Gang-Related Legislation by State Index

Louisiana

Carjacking (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 14:64.2. Carjacking.

A. Carjacking is the intentional taking of a motor vehicle, as defined in R.S. 32:1(40), belonging to another person, in the presence of that person, or in the presence of a passenger, or any other person in lawful possession of the motor vehicle, by the use of force or intimidation.

B. Whoever commits the crime of carjacking shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than two years and for not more than twenty years, without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence.

Drive-By Shooting (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 14:37.1. Assault by Drive-By Shooting

A. Assault by drive-by shooting is an assault committed with a firearm when an offender uses a motor vehicle to facilitate the assault.

B. Whoever commits an assault by drive-by shooting shall be imprisoned for not less than one year nor more than five years, with or without hard labor, and without benefit of suspension of sentence.

C. As used in this Section and in R.S. 14:30(A)(1) and 30.1(A)(2), the term "drive-by shooting" means the discharge of a firearm from a motor vehicle on a public street or highway with the intent either to kill, cause harm to, or frighten another person.

Enhanced Penalties—Sentencing (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 15:1403. Criminal Street Gangs and Patterns of Criminal Street Gang Activity: Prohibitions and Criminal Penalties

A. Any person who intentionally directs, participates, conducts, furthers, or assists in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity as defined in this Chapter shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than one year nor more than one-half of the maximum term of imprisonment provided for an underlying offense committed in a pattern of criminal gang activity and may be fined an amount not to exceed ten thousand dollars. Any sentence of imprisonment imposed pursuant to this Section shall be in addition and consecutive to any sentence imposed for an underlying offense committed in the pattern of criminal gang activity.

B. Any person who is convicted of a felony or an attempted felony which is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the intent to promote, further, or assist in the affairs of a criminal gang, shall, upon conviction of that felony, in addition and consecutive to the punishment prescribed for the felony or attempted felony of which he or she has been convicted, be imprisoned for not less than one year nor more than one-half of the maximum term of imprisonment provided for that offense.

C. Any person who is convicted of an offense other than a felony which is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct or enterprise by gang members, shall, in addition and consecutive to the penalty provided for that offense, be imprisoned for an additional period of six months.

D. The court may elect to suspend all or a part of any additional mandatory punishment or enhanced punishment provided for in this Chapter only in an unusual case where the interests of justice would best be served, and if the court specifies on the record and enters into the minutes the reasons that the interests of justice would best be served by that suspension of punishment.

Gang Activity and Forfeiture (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 15:1405.2. Possession of Firearms, Ammunition, and Dangerous Weapons by Criminal Street Gangs; Forfeiture

A. Any firearm, ammunition to be used in a firearm, or dangerous weapon in the possession of a member of a criminal street gang as defined by R.S. 15:1404, may be seized by any law enforcement agency or peace officer, when the law enforcement agency or peace officer reasonably believes that the firearm, ammunition to be used in a firearm, or dangerous weapon is or will be used in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity.

B. The district attorney shall initiate, in a civil action, forfeiture proceedings by petition in the district courts as to any property seized pursuant to the provisions of this Section within ninety days of seizure. The district attorney shall provide notice of the filing of the petition to those members of the gang who become known to law enforcement officials as a result of the seizure and any related arrests, and to any person learned by law enforcement officials to be the owner of any property involved. After initial notice of the filing of the petition, the court shall assure that all persons so notified continue to receive notice of all subsequent proceedings related to the property.

C. Any person who claims an interest in any seized property shall, in order to assert a claim that the property should not be forfeited, file a notice with the court, without necessity of paying costs, of the intent to establish either of the following:

(1) That the persons asserting the claim did not know, and could not have known of its use in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity.

(2) That the law enforcement officer lacked the requisite reasonable belief that the property was or would be used in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity.

Gang Participation (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 15:1403. Criminal Street Gangs and Patterns of Criminal Street Gang Activity: Prohibitions and Criminal Penalties

A. Any person who intentionally directs, participates, conducts, furthers, or assists in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity as defined in this Chapter shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than one year nor more than one-half of the maximum term of imprisonment provided for an underlying offense committed in a pattern of criminal gang activity and may be fined an amount not to exceed ten thousand dollars. Any sentence of imprisonment imposed pursuant to this Section shall be in addition and consecutive to any sentence imposed for an underlying offense committed in the pattern of criminal gang activity.

B. Any person who is convicted of a felony or an attempted felony which is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang, with the intent to promote, further, or assist in the affairs of a criminal gang, shall, upon conviction of that felony, in addition and consecutive to the punishment prescribed for the felony or attempted felony of which he or she has been convicted, be imprisoned for not less than one year nor more than one-half of the maximum term of imprisonment provided for that offense.

C. Any person who is convicted of an offense other than a felony which is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, any criminal street gang, with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct or enterprise by gang members, shall, in addition and consecutive to the penalty provided for that offense, be imprisoned for an additional period of six months.

D. The court may elect to suspend all or a part of any additional mandatory punishment or enhanced punishment provided for in this Chapter only in an unusual case where the interests of justice would best be served, and if the court specifies on the record and enters into the minutes the reasons that the interests of justice would best be served by that suspension of punishment.

