is a gang member and supplies, sells, or gives possession or control of any firearm to that gang member.

(2) Subsection (1) of this section shall not apply to a person who is convicted as a principal to the offense committed by the recipient of the firearm.

(3) A person convicted of a violation of this section shall be imprisoned for a term not to exceed ten (10) years or be fined an amount not to exceed fifty thousand dollars ($50,000), or both.

Illinois (view all subjects for this state)

Illinois § 720 ILCS 5/24-1.8. Unlawful Possession of a Firearm by a Street Gang Member

(a) A person commits unlawful possession of a firearm by a street gang member when he or she knowingly:

(1) Possesses, carries, or conceals on or about his or her person a firearm and firearm ammunition while on any street, road, alley, gangway, sidewalk, or any other lands, except when inside his or her own abode or inside his or her fixed place of business, and has not been issued a currently valid firearm owner's identification card and is a member of a street gang; or

(2) Possesses or carries in any vehicle a firearm and firearm ammunition which are both immediately accessible at the time of the offense while on any street, road, alley, or any other lands, except when inside his or her own abode or garage, and has not been issued a currently valid firearm owner's identification card and is a member of a street gang.

(b) Unlawful possession of a firearm by a street gang member is a class 2 felony for which the person, if sentenced to a term of imprisonment, shall be sentenced to no less than 3 years and no more than 10 years. a period of probation, a term of periodic imprisonment or conditional discharge shall not be imposed for the offense of unlawful possession of a firearm by a street gang member when the firearm was loaded or contained firearm ammunition and the court shall sentence the offender to not less than the minimum term of imprisonment authorized for the class 2 felony.

(c) For purposes of this section:

"Street gang" or "gang" has the meaning ascribed to it in section 10 of the Illinois Streetgang Terrorism Omnibus Prevention Act.

"Street gang member" or "gang member" has the meaning ascribed to it in section 10 of the Illinois Streetgang Terrorism Omnibus Prevention Act.

Louisiana (view all subjects for this state)

Louisiana § 15:1405.2. Possession of Firearms, Ammunition, and Dangerous Weapons by Criminal Street Gangs; Forfeiture

A. Any firearm, ammunition to be used in a firearm, or dangerous weapon in the possession of a member of a criminal street gang as defined by R.S. 15:1404, may be seized by any law enforcement agency or peace officer, when the law enforcement agency or peace officer reasonably believes that the firearm, ammunition to be used in a firearm, or dangerous weapon is or will be used in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity.

B. The district attorney shall initiate, in a civil action, forfeiture proceedings by petition in the district courts as to any property seized pursuant to the provisions of this Section within ninety days of seizure. The district attorney shall provide notice of the filing of the petition to those members of the gang who become known to law enforcement officials as a result of the seizure and any related arrests, and to any person learned by law enforcement officials to be the owner of any property involved. After initial notice of the filing of the petition, the court shall assure that all persons so notified continue to receive notice of all subsequent proceedings related to the property.

C. Any person who claims an interest in any seized property shall, in order to assert a claim that the property should not be forfeited, file a notice with the court, without necessity of paying costs, of the intent to establish either of the following:

(1) That the persons asserting the claim did not know, and could not have known of its use in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity.

(2) That the law enforcement officer lacked the requisite reasonable belief that the property was or would be used in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity.

Mississippi (view all subjects for this state)

Mississippi § 97-3-110. Seizure and Forfeiture of Firearms and Motor Vehicles; Unlawful Possession and Drive-By Shootings or Bombings by Minors

(1) Whenever a person under eighteen (18) years of age is unlawfully in possession of a firearm, the firearm shall be seized and, after an adjudication of delinquency or conviction, shall be subject to forfeiture.

(2) Whenever a person under eighteen (18) years of age unlawfully discharges a firearm in or throws or ejects a bomb from a motor vehicle in violation of Section 97-3-109, Mississippi Code of 1972, the motor vehicle shall be subject to seizure and, after an adjudication of delinquency or conviction, be subject to forfeiture pursuant to the procedures set forth in Section 97-3-111, Mississippi Code of 1972.

Mississippi § 97-44-17. Forfeiture of Firearms, Ammunition, and Dangerous Weapons Used by Criminal Street Gangs; Disposition of Property Seized; Procedure.

(1) Any firearm, ammunition to be used in a firearm, or dangerous weapon in the possession of a member of a criminal street gang may be seized by any law enforcement agency or peace officer when the law enforcement agency or peace officer has probable cause to believe that the firearm, ammunition to be used in a firearm, or dangerous weapon is or has been used by a gang in the commission of illegal activity.

