Gang-Related Legislation by State Index

New Jersey

Carjacking (view all states for this subject)

New Jersey § 2C:15-2. Carjacking

a. Carjacking defined. A person is guilty of carjacking if in the course of committing an unlawful taking of a motor vehicle, as defined in R.S. 39:1-1, or in an attempt to commit an unlawful taking of a motor vehicle he:

(1) Inflicts bodily injury or uses force upon an occupant or person in possession or control of a motor vehicle;

(2) Threatens an occupant or person in control with, or purposely or knowingly puts an occupant or person in control of the motor vehicle in fear of, immediate bodily injury;

(3) Commits or threatens immediately to commit any crime of the first or second degree; or

(4) Operates or causes said vehicle to be operated with the person who was in possession or control or was an occupant of the motor vehicle at the time of the taking remaining in the vehicle.

An act shall be deemed to be "in the course of committing an unlawful taking of a motor vehicle" if it occurs during an attempt to commit the unlawful taking of a motor vehicle or during an immediate flight after the attempt or commission.

b. Grading. Carjacking is a crime of the first degree and upon conviction thereof a person may, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of subsection a. of N.J.S. 2C:43-6, be sentenced to an ordinary term of imprisonment between 10 and 30 years. A person convicted of carjacking shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment and that term of imprisonment shall include the imposition of a minimum term of at least 5 years during which the defendant shall be ineligible for parole.

New Jersey § 2C:20-10. Unlawful Taking of Means of Conveyance

a. A person commits a disorderly persons offense if, with purpose to withhold temporarily from the owner, he takes, operates, or exercises control over any means of conveyance, other than a motor vehicle, without consent of the owner or other person authorized to give consent. "Means of conveyance" includes but is not limited to motor vehicles, bicycles, motorized bicycles, boats, horses, vessels, surfboards, rafts, skimobiles, airplanes, trains, trams and trailers. It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under subsections a., b. and c. of this section that the actor reasonably believed that the owner or any other person authorized to give consent would have consented to the operation had he known of it.

b. A person commits a crime of the fourth degree if, with purpose to withhold temporarily from the owner, he takes, operates or exercises control over a motor vehicle without the consent of the owner or other person authorized to give consent.

c. A person commits a crime of the third degree if, with purpose to withhold temporarily from the owner, he takes, operates or exercises control over a motor vehicle without the consent of the owner or other person authorized to give consent and operates the motor vehicle in a manner that creates a risk of injury to any person or a risk of damage to property.

d. A person commits a crime of the fourth degree if he enters and rides in a motor vehicle knowing that the motor vehicle has been taken or is being operated without the consent of the owner or other person authorized to consent.

Curfew (view all states for this subject)

New Jersey § 40:48-2.52. Ordinances Relating to Juveniles; Definitions; Penalties; Exceptions; Standards

a. As used in this act:

(1) "Juvenile" means an individual who is under the age of 18 years.

(2) "Guardian" means a person, other than a parent, to whom legal custody of the juvenile has been given by court order or who is acting in the place of the parent or is responsible for the care and welfare of the juvenile.

(3) "Public place" means any place to which the public has access, including but not limited to a public street, road, thoroughfare, sidewalk, bridge, alley, plaza, park, recreation or shopping area, public transportation facility, vehicle used for public transportation, parking lot or any other public building, structure or area.

b. (1) A municipality is hereby authorized and empowered to enact an ordinance making it unlawful for a juvenile of any age under 18 years within the discretion of the municipality to be on any public street or in a public place between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. unless accompanied by the juvenile's parent or guardian or unless engaged in, or traveling to or from, a business or occupation which the laws of this State authorize a juvenile to perform. Such an ordinance may also make it unlawful for any parent or guardian to allow an unaccompanied juvenile to be on any public street or in any public place during those hours.

(2) A municipality is hereby authorized and empowered to enact an ordinance making it unlawful for a juvenile of any age under 18 years within the discretion of the municipality to be in any public place during the hours when the juvenile is required to be in attendance at either a public or non-public school unless the juvenile is accompanied by a parent or guardian or is carrying written permission from the juvenile's educational authority allowing the juvenile to be in a public place.

c. An ordinance enacted pursuant to this act shall provide that violators shall be required to perform community service and may be subject to a fine of up to $ 1,000.00. If both a juvenile and the juvenile's parent or guardian violate such an ordinance, they shall be required to perform community service together.

d. An ordinance enacted pursuant to this act shall include exceptions permitting juveniles to engage in errands involving medical emergencies, to attend extracurricular school activities, and to participate in other cultural, educational and social events, sponsored by religious or community-based organizations during curfew hours.

e. An ordinance enacted pursuant to this act shall establish clear standards in precise language adequate to apprise a juvenile and a parent or guardian of that which is unlawful and adequate to circumscribe the discretion of police officers in order to overcome subjective and discriminatory enforcement.

Enhanced Penalties—Sentencing (view all states for this subject)

New Jersey § 2C:33-29. Gang Criminality; Definition; Grading

a. A person is guilty of the crime of gang criminality if, while knowingly involved in criminal street gang activity, he commits, attempts to commit, or conspires to commit, whether as a principal or an accomplice, any crime specified in chapters 11 through 18, 20, 33, 35 or 37 of Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes; N.J.S.2C:34-1; N.J.S.2C:39-3; N.J.S.2C:39-4; section 1 of P.L.1998, c.26 (C.2C:39-4.1); N.J.S.2C:39-9. A crime is committed while involved in a criminal street gang related activity if the crime was committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with a criminal street gang.