Gang Prevention (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 15:1422. Legislative Findings and Declaration

The legislature recognizes that, despite the large investment of resources committed to address the needs of the criminal justice system of this state, the crime rate continues to increase, overcrowding the state's juvenile detention centers, jails, and prisons and placing the state in jeopardy of being unable to effectively manage these facilities. The economic cost of crime to the state continues to drain existing resources, and the cost to victims, both economic and psychological, is traumatic and tragic. The legislature further recognizes that many adults in the criminal justice system were once delinquents in the juvenile justice system. The legislature also recognizes that the most effective juvenile delinquency programs are programs that not only prevent children from entering the juvenile justice system, but also meet local community needs and have substantial community involvement and support. Therefore, it is the belief of the legislature that one of the best investments of the scarce resources available to combat crime is in the prevention of delinquency with special emphasis on youth and street gang prevention. Juvenile involvement in gang activity is becoming more prevalent in certain areas of this state and continues to break down family and community support systems. The legislature recognizes that youth and street gangs may best be viewed as a symptom of underlying social and economic problems that reach far beyond the usual alienation found in youth subcultures in urban areas. The existence of an urban underclass, with its attendant socially disorganized and fragmented living conditions, gives rise to many social pathologies, of which the gang problem is just one. Youth and street gangs are symptomatic of many of the same social and economic problems as adult crime: substance abuse, alcoholism, mental illness, homelessness, unemployment, and multigeneration "welfare families" living in hopelessness and despair. The lure of juveniles into gangs stems from many factors, including extensive geographic mobility, rapid urbanization and population growth, substantial pockets of poverty, unemployment, increasing rates of dropouts and expulsions, a rich racial and ethnic mix, and a transient population of youth. Consequently, it is the intent of the legislature to authorize in each of the eight law enforcement planning districts the development of a comprehensive delinquency prevention plan, to be included in the state juvenile justice and delinquency prevention plan, including gang prevention where appropriate. It is further the intent of the legislature that cooperative agreements be developed among parishes within and between those districts and public and private agencies to implement such plans through effective local programs aimed at reducing juvenile crime and gangs and increasing the number of juveniles engaged in positive alternatives to crime.

Louisiana § 15:1424. Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Boards; Membership

A. Within each law enforcement planning district advisory council, a juvenile delinquency and gang prevention advisory board shall be established consisting of at least eleven members, at least three of whom shall be minorities. The chairman of the commission or his designee shall serve as a member and shall appoint at least four members representing child advocates in the community, business leaders, parents, and a student attending high school.

B. Each advisory board shall also include the following representatives:

(1) Two law enforcement officials appointed by the chairman of the commission from a list submitted by the Louisiana Sheriff's Association and the Louisiana Association of Chiefs of Police.

(2) An assistant district attorney assigned to a court having juvenile jurisdiction appointed by the chairman of the commission from a list submitted by the Louisiana District Attorneys Association.

(3) An assistant public defender or an attorney residing in the district who handles juvenile matters, appointed by the chairman of the indigent defender board.

(4) Two persons employed by the city or parish school board appointed by the chairman of the commission from a list furnished by the Louisiana Association of Educators and Louisiana Federation of Teachers.

(5) A judge who handles juvenile matters appointed by the chairman of the commission from a list submitted by the Louisiana Association of Juvenile and Family Court Judges.

Louisiana § 15:1425. Purposes

The purposes of each juvenile delinquency and gang prevention advisory board are to develop a delinquency prevention plan which meets the needs of each of the local communities in the law enforcement planning district, to advise the chairman of the commission on prevention and diversion programs in the district, to approve grants submitted to the governor's Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board regarding juvenile delinquency and gang prevention program grant applications, and to act in an advisory capacity to each of the juvenile delinquency and gang prevention programs under such plan. The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board and the commission shall coordinate efforts among the councils and develop a comprehensive delinquency prevention state plan which shall conform to applicable federal and state laws and rules and regulations and shall coordinate funding between the two programs.

Louisiana § 15:1426. Powers and Duties

Each gang prevention council shall have the following powers and duties:

(1) Develop and implement a delinquency prevention plan for the provision and coordination of delinquency programs and services to meet the needs of the communities represented in the district.

(2) Advise and assist the judicial administrators or other local officials in the provision of optional, innovative delinquency services in the district to meet the unique needs of delinquent children.

(3) Develop, in consultation with the Law Enforcement Planning District Advisory Council, funding sources external to the commission for the provision and maintenance of additional programs and services in the district for delinquent children and their families in consultation with the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and Advisory Board. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board may apply for and receive funds, under contract or other funding arrangement, from federal, state, parish, city, and other public agencies, and from public and private foundations, agencies, and charities for the purpose of funding optional, innovative prevention, diversion, or treatment services in the district to meet the unique needs of delinquent children.