(2) The district attorney or an attorney for the seizing agency shall initiate, in a civil action, forfeiture proceedings by petition in the circuit courts as to any property seized pursuant to the provisions of this section within thirty (30) days of seizure. The district attorney shall provide notice of the filing of the petition to those members of the gang who become known to law enforcement officials as a result of the seizure and any related arrests, and to any person determined by law enforcement officials to be the owner of any of the property involved. After initial notice of the filing of the petition, the court shall assure that all persons so notified continue to receive notice of all subsequent proceedings related to the property.

(3) Any person who claims an interest in any seized property shall, in order to assert a claim that the property should not be forfeited, file a notice with the court, without necessity of paying costs, of the intent to establish either of the following:

(a) That the persons asserting the claim did not know of, could not have known of, or had no reason to believe in its use by a gang in the commission of illegal activity; or

(b) That the law enforcement officer lacked the requisite reasonable belief that the property was or had been used by a gang in the commission of illegal activity.

(4) An acquittal or dismissal in a criminal proceeding shall not preclude civil proceedings under this section; however, for good cause shown, on motion by the district attorney, the court may stay civil forfeiture proceedings during the criminal trial for related criminal indictment or information alleging a violation of this section. Such a stay shall not be available pending an appeal.

(5) Except as otherwise provided by this section, all proceedings hereunder shall be governed by the provisions of the Mississippi Rules of Civil Procedure.

(6) The issue shall be determined by the court alone, and the hearing on the claim shall be held within sixty (60) days after service of the petition unless continued for good cause. The district attorney shall have the burden of showing by clear and convincing proof that forfeiture of the property is appropriate.

(7) Any person who asserts a successful claim in accordance with subsection (3) of this section shall be awarded the seized property by the court, together with costs of filing such action. All property as to which no claim is filed, or as to which no successful claim is made, may be destroyed, sold at a public sale, retained for use by the seizing agency or transferred without charge to any law enforcement agency of the state for use by it. Property that is sold shall be sold by the circuit court at a public auction for cash to the highest and best bidder after advertising the sale for at least once each week for three (3) consecutive weeks, the last notice to appear not more than ten (10) days nor less than five (5) days prior to such sale in a newspaper having a general circulation in the county. Such notice shall contain a description of the property to be sold and a statement of the time and place of sale. It shall not be necessary to the validity of such sale either to have the property present at the place of sale or to have the name of the owner thereof stated in such notice. The proceeds of the sale, less any expenses of concluding the sale, shall be deposited in the seizing agency’s general fund to be used only for approved law enforcement activity affecting the agency’s efforts to combat gang activities.

(8) Any action under the provisions of this section may be consolidated with any other action or proceedings pursuant to this section relating to the same property on motion of the district attorney.

Missouri (view all subjects for this state)

Missouri § 578.435. Weapon Defined—Weapons Owned or in Possession of Gang Members May Be Confiscated—Weapon Deemed a Nuisance and Destroyed by Court Order, When

1. As used in this section and section 578.437, the term "weapon" means any firearm, concealable firearm, blackjack, explosive weapon, gas gun, knife, knuckles, machine gun, projectile weapon, rifle, short barrel, shotgun, or switchblade knife, as defined in section 571.010, RSMo.

2. Any weapon which is owned or possessed by a member of a criminal street gang for the purposes of the commission of an offense enumerated in subdivision (2) of section 578.421 may be confiscated by any law enforcement agency or peace officer as defined in section 590.100, RSMo. If the law enforcement agency or peace officer believes that the return of the weapon confiscated has been or will be used in criminal street gang activity or that the return of the weapon would be likely to result in endangering the safety of others, the law enforcement agency or peace officer may initiate a petition in circuit court to determine if the weapon should be returned or declared a nuisance. If the court declares such weapon to be a nuisance, the weapon shall be destroyed.