"Criminal street gang" means three or more persons associated in fact. Individuals are associated in fact if: (1) two of the following seven criteria that indicate criminal street gang membership apply: (a) self-proclamation; (b) witness testimony or official statement; (c) written or electronic correspondence; (d) paraphernalia or photographs; (e) tattoos; (f) clothing or colors; (g) any other indicia of street gang activity; and (2) individually or in combination with other members of a criminal street gang, while engaging in gang related activity, have committed or conspired or attempted to commit, within the preceding five years from the date of the present offense, excluding any period of imprisonment, one or more offenses on separate occasions of robbery, carjacking, aggravated assault, assault, aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault, arson, burglary, kidnapping, extortion, tampering with witnesses and informants or a violation of chapter 11, section 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 of chapter 35 or chapter 39 of Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes.

b. Grading. Gang criminality is a crime of one degree higher than the most serious underlying crime referred to in subsection a. of this section, except that where the underlying crime is a crime of the first degree, gang criminality is a first degree crime and the defendant, upon conviction, and notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:43-6, shall be sentenced to an ordinary term of imprisonment between 15 and 30 years. A sentence imposed upon conviction of the crime of gang criminality shall be ordered to be served consecutively to the sentence imposed upon conviction of any underlying offense referred to in subsection a. of this section.

Gang Participation (view all states for this subject)

New Jersey § 2C:33-29. Gang Criminality; Definition; Grading

a. A person is guilty of the crime of gang criminality if, while knowingly involved in criminal street gang activity, he commits, attempts to commit, or conspires to commit, whether as a principal or an accomplice, any crime specified in chapters 11 through 18, 20, 33, 35 or 37 of Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes; N.J.S.2C:34-1; N.J.S.2C:39-3; N.J.S.2C:39-4; section 1 of P.L.1998, c.26 (C.2C:39-4.1); N.J.S.2C:39-9. A crime is committed while involved in a criminal street gang related activity if the crime was committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with a criminal street gang.

"Criminal street gang" means three or more persons associated in fact. Individuals are associated in fact if: (1) two of the following seven criteria that indicate criminal street gang membership apply: (a) self-proclamation; (b) witness testimony or official statement; (c) written or electronic correspondence; (d) paraphernalia or photographs; (e) tattoos; (f) clothing or colors; (g) any other indicia of street gang activity; and (2) individually or in combination with other members of a criminal street gang, while engaging in gang related activity, have committed or conspired or attempted to commit, within the preceding five years from the date of the present offense, excluding any period of imprisonment, one or more offenses on separate occasions of robbery, carjacking, aggravated assault, assault, aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault, arson, burglary, kidnapping, extortion, tampering with witnesses and informants or a violation of chapter 11, section 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 of chapter 35 or chapter 39 of Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes.

b. Grading. Gang criminality is a crime of one degree higher than the most serious underlying crime referred to in subsection a. of this section, except that where the underlying crime is a crime of the first degree, gang criminality is a first degree crime and the defendant, upon conviction, and notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:43-6, shall be sentenced to an ordinary term of imprisonment between 15 and 30 years. A sentence imposed upon conviction of the crime of gang criminality shall be ordered to be served consecutively to the sentence imposed upon conviction of any underlying offense referred to in subsection a. of this section.

Gang Prevention (view all states for this subject)

New Jersey § 18A:35-4.26. Gang Violence Prevention Instruction

Each board of education that operates an educational program for elementary school students shall offer instruction in gang violence prevention and in ways to avoid membership in gangs. The instruction shall take place as part of the district's implementation of the Core Curriculum Content Standards in Comprehensive Health and Physical Education, and the comprehensive health and physical education curriculum framework shall provide school districts with sample materials that may be used to support implementation of the instructional requirement.

New Jersey § 52:17B-162. Purpose; Assistance for Community Law Enforcement Projects

It is the purpose of this act to provide assistance to municipalities for law enforcement projects which accomplish the following objective as warranted by the needs of the community:

d. Reducing the incidence of criminal behavior, such as drug trafficking or youth gang activity, that disrupts the normal functioning of a community;

Gang Prosecution (view all states for this subject)

New Jersey § 2A:4A-26. Referral to Another Court without Juvenile's Consent

a. On motion of the prosecutor, the court shall, without the consent of the juvenile, waive jurisdiction over a case and refer that case from the Superior Court, Chancery Division, Family Part to the appropriate court and prosecuting authority having jurisdiction if it finds, after hearing, that:

(1) The juvenile was 14 years of age or older at the time of the charged delinquent act; and

(2) There is probable cause to believe that the juvenile committed a delinquent act or acts which if committed by an adult would constitute:

(a) Criminal homicide other than death by auto, strict liability for drug induced deaths, pursuant to N.J.S.2C:35-9, robbery which would constitute a crime of the first degree, carjacking, aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault, aggravated assault which would constitute a crime of the second degree, kidnapping, aggravated arson, or gang criminality pursuant to section 1 of P.L.2007, c. 341 (C.2C:33-29) where the underlying crime is enumerated in this subparagraph or promotion of organized street crime pursuant to section 2 of P.L.2007, c. 341 (C.2C:33-30) which would constitute a crime of the first or second degree which is enumerated in this subparagraph; or

New Jersey § 2C:35A-3. Criteria for Imposition of Anti-Drug Profiteering Penalty

a. In addition to any other disposition authorized by this title, including but not limited to any fines which may be imposed pursuant to the provisions of N.J.S.2C:43-3 and except as may be provided by section 5 of this chapter, where a person has been convicted of a crime defined in chapter 35 or 36 of this Title or any crime involving criminal street gang related activity as defined in subsection h. of N.J.S.2C:44-3 or an attempt or conspiracy to commit such a crime, the court shall, upon the application of the prosecutor, sentence the person to pay a monetary penalty in an amount determined pursuant to section 4 of this chapter, provided the court finds at a hearing, which may occur at the time of sentencing, that the prosecutor has established by a preponderance of the evidence one or more of the grounds specified in this section. The findings of the court shall be incorporated in the record, and in making its findings, the court shall take judicial notice of any evidence, testimony or information adduced at the trial, plea hearing or other court proceedings and shall also consider the presentence report and any other relevant information.

b. Any of the following shall constitute grounds for imposing an Anti-Drug Profiteering Penalty:

(5) The defendant was involved in criminal street gang related activity.