(4) Contract with city, parish, or other public agencies or private entities for the provision and maintenance of optional, innovative additional prevention and diversion programs and services in the district for delinquent children and their families, in consultation with the Law Enforcement Planning District Advisory Council. In contracting with public and private entities, the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board may use any funds available to it. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board shall actively solicit proposals for new contract and purchase of service programs and services from community organizations, associations, and groups representing the racial and ethnic mix of the community which is being served.

(5) Programs may utilize up to fifteen percent of grant funds for audit costs, not to exceed the prorated share and shall require that each grant, contract, and purchase of service agreement entered into between the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board and any public or private entity to carry out any purpose or responsibility of the commission and of each program grant awarded by the commissioner. An evaluation component is required of each grantee. Evaluations must be submitted to the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board.

(6) Collect information and statistical data helpful in assessing the need for delinquent children services in the district.

(7) Consult and coordinate with other districts and agencies dedicated to the provision of delinquent children services and the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board in order to ensure availability of sufficient services and prevent overlapping of services.

(8) Meet at least quarterly and convene special meetings at the call of the chair or the judicial administrator.

(9) Advise, assist, and approve juvenile delinquency and gang prevention program grants submitted by the local public or private entities and submit such applications as are approved for funding consideration by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board and the commission.

Louisiana § 15:1427. Establishment

A. Each gang prevention council shall:

(1) Immediately after the members are appointed, elect a chair and a vice chair from among its members, and elect other officers as deemed necessary by the council. The judicial administrator or his designee may not serve as the chair, vice chair, or other officer.

(2) Immediately after the members are appointed and officers are elected, identify and assess the needs of delinquent children and their families in the district served by the council and submit to the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board a written description of:

(a) Existing services provided; the anticipated schedule for providing those services; and the manner in which the services are to be provided, including a description of arrangements and agreements with community organizations, state and local educational agencies, federal agencies, public assistance agencies, the juvenile courts, foster care agencies, and other applicable public and private agencies and organizations.

(b) The strategy to be used for service coordination.

(3) Make and adopt bylaws and rules for the operation of the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board, provided such bylaws and rules are not inconsistent with federal or state laws or parish ordinances. The bylaws and rules must be submitted to the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board for approval.

(4) Provide an annual written report to the chairman of the commission and the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board no later than October first of each year. The annual report shall contain such information as is required by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board for effective program planning, for example: information on the effectiveness of delinquent children services in the district, including cost-effectiveness; detailed information on the various programs, services, and activities available in the district and the degree to which the programs, services, and activities have been successfully used; and information on programs, services, and activities that should be eliminated, continued, or added with respect to services in the district for delinquent children and their families.

B. Members of each Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board shall serve without compensation and shall use existing available staff.

Louisiana § 15:1428. Delinquency Prevention Plan; Programs; Grants

A. A delinquency prevention plan submitted to and approved by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board and the commission is authorized in each district for the purpose of reducing delinquent acts, juvenile arrests, and gang activity. Juvenile delinquency and gang prevention programs under such plan shall be administered by the commission in cooperation with other appropriate governmental organizations and public and private agencies.

B. Delinquency prevention plans that include youth and street gang prevention should be developed from a proactive policy stance regarding juveniles involved in gangs. Law enforcement should be active and aggressive against gang leaders and hard-core gang members by utilizing special gang units, centralized efforts, and statewide intelligence. Intervention programs should be used to initiate prevention efforts directed at marginal and potential gang members.

C. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board may use public hearings and other appropriate processes to solicit input regarding the development and updating of the delinquency prevention plan. Input may be provided by parties which include but are not limited to:

(1) Local-level public and private service providers, advocacy organizations, and other organizations working with delinquent children.

(2) Parish and municipal governments.

(3) The Department of Public Safety and Corrections, the Department of Social Services, and other departments or state agencies that provide services to delinquent children.

(4) University youth centers.

(5) Judges, district attorneys, public defenders, and the Louisiana State Bar Association.

(6) Victims of crimes committed by children.

(7) Law enforcement.

(8) Delinquent children and their families and caregivers.

D. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board must develop its delinquency prevention plan in close cooperation with the commission, Department of Public Safety and Corrections, Department of Social Services, Department of Health and Hospitals, local school districts, and with local law enforcement in order to maximize services for delinquent children. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board must update the plan for delinquent children policies and programs every year.

E. The commission shall develop a formula grant program based on such factors as population at risk, number of juvenile and young adult arrests, juvenile weapons and drug arrests, and other factors as may be found to be applicable.

F. Beginning with the 1993-1994 Fiscal Year, from funds specifically appropriated by the legislature for this purpose, the commission may award grants based on competitive basis. Local public or private entities interested in implementing juvenile delinquency and gang prevention programs may apply for these funds through the local Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board. Such grants shall be awarded pursuant to R.S. 15:1429.

G. An amount not to exceed ten percent of the total appropriation may be used by the commission to administer the program.

Louisiana § 15:1429. Grant Application Procedures

A. An entity may apply for an annual juvenile delinquency and gang prevention program grant, which may be renewed for up to two additional years, if funding is available, by submitting a grant proposal for funding or continued funding to the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board by December 1, 1993, and by May first every year thereafter. The commission shall establish the grant application procedures, giving priority consideration to proposals which include a youth and street gang prevention component. In order to be considered for funding, the grant proposal shall include the following assurances and information:

(1) A letter from the chairman of the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board of the district confirming that the grant application has been reviewed and approved and that it conforms to the district's delinquency prevention plan as developed by the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board.