Missouri § 578.437. Weapon Not to Be Declared a Nuisance Unless Notice Given to Lawful Owner, Procedure—Burden of Proof on State That Return of Weapon Would Endanger Lives

No weapon shall be declared a nuisance pursuant to section 578.435 and this section unless reasonable notice has been given to the lawful owner thereof, if his identity and address can be reasonably ascertained. The law enforcement agency shall inform the lawful owner at that person’s last known address by registered mail that the owner of the weapon has thirty days from the date of receipt of the notice to respond to the clerk of the court to confirm his desire for a hearing, and that the failure to respond shall result in a default order and thereupon such weapon shall be declared a nuisance. If the person requests a hearing the court shall set a hearing no later than sixty days from the receipt of such request, and shall notify the person, the law enforcement agency involved, and the prosecuting attorney of the date, time, and place of the hearing. At such hearing the burden of proof shall be upon the state to show by a preponderance of the evidence that the seized item has been or will be used in criminal street gang activity, or that the return of the weapon would likely result in the endangering of the lives of others.

Montana (view all subjects for this state)

Montana § 45-8-406. Supplying of Firearms to Criminal Street Gang.

(1) A person commits the offense of supplying firearms to a criminal street gang if the person purposely or knowingly supplies, sells, or gives possession or control of any firearm to another, and the person has actual knowledge that the other person will use the firearm to commit an offense enumerated in 45-8-405 while actively participating in any criminal street gang whose members engage in a pattern of criminal street gang activity.

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a person who is convicted as a principal to the offense committed by the person to whom the firearm was supplied, sold, or given.

(3) A person convicted of the offense of supplying firearms to a criminal street gang shall be imprisoned in the county jail for a term not to exceed 1 year or be fined an amount not to exceed $ 1,000, or both.

North Carolina (view all subjects for this state)

North Carolina § 14-34.9. Discharging a Firearm From Within an Enclosure

Unless covered under some other provision of law providing greater punishment, any person who willfully or wantonly discharges or attempts to discharge a firearm, as a part of a pattern of criminal street gang activity, from within any building, structure, motor vehicle, or other conveyance, erection, or enclosure toward a person or persons not within that enclosure shall be punished as a Class E felon.

South Carolina (view all subjects for this state)

South Carolina § 16-8-260. Seizure of Firearms, Ammunition, Electronic Records, Money, Etc.; Forfeiture Actions.

(A)(1) Any firearm, ammunition to be used in a firearm, or dangerous weapon in the possession of a member of a criminal gang may be seized by a law enforcement officer or agency when the law enforcement officer or agency reasonably believes that the firearm, ammunition to be used in a firearm, or dangerous weapon is or has been used in a pattern of criminal gang activity or in the commission of a criminal act for the purpose of benefiting, promoting, or furthering the interests of a criminal gang.

(2) Any written or electronic communications, records, money, negotiable instruments, or valuables may be seized by a law enforcement officer or agency when the law enforcement officer or agency reasonably believes that the written or electronic communications, records, money, negotiable instruments, or valuables have been used in a pattern of criminal gang activity or have been used for the purpose of benefiting, promoting, or furthering the interests of a criminal gang.

(3) Any contraband, as defined in Section 16-8-230, or other asset owned or titled in the name of the gang or an individual gang member may be seized by a law enforcement officer or agency when the law enforcement officer or agency reasonably believes that the contraband or asset has been used in a pattern of criminal gang activity or has been used for the purpose of benefiting, promoting, or furthering the interests of a criminal gang.

(B) The solicitor or another prosecuting attorney shall initiate, in a civil action, forfeiture proceedings by petition in a court of competent jurisdiction regarding any property seized pursuant to the provisions of this section within ninety days of seizure. The solicitor or another prosecuting attorney must provide notice of the filing of the petition to those criminal gang members who become known to law enforcement officials as a result of the seizure and any related arrests, and to any person learned by law enforcement officials to be the owner of any of the property involved. After initial notice of the filing of the petition, the court must ensure that all persons so notified continue to receive notice of all subsequent proceedings related to the property.

(C) A person who claims an interest in any seized property, in order to assert a claim that the property should not be forfeited, must file a notice with the court, without the necessity of paying costs, of the intent to establish either of the following:

(1) That the person asserting the claim did not know and could not have known of the property's use in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity or in furthering the interests of the criminal gang; or

(2) That the law enforcement officer lacked the requisite reasonable belief that the property was or would be used in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity or in furtherance of the interests of the criminal gang.

(D) In any hearings held and determinations made, pursuant to this section, the court may receive and consider, in making a determination of reasonable cause, all evidence admissible in determining reasonable or probable cause at a preliminary hearing together with inferences arising from the evidence presented.

(E) An acquittal or dismissal in a criminal proceeding must not preclude civil proceedings under this section. However, for good cause shown, on motion by the solicitor or another prosecuting attorney, the court may stay civil forfeiture proceedings during the criminal trial for a related criminal indictment or information alleging a violation of this section. A stay is not available pending an appeal.