Gang Recruitment, Threats, Intimidation (view all states for this subject)

New Jersey § 2C:33-10. Causing Fear of Unlawful Bodily Violence, Crime of Third Degree; Act of Graffiti, Additional Penalty

A person is guilty of a crime of the third degree if he purposely, knowingly, or recklessly puts or attempts to put another in fear of bodily violence by placing on private property of another a symbol, an object, a characterization, an appellation, or graffiti that exposes another to threats of violence. A person shall not be guilty of an attempt unless his actions cause a serious and imminent likelihood of causing fear of unlawful bodily violence.

A person convicted of an offense under this section that involves an act of graffiti may, in addition to any other penalty imposed by the court, be required either to pay to the owner of the damaged property monetary restitution in the amount of the pecuniary damage caused by the act of graffiti or to perform community service, which shall include removing the graffiti from the property, if appropriate. If community service is ordered, it shall be for either not less than 20 days nor less than the number of days necessary to remove the graffiti from the property.

New Jersey § 2C:33-28. Soliciting or Recruiting Gang Members; Sentence

a. An actor who solicits or recruits another to join or actively participate in a criminal street gang with the knowledge or purpose that the person who is solicited or recruited will promote, further, assist, plan, aid, agree, or attempt to aid in the commission of criminal conduct by a member of a criminal street gang commits a crime of the fourth degree. For purposes of this section, the actor shall have the requisite knowledge or purpose if he knows that the person who is solicited or recruited will engage in some form, though not necessarily which form, of criminal activity. "Criminal street gang" shall have the meaning set forth in subsection h. of N.J.S.2C:44-3.

b. An actor who, in the course of violating subsection a. of this section, threatens another with bodily injury on two or more separate occasions within a 30-day period commits a crime of the third degree.

c. An actor who, in the course of violating subsection a. of this section, inflicts significant bodily injury upon another commits a crime of the second degree.

d. Any defendant convicted of soliciting, recruiting, coercing or threatening a person under 18 years of age in violation of subsection a. or b. of this section shall be guilty of a crime of the second degree

e. An actor who violates subsection a. of this section while under official detention commits a crime of the second degree. As used in this subsection, “official detention” means detention in any facility for custody of persons under charge or conviction of a crime or offense, or committed pursuant to chapter 4 of this Title, or alleged or found to be delinquent; detention for extradition or deportation; mandatory commitment to a residential treatment facility imposed as a condition of special probation pursuant to subsection d. of N.J.S.2C:35-14; or any other detention for law enforcement purposes. “Official detention” also includes supervision of probation or parole, or constraint incidental to release on bail. Notwithstanding the provisions of N.J.S.2C:44-5 or any other provision of law, the court shall order that the sentence imposed upon a violation of this section be served consecutively to the period or periods of detention the actor was serving at the time of the violation.

f. Any defendant convicted of soliciting, recruiting, coercing or threatening a person under 18 years of age in violation of subsection c. or e. of this section shall be sentenced by the court to an extended term of imprisonment as set forth in subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:43-7.

Notwithstanding the provisions of N.J.S.2C:1-8, N.J.S.2C:44-5 or any other provision of law, a conviction arising under this section shall not merge with a conviction for any criminal offense that the actor committed while involved in criminal street gang related activity, as defined in subsection h. of N.J.S.2C:44-3, nor shall the conviction for any such offense merge with a conviction pursuant to this section and the sentence imposed upon a violation of this section shall be ordered to be served consecutively to that imposed upon any other such conviction.

Gang-Related Clothing, Dress Codes, School Uniforms (view all states for this subject)

New Jersey § 18A:11-7. Legislative Findings and Declaration

The Legislature finds and declares that many educators believe that school dress can significantly influence pupil behavior and that schools that have adopted dress codes, including dress codes which require school uniforms and which prohibit clothing indicating membership in certain gangs, experience greater school pride and improved behavior in and out of the classroom. The Legislature further finds that to assist in controlling the environment in public schools, to facilitate and maintain an effective learning environment, and to keep the focus of the classroom on learning, school districts should be specifically authorized to implement uniform clothing requirements for their students.

New Jersey § 18A:11-9. Adoption of Dress Code Policy Prohibiting Wearing of Clothing Indicating Membership in Certain Gangs

A board of education may adopt a dress code policy to prohibit students from wearing, while on school property, any type of clothing, apparel or accessory which indicates that the student has membership in, or affiliation with, any gang associated with criminal activities. The local law enforcement agency shall advise the board, upon its request, of gangs which are associated with criminal activities.

Gang-Related Definitions (view all states for this subject)

New Jersey § 2A:153-4.1. Damaging Property by Acts of Graffiti; Ordinance; Determination of Recipients of Reward

The governing body of any municipality may, by ordinance, provide for the offering of rewards not exceeding $500.00 each, for the detection and apprehension of any person guilty of purposely or knowingly damaging tangible property of another by an act of graffiti in violation of N.J.S. 2C:17-3. A reward is to be payable after conviction out of those funds of the municipality made available therefore. The reward shall be paid to any person who the governing body, acting upon the recommendation of the municipal chief of police or other principal municipal law enforcement officer, may deem entitled thereto, but no reward shall be paid to any public employee whose duty it is to investigate or to enforce the law or to the employee’s spouse, child or parent, living in the same household.