(2) A rationale and description of the program and the services to be provided, including goals and objectives.

(3) A method of identification for the appropriate clients in the program.

(4) Provisions for the participation of parents and custodians in the program.

(5) Coordination with other community-based and social service prevention efforts such as drug and alcohol abuse prevention, dropout prevention, and child abuse prevention, including hotlines and volunteers who serve the target neighborhood.

(6) An evaluation component to measure the effectiveness of the program in accordance with the provisions.

(7) A program budget, including the amount of local resources committed to the budget.

(8) The necessary program staff.

B. The department shall consider the following in awarding such grants:

(1) The number of juvenile arrests within the geographical area to be served by the program. Those geographical areas with the highest number of juvenile arrests shall have priority for selection.

(2) The extent to which the program targets high-juvenile-crime neighborhoods and those public schools serving juveniles from high-crime neighborhoods.

(3) The validity and cost-effectiveness of the program.

(4) The degree to which the program is located in and managed by local leaders of the target neighborhoods and public schools serving the target neighborhoods.

C. The commission and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board shall make available to anyone wishing to apply for such a grant information on all of the criteria to be used by the commission and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board in the selection of the proposals for funding pursuant to the provisions of this Section.

D. The commission and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board shall review all program proposals submitted. Entities submitting proposals shall be notified of approval by March 2, 1994, for the 1993-1994 Fiscal Year and by September first of every fiscal year thereafter.

E. Each entity which is awarded a grant as provided for in this Chapter shall submit an annual evaluation report to the chairman of the commission and the chairman of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board, and the chairman of the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board, by a date subsequent to the end of the contract period established by the commission, documenting the extent to which the program objectives have been met, the effect of the program on the juvenile arrest rate, and any other information required by the commission.

F. The commission may promulgate rules and regulations necessary to implement the provisions of this Chapter.

Gang Recruitment, Threats, Intimidation (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 15:1403.1. Solicitation of Membership in a Criminal Street Gang; Penalty

A. No person shall knowingly solicit, recruit, enable, encourage, or otherwise cause another person to become a member of a criminal street gang which, as a condition of initiation, admission, membership, or continued membership, requires the violation of any law.

B. (1) Whoever violates the provisions of this Section shall be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than two years, fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(2) Any person over the age of seventeen who violates the provisions of this Section by knowingly soliciting, recruiting, enabling, encouraging, or otherwise causing a child under the age of seventeen to become a member of a criminal street gang, when there is a difference in age of at least three years between the solicitor and the person being solicited, shall be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than four years, fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or both. Lack of knowledge of the child's age shall not be a defense.

Gang-Related Civil Causes of Action (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 15:1405.1. Civil Cause of Action by State and Political Subdivisions Against Criminal Street Gangs

A. A civil cause of action is hereby created in favor of the state of Louisiana, a parish, or municipality or other political subdivision, or an agency of any of them, sustaining any damage, impairment, or harm whatsoever, proximately caused by the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity as defined in this Chapter. The cause of action created by this Section shall lie against any criminal street gang, as defined in this Chapter, and any person who intentionally directs, participates, conducts, furthers, or assists in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity.

B. Any action for injunction, damages, or other relief filed pursuant to this Section shall proceed according to the provisions of the Louisiana Code of Civil Procedure, except as otherwise specifically provided in this Section.

C. For purposes of venue, an action under this Section shall be considered as an action for the recovery of damages for an offense or quasi offense, and Code of Civil Procedure Article 74 is applicable. For purposes of service of process, service of process upon any member of a criminal street gang or any person representing him by appointment of court, operation of law, or mandate, shall constitute adequate service upon a criminal street gang.

Gang-Related Definitions (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 15:1404. Definitions

A. As used in this Chapter, "criminal street gang" means any ongoing organization, association, or group of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, which has as one of its primary activities the commission of one or more of the criminal acts enumerated in Paragraphs (1) through (13) of Subsection B of this Section or which has a common name or common identifying sign or symbol, whose members individually or collectively engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal gang activity.

B. As used in this Chapter, "pattern of criminal gang activity" means the commission or attempted commission of two or more of the following offenses, provided that the offenses occurred within a three-year period, and the offenses are committed on separate occasions or by two or more persons:

(1) Aggravated battery or second degree battery as defined in R.S. 14:34 and R.S. 14:34.1.

(2) Armed robbery as defined in R.S. 14:64.

(3) First or second degree murder or manslaughter, as defined in R.S. 14:30, 30.1, and 31.

(4) The sale, possession for sale, transportation. manufacture, offer for sale or offer to manufacture controlled substances, as defined in R.S. 40:961 et seq.

(5) Illegal use of weapons or dangerous instrumentalities, as defined in R.S. 14:94.

(6) Aggravated arson as defined in R.S. 14:51.