(F) Except as otherwise provided by this section, all proceedings under this section are governed according to the common law, by statutory provisions relating to civil remedies and procedures, and the rules of civil procedure established for the circuit court. Additionally, any action under the provisions of this section may be consolidated with any other action or proceeding pursuant to this section relating to the same property on motion of the solicitor or prosecuting attorney.

(G) The forfeiture provided for in this section must be decided by the court. The hearing on the claim must be held within sixty days after service of the petition, unless continued for good cause. The solicitor or prosecuting attorney has the burden of proof to establish by a preponderance of the evidence that the property is subject to forfeiture.

(H) A person who asserts a successful claim in accordance with subsection (C) must be awarded the seized property by the court. All property to which no claim is filed, or to which no successful claim is made may be destroyed, sold at a public or private sale, retained for use by the seizing agency, or transferred without charge to any law enforcement agency of the state for use by the agency.

Texas (view all subjects for this state)

Texas Penal Code § 46.02. Unlawful Carrying Weapons

(a) A person commits an offense if the person intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly carries on or about his or her person a handgun, illegal knife, or club if the person is not:

(1) on the person's own premises or premises under the person's control; or

(2) inside of or directly en route to a motor vehicle or watercraft that is owned by the person or under the person's control.

(a-1) A person commits an offense if the person intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly carries on or about his or her person a handgun in a motor vehicle or watercraft that is owned by the person or under the person's control at any time in which:

(1) the handgun is in plain view; or

(2) the person is:

(A) engaged in criminal activity, other than a Class C misdemeanor that is a violation of a law or ordinance regulating traffic or boating;

(B) prohibited by law from possessing a firearm; or

(C) a member of a criminal street gang, as defined by Section 71.01.

(a-2) For purposes of this section, "premises" includes real property and a recreational vehicle that is being used as living quarters, regardless of whether that use is temporary or permanent. In this subsection, "recreational vehicle" means a motor vehicle primarily designed as temporary living quarters or a vehicle that contains temporary living quarters and is designed to be towed by a motor vehicle. The term includes a travel trailer, camping trailer, truck camper, motor home, and horse trailer with living quarters.

(a-3) For purposes of this section, “watercraft” means any boat, motorboat, vessel, or personal watercraft, other than a seaplane on water, used or capable of being used for transportation on water.

(b) Except as provided by Subsection (c), an offense under this section is a Class A misdemeanor.

(c) An offense under this section is a felony of the third degree if the offense is committed on any premises licensed or issued a permit by this state for the sale of alcoholic beverages.

Utah (view all subjects for this state)

Utah § 76-9-804. Convicted Criminal Gang Offender—Prohibition

(1) A person who has been convicted of a crime for which the penalty was enhanced under Section 76-3-203.1 may not, except where a greater penalty is applicable under this title, possess a dangerous weapon as defined in either Section 76-1-601 or 76-10-501, ammunition, or a facsimile of a firearm within five years after the conviction.

(2) A violation of Subsection (1) is a class A misdemeanor.

Washington (view all subjects for this state)

Washington § 9.41.225. Use of Machine Gun in Felony—Penalty

It is unlawful for a person, in the commission or furtherance of a felony other than a violation of RCW 9.41.190, to discharge a machine gun or to menace or threaten with a machine gun, another person. A violation of this section shall be punished as a class A felony under chapter 9A.20 RCW.

Washington § 9.94A.701. Community Custody—Offenders Sentenced to the Custody of the Department

(3) A court shall, in addition to the other terms of the sentence, sentence an offender to community custody for one year when the court sentences the person to the custody of the department for:

(a) Any crime against persons under RCW 9.94A.411(2);

(b) An offense involving the unlawful possession of a firearm under RCW 9.41.040, where the offender is a criminal street gang member or associate.

Washington § 9.94A.829. Special Allegation—Offense Committed by Criminal Street Gang Member or Associate—Procedures

In a criminal case in which the defendant has been convicted of unlawful possession of a firearm under RCW 9.41.040, and there has been a special allegation pleaded and proven by a preponderance of the evidence that the accused is a criminal street gang member or associate as defined in RCW 9.94A.030, the court shall make a finding of fact of the special allegation, or if a jury trial is had, the jury shall, if it finds the defendant guilty, also find a special verdict as to whether or not the accused was a criminal street gang member or associate during the commission of the crime.


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