For the purposes of this act, "act of graffiti" means the drawing, painting or the making of any inscription on a bridge, building, public transportation vehicle, rock, wall, sidewalk, street or other exposed surface on public or private property without the permission of the owner.

New Jersey § 2C:15-2. Carjacking

a. Carjacking defined. A person is guilty of carjacking if in the course of committing an unlawful taking of a motor vehicle, as defined in R.S. 39:1-1, or in an attempt to commit an unlawful taking of a motor vehicle he:

(1) Inflicts bodily injury or uses force upon an occupant or person in possession or control of a motor vehicle;

(2) Threatens an occupant or person in control with, or purposely or knowingly puts an occupant or person in control of the motor vehicle in fear of, immediate bodily injury;

(3) Commits or threatens immediately to commit any crime of the first or second degree; or

(4) Operates or causes said vehicle to be operated with the person who was in possession or control or was an occupant of the motor vehicle at the time of the taking remaining in the vehicle.

An act shall be deemed to be "in the course of committing an unlawful taking of a motor vehicle" if it occurs during an attempt to commit the unlawful taking of a motor vehicle or during an immediate flight after the attempt or commission.

b. Grading. Carjacking is a crime of the first degree and upon conviction thereof a person may, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of subsection a. of N.J.S. 2C:43-6, be sentenced to an ordinary term of imprisonment between 10 and 30 years. A person convicted of carjacking shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment and that term of imprisonment shall include the imposition of a minimum term of at least 5 years during which the defendant shall be ineligible for parole.

New Jersey § 2C:17-3. Criminal Mischief

c. A person convicted of an offense of criminal mischief that involves an act of graffiti may, in addition to any other penalty imposed by the court, be required to pay to the owner of the damaged property monetary restitution in the amount of the pecuniary damage caused by the act of graffiti and to perform community service, which shall include removing the graffiti from the property, if appropriate. If community service is ordered, it shall be for either not less than 20 days or not less than the number of days necessary to remove the graffiti from the property.

d. As used in this section:

(1) "Act of graffiti" means the drawing, painting, or making of any mark or inscription on public or private real or personal property without the permission of the owner.

(2) "Spray paint" means any paint or pigmented substance that is in an aerosol or similar spray container.

New Jersey § 2C:33-14.1. Vandalizing Railroad Warning Signals or Protection Devices

a. Any person who purposely, knowingly, or recklessly defaces, damages, obstructs, removes, or otherwise impairs the operation of any railroad crossing warning signal or protection device, including, but not limited to safety gates, electric bell, electric sign, or any other alarm or protection system authorized by the Commissioner of Transportation, which is required under the provisions of R.S. 48:12-54 or R.S. 48:2-29, or any other railroad property or equipment, other than administrative buildings, offices, or equipment, shall, for a first offense, be guilty of a crime of the fourth degree; however, if the defacement, damage, obstruction, removal, or impediment of the crossing warning signal or protection device, property, or equipment recklessly causes bodily injury or pecuniary loss of $ 2000 or more, the actor is guilty of a crime of the third degree, or if it recklessly causes a death or serious bodily injury, the actor is guilty of a crime of the second degree.

b. A person convicted of a violation of this section that involves an act of graffiti may, in addition to any other penalty imposed by the court, be required to pay to the owner of the damaged property monetary restitution in the amount of the pecuniary damage caused by the act of graffiti and to perform community service, which shall include removing the graffiti from the property, if appropriate. If community service is ordered, it shall be for either not less than 20 days or not less than the number of days necessary to remove the graffiti from the property. As used in this section, "act of graffiti" means the drawing, painting, or making of any mark or inscription on public or private real or personal property without the permission of the owner.

New Jersey § 2C:33-24. Definitions.

As used in this chapter:

a. "Act of graffiti" means the drawing, painting, or making any mark or inscription on public or private real or personal property without the permission of the owner.

b. "Spray paint" means any paint or pigmented substance that is in an aerosol or similar spray container.

New Jersey § 2C:33-29. Gang Criminality; Definition; Grading

a. A person is guilty of the crime of gang criminality if, while knowingly involved in criminal street gang activity, he commits, attempts to commit, or conspires to commit, whether as a principal or an accomplice, any crime specified in chapters 11 through 18, 20, 33, 35 or 37 of Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes; N.J.S.2C:34-1; N.J.S.2C:39-3; N.J.S.2C:39-4; section 1 of P.L.1998, c.26 (C.2C:39-4.1); N.J.S.2C:39-9. A crime is committed while involved in a criminal street gang related activity if the crime was committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with a criminal street gang.

"Criminal street gang" means three or more persons associated in fact. Individuals are associated in fact if: (1) two of the following seven criteria that indicate criminal street gang membership apply: (a) self-proclamation; (b) witness testimony or official statement; (c) written or electronic correspondence; (d) paraphernalia or photographs; (e) tattoos; (f) clothing or colors; (g) any other indicia of street gang activity; and (2) individually or in combination with other members of a criminal street gang, while engaging in gang related activity, have committed or conspired or attempted to commit, within the preceding five years from the date of the present offense, excluding any period of imprisonment, one or more offenses on separate occasions of robbery, carjacking, aggravated assault, assault, aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault, arson, burglary, kidnapping, extortion, tampering with witnesses and informants or a violation of chapter 11, section 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 of chapter 35 or chapter 39 of Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes.

b. Grading. Gang criminality is a crime of one degree higher than the most serious underlying crime referred to in subsection a. of this section, except that where the underlying crime is a crime of the first degree, gang criminality is a first degree crime and the defendant, upon conviction, and notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:43-6, shall be sentenced to an ordinary term of imprisonment between 15 and 30 years. A sentence imposed upon conviction of the crime of gang criminality shall be ordered to be served consecutively to the sentence imposed upon conviction of any underlying offense referred to in subsection a. of this section.