(7) Intimidating, impeding, or injuring witnesses; or injuring officers, as defined in R.S. 14:129.1.

(8) Theft, as defined in R.S. 14:67, of any vehicle, trailer, or vessel.

(9) Assault by drive-by shooting as defined in R.S. 14:37.1.

(10) Riot or inciting to riot as defined in R.S. 14:329.1 and 329.2.

(11) Aggravated criminal damage to property as defined in R.S. 14:55.

(12) Simple burglary as defined in R.S. 14:62.

(13) Looting as defined in R.S. 14:62.5.

Gang-Related Findings and Declarations (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 15:1402. Legislative Findings and Declaration

A. The legislature hereby finds and declares that it is the right of every person, regardless of race, color, creed, religion, national origin, sex, age or handicap, to be secure and protected from fear, intimidation, and physical harm caused by the activities of violent groups and individuals. It is not the intent of this Chapter to interfere with the constitutional exercise of the protected rights of freedom of expression and association. The legislature hereby recognizes the right of every citizen to harbor and constitutionally express beliefs on any lawful subject whatsoever, to associate lawfully with others who share similar beliefs, to petition lawfully constituted authority for a redress of perceived grievances, and to participate in the electoral process.

B. The legislature further finds that the state of Louisiana is in a state of crisis, which has been caused by violent street gangs whose members threaten, terrorize, and commit a multitude of crimes against the peaceful citizens of their neighborhoods. These activities, both individually and collectively present a clear and present danger to public order and safety and are not constitutionally protected. The legislature finds that there are many criminal street gangs and gang members operating in Louisiana, and that the number of gang-related crimes is increasing. It is the intent of the legislature in enacting this Chapter to seek the eradication of criminal activity by street gangs by focusing upon patterns of criminal gang activity and upon the organized nature of street gangs, which together are the chief source of terror created by street gangs. The legislature also finds that an effective means of punishing and deterring the criminal activities of street gangs is through the elimination of the availability to criminal street gangs of premises, often referred to as crack houses, which are used almost exclusively for the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity to the detriment of the law-abiding citizens of our state.

Louisiana § 15:1422. Legislative Findings and Declaration

The legislature recognizes that, despite the large investment of resources committed to address the needs of the criminal justice system of this state, the crime rate continues to increase, overcrowding the state's juvenile detention centers, jails, and prisons and placing the state in jeopardy of being unable to effectively manage these facilities. The economic cost of crime to the state continues to drain existing resources, and the cost to victims, both economic and psychological, is traumatic and tragic. The legislature further recognizes that many adults in the criminal justice system were once delinquents in the juvenile justice system. The legislature also recognizes that the most effective juvenile delinquency programs are programs that not only prevent children from entering the juvenile justice system, but also meet local community needs and have substantial community involvement and support. Therefore, it is the belief of the legislature that one of the best investments of the scarce resources available to combat crime is in the prevention of delinquency with special emphasis on youth and street gang prevention. Juvenile involvement in gang activity is becoming more prevalent in certain areas of this state and continues to break down family and community support systems. The legislature recognizes that youth and street gangs may best be viewed as a symptom of underlying social and economic problems that reach far beyond the usual alienation found in youth subcultures in urban areas. The existence of an urban underclass, with its attendant socially disorganized and fragmented living conditions, gives rise to many social pathologies, of which the gang problem is just one. Youth and street gangs are symptomatic of many of the same social and economic problems as adult crime: substance abuse, alcoholism, mental illness, homelessness, unemployment, and multigeneration "welfare families" living in hopelessness and despair. The lure of juveniles into gangs stems from many factors, including extensive geographic mobility, rapid urbanization and population growth, substantial pockets of poverty, unemployment, increasing rates of dropouts and expulsions, a rich racial and ethnic mix, and a transient population of youth. Consequently, it is the intent of the legislature to authorize in each of the eight law enforcement planning districts the development of a comprehensive delinquency prevention plan, to be included in the state juvenile justice and delinquency prevention plan, including gang prevention where appropriate. It is further the intent of the legislature that cooperative agreements be developed among parishes within and between those districts and public and private agencies to implement such plans through effective local programs aimed at reducing juvenile crime and gangs and increasing the number of juveniles engaged in positive alternatives to crime.

Gang-Related Funding (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 15:1429. Grant Application Procedures

A. An entity may apply for an annual juvenile delinquency and gang prevention program grant, which may be renewed for up to two additional years, if funding is available, by submitting a grant proposal for funding or continued funding to the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board by December 1, 1993, and by May first every year thereafter. The commission shall establish the grant application procedures, giving priority consideration to proposals which include a youth and street gang prevention component. In order to be considered for funding, the grant proposal shall include the following assurances and information:

(1) A letter from the chairman of the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board of the district confirming that the grant application has been reviewed and approved and that it conforms to the district's delinquency prevention plan as developed by the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board.

(2) A rationale and description of the program and the services to be provided, including goals and objectives.

(3) A method of identification for the appropriate clients in the program.

(4) Provisions for the participation of parents and custodians in the program.

(5) Coordination with other community-based and social service prevention efforts such as drug and alcohol abuse prevention, dropout prevention, and child abuse prevention, including hotlines and volunteers who serve the target neighborhood.

(6) An evaluation component to measure the effectiveness of the program in accordance with the provisions.

(7) A program budget, including the amount of local resources committed to the budget.

(8) The necessary program staff.

B. The department shall consider the following in awarding such grants:

(1) The number of juvenile arrests within the geographical area to be served by the program. Those geographical areas with the highest number of juvenile arrests shall have priority for selection.

(2) The extent to which the program targets high-juvenile-crime neighborhoods and those public schools serving juveniles from high-crime neighborhoods.

(3) The validity and cost-effectiveness of the program.

(4) The degree to which the program is located in and managed by local leaders of the target neighborhoods and public schools serving the target neighborhoods.

C. The commission and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board shall make available to anyone wishing to apply for such a grant information on all of the criteria to be used by the commission and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board in the selection of the proposals for funding pursuant to the provisions of this Section.

D. The commission and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board shall review all program proposals submitted. Entities submitting proposals shall be notified of approval by March 2, 1994, for the 1993-1994 Fiscal Year and by September first of every fiscal year thereafter.

E. Each entity which is awarded a grant as provided for in this Chapter shall submit an annual evaluation report to the chairman of the commission and the chairman of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board, and the chairman of the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board, by a date subsequent to the end of the contract period established by the commission, documenting the extent to which the program objectives have been met, the effect of the program on the juvenile arrest rate, and any other information required by the commission.

F. The commission may promulgate rules and regulations necessary to implement the provisions of this Chapter.

Gangs and Weapons (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 15:1405.2. Possession of Firearms, Ammunition, and Dangerous Weapons by Criminal Street Gangs; Forfeiture

A. Any firearm, ammunition to be used in a firearm, or dangerous weapon in the possession of a member of a criminal street gang as defined by R.S. 15:1404, may be seized by any law enforcement agency or peace officer, when the law enforcement agency or peace officer reasonably believes that the firearm, ammunition to be used in a firearm, or dangerous weapon is or will be used in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity.

B. The district attorney shall initiate, in a civil action, forfeiture proceedings by petition in the district courts as to any property seized pursuant to the provisions of this Section within ninety days of seizure. The district attorney shall provide notice of the filing of the petition to those members of the gang who become known to law enforcement officials as a result of the seizure and any related arrests, and to any person learned by law enforcement officials to be the owner of any property involved. After initial notice of the filing of the petition, the court shall assure that all persons so notified continue to receive notice of all subsequent proceedings related to the property.

C. Any person who claims an interest in any seized property shall, in order to assert a claim that the property should not be forfeited, file a notice with the court, without necessity of paying costs, of the intent to establish either of the following:

(1) That the persons asserting the claim did not know, and could not have known of its use in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity.

(2) That the law enforcement officer lacked the requisite reasonable belief that the property was or would be used in the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity.

Graffiti (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 14:56.4. Criminal Damage to Property by Defacing With Graffiti

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to intentionally deface with graffiti immovable or movable property, whether publicly or privately owned, without the consent of the owner.

B. As used in this Section, the following terms mean:

(1) "Deface" or "defacing" is the damaging of immovable or movable property by means of painting, marking, scratching, drawing, or etching with graffiti.

(2) "Graffiti" includes but is not limited to any sign, inscription, design, drawing, diagram, etching, sketch, symbol, lettering, name, or marking placed upon immovable or movable property in such a manner and in such a location as to deface the property and be visible to the general public.

C. Whoever commits the crime of criminal damage to property by defacing with graffiti, where the damage is less than five hundred dollars, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned for not more than six months in the parish jail, or both.

D. Where the damage is more than five hundred dollars but less than fifty thousand dollars, the offender shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than two years, or both.

E. Where the damage amounts to fifty thousand dollars or more, the offender shall be fined not more than ten thousand dollars or imprisoned with or without hard labor for not less than one nor more than ten years, or both.

F. (1) The court, in addition to any punishment imposed under the provisions of this Section, may order the offender to clean up, repair, or replace any property damaged by the act or to pay restitution to the owner of the damaged property.

(2) The court may also order the offender to perform the following hours of community service:

(a) For a first conviction, not to exceed thirty-two hours over a period not to exceed one hundred eighty days.

(b) For a second or subsequent conviction, sixty-four hours over a period not to exceed one hundred eighty days.

G. If a minor is personally unable to pay a fine levied for acts prohibited by this Section or make restitution as may be ordered by the court, the parent or guardian of the minor shall be liable for payment of the fine or restitution. A court may waive payment of the fine or restitution, or any part thereof, by the parent or guardian of the minor upon a finding of good cause.

Louisiana § 14:56.5. Criminal Damage to Historic Buildings or Landmarks by Defacing With Graffiti

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to intentionally deface with graffiti any historic building or landmark, whether publicly or privately owned, without the consent of the owner.

B. As used in this Section, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

(1) "Deface" or "defacing" is the damaging of any historic building or landmark by means of painting, marking, scratching, drawing, or etching with graffiti.