New Jersey § 40:48-2.59. Graffiti on Buildings, Structures and Other Exposed Surfaces; Ordinances Enforcing Prohibitions

a. The governing body of every municipality may make, amend, repeal, and enforce ordinances to prohibit acts of graffiti on buildings, structures, and other exposed surfaces located within the municipality and to require the owner of a building, structure, or other exposed surface located in the municipality to remove graffiti.

b. For the purposes of this section, "graffiti" means any drawing, painting, or making of any mark or inscription on public or private real or personal property without the prior written permission of the owner of the property.

c. (1) An ordinance requiring an owner to remove graffiti shall provide that the owner of record of the property shall be entitled to written notice of the order to remove graffiti and that the notice shall be delivered to the owner by certified and regular mail. The order shall afford the owner the opportunity to remove the graffiti within 90 days from the date that the notice is sent; however, the Department of Transportation shall be afforded 120 days from the date a notice is sent to remove graffiti from property owned by the department.

(2) The notice to remove graffiti shall contain a form to be utilized by a property owner to inform the municipality that the graffiti has been removed. The form shall contain a provision stating that by affixing a signature to the form, indicating that graffiti has been removed, the owner is certifying that the facts set forth therein are true and that the certification shall be considered as if made under oath and subject to the same penalties as provided by law for perjury.

(3) An owner who has been ordered to remove graffiti shall respond to the municipality by personal delivery or by certified mail:

(a) of any objection to the order, within 30 days of the date of the order, or

(b) of notice that the graffiti has been removed, within 90 days of the date of the order, or in the case of the Department of Transportation, within 120 days of the date of the order.

d. An owner who objects to an order to remove graffiti, pursuant to paragraph (3) of subsection c. of this section, may institute an action challenging the order before a court of competent jurisdiction within 60 days of the date of the order.

e. If a property owner does not undertake the removal of graffiti within 90 days of the date of the order, or in the case of the Department of Transportation, within 120 days of the date of the order, unless an action challenging the order to remove graffiti is still pending pursuant to subsection d. of this section, the municipality may remove the graffiti from that property and present the property owner with a detailed itemization of the costs incurred by the municipality, by certified and regular mail, for reimbursement from the property owner.

f. Whenever a municipality undertakes the removal of graffiti from any building, structure, or other exposed surface, the governing body of the municipality, in addition to assessing the cost of removal as a municipal lien against the premises, may enforce the payment of such assessment, together with interest, as a debt of the owner of the property and may authorize the institution of an action at law for the collection thereof. The Superior Court shall have jurisdiction of any such action.

Gang-Related Findings and Declarations (view all states for this subject)

New Jersey § 18A:11-7. Legislative Findings and Declaration

The Legislature finds and declares that many educators believe that school dress can significantly influence pupil behavior and that schools that have adopted dress codes, including dress codes which require school uniforms and which prohibit clothing indicating membership in certain gangs, experience greater school pride and improved behavior in and out of the classroom. The Legislature further finds that to assist in controlling the environment in public schools, to facilitate and maintain an effective learning environment, and to keep the focus of the classroom on learning, school districts should be specifically authorized to implement uniform clothing requirements for their students.

Gangs and Schools (view all states for this subject)

New Jersey § 18A:35-4.26. Gang Violence Prevention Instruction

Each board of education that operates an educational program for elementary school students shall offer instruction in gang violence prevention and in ways to avoid membership in gangs. The instruction shall take place as part of the district's implementation of the Core Curriculum Content Standards in Comprehensive Health and Physical Education, and the comprehensive health and physical education curriculum framework shall provide school districts with sample materials that may be used to support implementation of the instructional requirement.

New Jersey § 52:17B-4.7. Gang Education Seminars for School Administrators; Exemption.

a. The Attorney General shall develop and maintain, in coordination with the Commissioner of Education, a gang education seminar program to educate public and nonpublic school administrators on how to recognize signs of gang involvement or activity. A seminar shall be offered annually in each county and shall be held in the office of the county superintendent of schools or such other facility as the Attorney General or Commissioner of Education shall designate.

b. A superintendent, assistant superintendent, principal, or other administrator employed by a public school district shall attend a gang education seminar offered pursuant to this section within the first year of initial employment as an administrator with a public school district. An administrator employed by a school district prior to the effective date [Oct.12, 2007] of this act shall attend the first seminar offered in the county subsequent to its enactment. A superintendent, assistant superintendent, principal, or other administrator shall be exempt from the requirements of this section if that person has successfully completed a gang education seminar conducted by a public school district which is substantially equivalent to the seminar required pursuant to this section.

c. A gang education seminar offered pursuant to this section shall be open to all public and nonpublic school administrators.

Graffiti (view all states for this subject)

New Jersey § 2A:4A-43.2. Additional Penalty for Juvenile Adjudicated Delinquent

In addition to any other penalty imposed by the court, any juvenile adjudicated delinquent for an offense which, if committed by an adult, would constitute criminal mischief pursuant to N.J.S.2C:17-3, attempting to put another in fear of bodily violence pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1981, c.282 (C.2C:33-10), or defacement of private property pursuant to section 2 of P.L.1981, c.282 (C.2C:33-11), involving an act of graffiti, may be required either to pay to the owner of the damaged property monetary restitution in the amount of pecuniary damage caused by the act of graffiti or to perform community service, which shall include removing the graffiti from the property, if appropriate. If community service is ordered, it shall be for either not less than 20 days or not less than the number of days necessary to remove the graffiti from the property.

New Jersey § 2A:4A-43.3. Suspension or Postponement of Right to Operate Motor Vehicle of Person Convicted of or Adjudicated Delinquent for Certain Violations

Instead of or in addition to any other disposition ordered by the court under section 24 of P.L.1982, c.77 (C.2A:4A-43) for an initial act of graffiti committed by a person at least 13 and under 18 years of age, the court, considering the factors provided in paragraph (17) of subsection b. of section 24 of P.L.1983, c.77 (C.2A:4A-43), may suspend or postpone for one year that person’s right to operate a motor vehicle including a motorized bicycle. In the case of a person who at the time of the imposition of sentence is less than 17 years of age, the period of the suspension of driving privileges authorized herein, including a suspension of the privilege of operating a motorized bicycle, shall commence on the day the sentence is imposed and shall run for a period of one year after the day the person reaches the age of 17 years. If the driving privilege of any person is under revocation, suspension, or postponement for a violation of any provision of this Title or Title 39 of the Revised Statutes at the time of any conviction or adjudication of delinquency for a violation of any offense defined in this section, the revocation, suspension, or postponement period imposed herein shall commence as of the date of termination of the existing revocation, suspension, or postponement.

A second or subsequent offense may result in the suspension or postponement of the person’s right to operate a motor vehicle for two years. If a second or subsequent offense occurs during a period when the person has had this right suspended or postponed, the person’s right to operate a motor vehicle may be suspended or postponed for an additional two years to run consecutively.

The court before whom any person is convicted of or adjudicated delinquent for a violation shall collect forthwith the New Jersey driver's license or licenses of the person and forward such license or licenses to the Director of the Division of Motor Vehicles along with a report indicating the first and last day of the suspension or postponement period imposed by the court pursuant to this section. If the court is for any reason unable to collect the license or licenses of the person, the court shall cause a report of the conviction or adjudication of delinquency to be filed with the director. That report shall include the complete name, address, date of birth, eye color, and sex of the person and shall indicate the first and last day of the suspension or postponement period imposed by the court pursuant to this section. The court shall inform the person orally and in writing that if the person is convicted of personally operating a motor vehicle during the period of license suspension or postponement imposed pursuant to this section the person shall, upon conviction, be subject to the penalties set forth in R.S. 39:3-40. A person shall be required to acknowledge receipt of the written notice in writing. Failure to receive a written notice or failure to acknowledge in writing the receipt of a written notice shall not be a defense to a subsequent charge of violation of R.S. 39:3-40. If the person is the holder of a driver's license from another jurisdiction, the court shall not collect the license but shall notify the director who shall notify the appropriate officials in the licensing jurisdiction. The court shall, however, in accordance with the provisions of this section, revoke the person's non-resident driving privileges in this State.

New Jersey § 2A:153-4.1. Damaging Property by Acts of Graffiti; Ordinance; Determination of Recipients of Reward

The governing body of any municipality may, by ordinance, provide for the offering of rewards not exceeding $500.00 each, for the detection and apprehension of any person guilty of purposely or knowingly damaging tangible property of another by an act of graffiti in violation of N.J.S. 2C:17-3. A reward is to be payable after conviction out of those funds of the municipality made available therefore. The reward shall be paid to any person who the governing body, acting upon the recommendation of the municipal chief of police or other principal municipal law enforcement officer, may deem entitled thereto, but no reward shall be paid to any public employee whose duty it is to investigate or to enforce the law or to the employee’s spouse, child or parent, living in the same household.

For the purposes of this act, "act of graffiti" means the drawing, painting or the making of any inscription on a bridge, building, public transportation vehicle, rock, wall, sidewalk, street or other exposed surface on public or private property without the permission of the owner.

New Jersey § 2C:17-3. Criminal Mischief

c. A person convicted of an offense of criminal mischief that involves an act of graffiti may, in addition to any other penalty imposed by the court, be required to pay to the owner of the damaged property monetary restitution in the amount of the pecuniary damage caused by the act of graffiti and to perform community service, which shall include removing the graffiti from the property, if appropriate. If community service is ordered, it shall be for either not less than 20 days or not less than the number of days necessary to remove the graffiti from the property.

d. As used in this section:

(1) "Act of graffiti" means the drawing, painting, or making of any mark or inscription on public or private real or personal property without the permission of the owner.

(2) "Spray paint" means any paint or pigmented substance that is in an aerosol or similar spray container.

New Jersey § 2C:33-10. Causing Fear of Unlawful Bodily Violence, Crime of Third Degree; Act of Graffiti, Additional Penalty

A person is guilty of a crime of the third degree if he purposely, knowingly, or recklessly puts or attempts to put another in fear of bodily violence by placing on private property of another a symbol, an object, a characterization, an appellation, or graffiti that exposes another to threats of violence. A person shall not be guilty of an attempt unless his actions cause a serious and imminent likelihood of causing fear of unlawful bodily violence.

A person convicted of an offense under this section that involves an act of graffiti may, in addition to any other penalty imposed by the court, be required either to pay to the owner of the damaged property monetary restitution in the amount of the pecuniary damage caused by the act of graffiti or to perform community service, which shall include removing the graffiti from the property, if appropriate. If community service is ordered, it shall be for either not less than 20 days nor less than the number of days necessary to remove the graffiti from the property.

New Jersey § 2C:33-11. Defacement of Private Property, Crime of Fourth Degree; Act of Graffiti, Additional Penalty

A person is guilty of a crime of the fourth degree if he purposely defaces or damages, without authorization of the owner or tenant, any private premises or property primarily used for religious, educational, residential, memorial, charitable, or cemetery purposes, or for assembly by persons for purpose of exercising any right guaranteed by law or by the Constitution of this State or of the United States by placing thereon a symbol, an object, a characterization, an appellation, or graffiti that exposes another to threat of violence.