(2) "Graffiti" includes but is not limited to any sign, inscription, design, drawing, diagram, etching, sketch, symbol, lettering, name, or marking placed upon any historic building or landmark in such a manner and in such a location as to deface the property and be visible to the general public.

(3) "Historic building or landmark" means any of the following:

(a) Any building or landmark specifically designated as historically significant by the state historic preservation office, historic preservation district commission, landmarks commission, the planning or zoning commission of a governing authority, or by official action of a local political subdivision.

(b) Any structure located within a National Register Historic District, a local historic district, a Main Street District, a cultural products district, or a downtown development district.

C. (1) Whoever commits the crime of criminal damage to historic buildings or landmarks by defacing with graffiti shall be fined up to one thousand dollars and may be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than two years.

(2) The court shall also order the offender to perform the following hours of community service as follows:

(a) For a first conviction, not to exceed thirty-two hours over a period not to exceed one hundred eighty days.

(b) For a second or subsequent conviction, sixty-four hours over a period not to exceed one hundred eighty days.

(3) The fine and community service imposed by the provisions of this Section shall not be suspended.

Juvenile Gang Members (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 15:1422. Legislative Findings and Declaration

The legislature recognizes that, despite the large investment of resources committed to address the needs of the criminal justice system of this state, the crime rate continues to increase, overcrowding the state's juvenile detention centers, jails, and prisons and placing the state in jeopardy of being unable to effectively manage these facilities. The economic cost of crime to the state continues to drain existing resources, and the cost to victims, both economic and psychological, is traumatic and tragic. The legislature further recognizes that many adults in the criminal justice system were once delinquents in the juvenile justice system. The legislature also recognizes that the most effective juvenile delinquency programs are programs that not only prevent children from entering the juvenile justice system, but also meet local community needs and have substantial community involvement and support. Therefore, it is the belief of the legislature that one of the best investments of the scarce resources available to combat crime is in the prevention of delinquency with special emphasis on youth and street gang prevention. Juvenile involvement in gang activity is becoming more prevalent in certain areas of this state and continues to break down family and community support systems. The legislature recognizes that youth and street gangs may best be viewed as a symptom of underlying social and economic problems that reach far beyond the usual alienation found in youth subcultures in urban areas. The existence of an urban underclass, with its attendant socially disorganized and fragmented living conditions, gives rise to many social pathologies, of which the gang problem is just one. Youth and street gangs are symptomatic of many of the same social and economic problems as adult crime: substance abuse, alcoholism, mental illness, homelessness, unemployment, and multigeneration "welfare families" living in hopelessness and despair. The lure of juveniles into gangs stems from many factors, including extensive geographic mobility, rapid urbanization and population growth, substantial pockets of poverty, unemployment, increasing rates of dropouts and expulsions, a rich racial and ethnic mix, and a transient population of youth. Consequently, it is the intent of the legislature to authorize in each of the eight law enforcement planning districts the development of a comprehensive delinquency prevention plan, to be included in the state juvenile justice and delinquency prevention plan, including gang prevention where appropriate. It is further the intent of the legislature that cooperative agreements be developed among parishes within and between those districts and public and private agencies to implement such plans through effective local programs aimed at reducing juvenile crime and gangs and increasing the number of juveniles engaged in positive alternatives to crime.

Louisiana § 15:1424. Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Boards; Membership

A. Within each law enforcement planning district advisory council, a juvenile delinquency and gang prevention advisory board shall be established consisting of at least eleven members, at least three of whom shall be minorities. The chairman of the commission or his designee shall serve as a member and shall appoint at least four members representing child advocates in the community, business leaders, parents, and a student attending high school.

B. Each advisory board shall also include the following representatives:

(1) Two law enforcement officials appointed by the chairman of the commission from a list submitted by the Louisiana Sheriff's Association and the Louisiana Association of Chiefs of Police.

(2) An assistant district attorney assigned to a court having juvenile jurisdiction appointed by the chairman of the commission from a list submitted by the Louisiana District Attorneys Association.

(3) An assistant public defender or an attorney residing in the district who handles juvenile matters, appointed by the chairman of the indigent defender board.

(4) Two persons employed by the city or parish school board appointed by the chairman of the commission from a list furnished by the Louisiana Association of Educators and Louisiana Federation of Teachers.

(5) A judge who handles juvenile matters appointed by the chairman of the commission from a list submitted by the Louisiana Association of Juvenile and Family Court Judges.

Louisiana § 15:1425. Purposes

The purposes of each juvenile delinquency and gang prevention advisory board are to develop a delinquency prevention plan which meets the needs of each of the local communities in the law enforcement planning district, to advise the chairman of the commission on prevention and diversion programs in the district, to approve grants submitted to the governor's Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board regarding juvenile delinquency and gang prevention program grant applications, and to act in an advisory capacity to each of the juvenile delinquency and gang prevention programs under such plan. The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board and the commission shall coordinate efforts among the councils and develop a comprehensive delinquency prevention state plan which shall conform to applicable federal and state laws and rules and regulations and shall coordinate funding between the two programs.