A person convicted of an offense under this section that involves an act of graffiti may, in addition to any other penalty imposed by the court, be required either to pay to the owner of the damaged property monetary restitution in the amount of pecuniary damage caused by the act of graffiti or to perform community service, which shall include removing the graffiti from the property, if appropriate. If community service is ordered, it shall be for either not less than 20 days or not less than the number of days necessary to remove the graffiti from the property.

New Jersey § 2C:33-14.1. Vandalizing Railroad Warning Signals or Protection Devices

a. Any person who purposely, knowingly, or recklessly defaces, damages, obstructs, removes, or otherwise impairs the operation of any railroad crossing warning signal or protection device, including, but not limited to safety gates, electric bell, electric sign, or any other alarm or protection system authorized by the Commissioner of Transportation, which is required under the provisions of R.S. 48:12-54 or R.S. 48:2-29, or any other railroad property or equipment, other than administrative buildings, offices, or equipment, shall, for a first offense, be guilty of a crime of the fourth degree; however, if the defacement, damage, obstruction, removal, or impediment of the crossing warning signal or protection device, property, or equipment recklessly causes bodily injury or pecuniary loss of $ 2000 or more, the actor is guilty of a crime of the third degree, or if it recklessly causes a death or serious bodily injury, the actor is guilty of a crime of the second degree.

b. A person convicted of a violation of this section that involves an act of graffiti may, in addition to any other penalty imposed by the court, be required to pay to the owner of the damaged property monetary restitution in the amount of the pecuniary damage caused by the act of graffiti and to perform community service, which shall include removing the graffiti from the property, if appropriate. If community service is ordered, it shall be for either not less than 20 days or not less than the number of days necessary to remove the graffiti from the property. As used in this section, "act of graffiti" means the drawing, painting, or making of any mark or inscription on public or private real or personal property without the permission of the owner.

New Jersey § 2C:33-24. Definitions.

As used in this chapter:

a. "Act of graffiti" means the drawing, painting, or making any mark or inscription on public or private real or personal property without the permission of the owner.

b. "Spray paint" means any paint or pigmented substance that is in an aerosol or similar spray container.

New Jersey § 2C:33-25. Exhibition of Warning Sign Required for Sale of Spray Paint; Violations, Penalties

No person shall knowingly sell or offer for sale to the general public any spray paint unless a sign is exhibited, either where the product is displayed or where it is paid for, warning that in New Jersey an act of graffiti committed by a juvenile may carry a penalty of a one-year driver's license suspension for a first offense and a two-year suspension for a second offense, and that an act of graffiti committed by either an adult or a juvenile may carry a penalty of restitution or 20 days' community service.

A person who knowingly violates this section shall be fined $ 50 for the first offense and $ 100 for a second or subsequent offense.

New Jersey § 40:48-2.59. Graffiti on Buildings, Structures and Other Exposed Surfaces; Ordinances Enforcing Prohibitions

a. The governing body of every municipality may make, amend, repeal, and enforce ordinances to prohibit acts of graffiti on buildings, structures, and other exposed surfaces located within the municipality and to require the owner of a building, structure, or other exposed surface located in the municipality to remove graffiti.

b. For the purposes of this section, "graffiti" means any drawing, painting, or making of any mark or inscription on public or private real or personal property without the prior written permission of the owner of the property.

c. (1) An ordinance requiring an owner to remove graffiti shall provide that the owner of record of the property shall be entitled to written notice of the order to remove graffiti and that the notice shall be delivered to the owner by certified and regular mail. The order shall afford the owner the opportunity to remove the graffiti within 90 days from the date that the notice is sent; however, the Department of Transportation shall be afforded 120 days from the date a notice is sent to remove graffiti from property owned by the department.

(2) The notice to remove graffiti shall contain a form to be utilized by a property owner to inform the municipality that the graffiti has been removed. The form shall contain a provision stating that by affixing a signature to the form, indicating that graffiti has been removed, the owner is certifying that the facts set forth therein are true and that the certification shall be considered as if made under oath and subject to the same penalties as provided by law for perjury.

(3) An owner who has been ordered to remove graffiti shall respond to the municipality by personal delivery or by certified mail:

(a) of any objection to the order, within 30 days of the date of the order, or

(b) of notice that the graffiti has been removed, within 90 days of the date of the order, or in the case of the Department of Transportation, within 120 days of the date of the order.

d. An owner who objects to an order to remove graffiti, pursuant to paragraph (3) of subsection c. of this section, may institute an action challenging the order before a court of competent jurisdiction within 60 days of the date of the order.

e. If a property owner does not undertake the removal of graffiti within 90 days of the date of the order, or in the case of the Department of Transportation, within 120 days of the date of the order, unless an action challenging the order to remove graffiti is still pending pursuant to subsection d. of this section, the municipality may remove the graffiti from that property and present the property owner with a detailed itemization of the costs incurred by the municipality, by certified and regular mail, for reimbursement from the property owner.

f. Whenever a municipality undertakes the removal of graffiti from any building, structure, or other exposed surface, the governing body of the municipality, in addition to assessing the cost of removal as a municipal lien against the premises, may enforce the payment of such assessment, together with interest, as a debt of the owner of the property and may authorize the institution of an action at law for the collection thereof. The Superior Court shall have jurisdiction of any such action.

Miscellaneous Gang Legislation (view all states for this subject)

New Jersey § 2C:35A-3. Criteria for Imposition of Anti-Drug Profiteering Penalty

a. In addition to any other disposition authorized by this title, including but not limited to any fines which may be imposed pursuant to the provisions of N.J.S.2C:43-3 and except as may be provided by section 5 of this chapter, where a person has been convicted of a crime defined in chapter 35 or 36 of this Title or any crime involving criminal street gang related activity as defined in subsection h. of N.J.S.2C:44-3 or an attempt or conspiracy to commit such a crime, the court shall, upon the application of the prosecutor, sentence the person to pay a monetary penalty in an amount determined pursuant to section 4 of this chapter, provided the court finds at a hearing, which may occur at the time of sentencing, that the prosecutor has established by a preponderance of the evidence one or more of the grounds specified in this section. The findings of the court shall be incorporated in the record, and in making its findings, the court shall take judicial notice of any evidence, testimony or information adduced at the trial, plea hearing or other court proceedings and shall also consider the presentence report and any other relevant information.

b. Any of the following shall constitute grounds for imposing an Anti-Drug Profiteering Penalty:

(5) The defendant was involved in criminal street gang related activity.

New Jersey § 2C:43-13.1. Conditional Dismissal Program; Eligibility and Application

a. Whenever any defendant who has not been previously convicted of any petty disorderly persons offense, disorderly persons offense or crime under any law of the United States, this State or any other state, and who has not previously participated in conditional discharge under N.J.S.2C:36A-1, supervisory treatment under N.J.S.2C:43-12, or conditional dismissal under P.L.2013, c. 158 (C.2C:43-13.1 et al.), is charged with a petty disorderly offense or disorderly persons offense except as provided in subsection b. of this section, the defendant may, after a plea of guilty or a finding of guilt, but prior to the entry of a judgment of conviction and with appropriate notice to the prosecutor, apply to the court for entry into the conditional dismissal program pursuant to the requirements of P.L.2013, c. 158 (C.2C:43-13.1 et al.). As a condition of such application, the defendant shall submit to the fingerprint identification procedures as provided in R.S. 53:1-15 before making such application to the court to allow sufficient time for verification of the defendant's criminal history by the prosecutor.

b. (1) A defendant shall not be eligible for participation in the conditional dismissal program if the offense for which the person is charged involved: (a) organized criminal or gang activity; (b) a continuing criminal business or enterprise; (c) a breach of the public trust by a public officer or employee; (d) domestic violence as defined by subsection a. of section 3 of P.L.1991, c. 261 (C.2C:25-19); (e) an offense against an elderly, disabled or minor person; (f) an offense involving driving or operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol, intoxicating liquor, narcotic, hallucinogenic or habit-producing drug; (g) a violation of animal cruelty laws; or (h) any disorderly persons offense or petty disorderly persons offense under chapter 35 or 36 of Title 2C.

(2) Nothing in this act shall preclude a defendant charged with any disorderly persons offense or petty disorderly persons offense under chapter 35 or 36 of Title 2C from applying to the court for admission into the conditional discharge program in accordance with N.J.S.2C:36A-1.

c. In addition to the eligibility criteria enumerated in this section, the court shall consider the following factors:

(1) The nature and circumstances of the offense;

(2) The facts surrounding the commission of the offense;

(3) The motivation, age, character and attitude of the defendant;

(4) The desire of the complainant or victim to forego prosecution;

(5) The needs and interests of the victim and the community;

(6) The extent to which the defendant's offense constitutes part of a continuing pattern of anti-social behavior;

(7) Whether the offense is of an assaultive or violent nature, whether in the act itself or in the possible injurious consequences of such behavior;

(8) Whether the applicant's participation will adversely affect the prosecution of codefendants;

(9) Whether diversion of the defendant from prosecution is consistent with the public interest; and

(10) Any other factors deemed relevant by the court.

New Jersey § 52:17B-5.3. Quarterly Report by Local and County Police; Contents; Gang-Related Incident Offense Report

a. All local and county police authorities shall submit a quarterly report to the Attorney General, on forms prescribed by the Attorney General, which report shall contain the number and nature of offenses committed within their respective jurisdictions, the disposition of such matters, information relating to criminal street gang activities within their respective jurisdictions, information relating to any offense directed against a person or group, or their property, by reason of their race, color, religion, gender, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, national origin, or ethnicity and such other information as the Attorney General may require, respecting information relating to the cause and prevention of crime, recidivism, the rehabilitation of criminals and the proper administration of criminal justice.

b. A law enforcement officer who responds to an offense involving criminal street gang activity shall complete a gang related incident offense report on a form prescribed by the Superintendent of State Police. All information contained in the gang related incident offense report shall be forwarded to the Superintendent of State Police for inclusion in the Uniform Crime Report.

c. A law enforcement officer who seizes or recovers a firearm that was unlawfully possessed, used for an unlawful purpose, recovered from a crime scene or is reasonably believed to have been used in or associated with the commission of a crime, or is otherwise acquired as an abandoned or discarded firearm shall complete, within 24 hours of the entering of the required information relating to that firearm into the New Jersey Trace System and such other State and federal database systems as prescribed by the superintendent, a seized or recovered firearms incident report on a form prescribed by the superintendent. The incident report shall be filed with the State Police in a manner and time prescribed by the superintendent.

New Jersey § 53:1-15.1. Crime Related to Street Gang Activity; Designation on Fingerprinting Form

a. Upon the arrest of any person for a crime or offense for which fingerprinting is required, the arresting officer shall designate whether the crime or offense was related to criminal street gang activity on the form used for the collection of fingerprints pursuant to R.S.53:1-15. For the purposes of this section, a crime is related to criminal street gang activity if the crime was committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with a criminal street gang as defined in subsection h. of N.J.S.2C:44-3.

b. The form used for the collection of fingerprints pursuant to R.S.53:1-15 shall include a place for the arresting officer to designate whether the crime or offense was related to criminal street gang activity.


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