Louisiana § 15:1426. Powers and Duties

Each gang prevention council shall have the following powers and duties:

(1) Develop and implement a delinquency prevention plan for the provision and coordination of delinquency programs and services to meet the needs of the communities represented in the district.

(2) Advise and assist the judicial administrators or other local officials in the provision of optional, innovative delinquency services in the district to meet the unique needs of delinquent children.

(3) Develop, in consultation with the Law Enforcement Planning District Advisory Council, funding sources external to the commission for the provision and maintenance of additional programs and services in the district for delinquent children and their families in consultation with the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and Advisory Board. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board may apply for and receive funds, under contract or other funding arrangement, from federal, state, parish, city, and other public agencies, and from public and private foundations, agencies, and charities for the purpose of funding optional, innovative prevention, diversion, or treatment services in the district to meet the unique needs of delinquent children.

(4) Contract with city, parish, or other public agencies or private entities for the provision and maintenance of optional, innovative additional prevention and diversion programs and services in the district for delinquent children and their families, in consultation with the Law Enforcement Planning District Advisory Council. In contracting with public and private entities, the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board may use any funds available to it. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board shall actively solicit proposals for new contract and purchase of service programs and services from community organizations, associations, and groups representing the racial and ethnic mix of the community which is being served.

(5) Programs may utilize up to fifteen percent of grant funds for audit costs, not to exceed the prorated share and shall require that each grant, contract, and purchase of service agreement entered into between the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board and any public or private entity to carry out any purpose or responsibility of the commission and of each program grant awarded by the commissioner. An evaluation component is required of each grantee. Evaluations must be submitted to the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board.

(6) Collect information and statistical data helpful in assessing the need for delinquent children services in the district.

(7) Consult and coordinate with other districts and agencies dedicated to the provision of delinquent children services and the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board in order to ensure availability of sufficient services and prevent overlapping of services.

(8) Meet at least quarterly and convene special meetings at the call of the chair or the judicial administrator.

(9) Advise, assist, and approve juvenile delinquency and gang prevention program grants submitted by the local public or private entities and submit such applications as are approved for funding consideration by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board and the commission.

Louisiana § 15:1427. Establishment

A. Each gang prevention council shall:

(1) Immediately after the members are appointed, elect a chair and a vice chair from among its members, and elect other officers as deemed necessary by the council. The judicial administrator or his designee may not serve as the chair, vice chair, or other officer.

(2) Immediately after the members are appointed and officers are elected, identify and assess the needs of delinquent children and their families in the district served by the council and submit to the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board a written description of:

(a) Existing services provided; the anticipated schedule for providing those services; and the manner in which the services are to be provided, including a description of arrangements and agreements with community organizations, state and local educational agencies, federal agencies, public assistance agencies, the juvenile courts, foster care agencies, and other applicable public and private agencies and organizations.

(b) The strategy to be used for service coordination.

(3) Make and adopt bylaws and rules for the operation of the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board, provided such bylaws and rules are not inconsistent with federal or state laws or parish ordinances. The bylaws and rules must be submitted to the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board for approval.

(4) Provide an annual written report to the chairman of the commission and the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board no later than October first of each year. The annual report shall contain such information as is required by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board for effective program planning, for example: information on the effectiveness of delinquent children services in the district, including cost-effectiveness; detailed information on the various programs, services, and activities available in the district and the degree to which the programs, services, and activities have been successfully used; and information on programs, services, and activities that should be eliminated, continued, or added with respect to services in the district for delinquent children and their families.

B. Members of each Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board shall serve without compensation and shall use existing available staff.

Louisiana § 15:1428. Delinquency Prevention Plan; Programs; Grants

A. A delinquency prevention plan submitted to and approved by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board and the commission is authorized in each district for the purpose of reducing delinquent acts, juvenile arrests, and gang activity. Juvenile delinquency and gang prevention programs under such plan shall be administered by the commission in cooperation with other appropriate governmental organizations and public and private agencies.

B. Delinquency prevention plans that include youth and street gang prevention should be developed from a proactive policy stance regarding juveniles involved in gangs. Law enforcement should be active and aggressive against gang leaders and hard-core gang members by utilizing special gang units, centralized efforts, and statewide intelligence. Intervention programs should be used to initiate prevention efforts directed at marginal and potential gang members.

C. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board may use public hearings and other appropriate processes to solicit input regarding the development and updating of the delinquency prevention plan. Input may be provided by parties which include but are not limited to:

(1) Local-level public and private service providers, advocacy organizations, and other organizations working with delinquent children.

(2) Parish and municipal governments.

(3) The Department of Public Safety and Corrections, the Department of Social Services, and other departments or state agencies that provide services to delinquent children.

(4) University youth centers.

(5) Judges, district attorneys, public defenders, and the Louisiana State Bar Association.

(6) Victims of crimes committed by children.

(7) Law enforcement.

(8) Delinquent children and their families and caregivers.

D. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board must develop its delinquency prevention plan in close cooperation with the commission, Department of Public Safety and Corrections, Department of Social Services, Department of Health and Hospitals, local school districts, and with local law enforcement in order to maximize services for delinquent children. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board must update the plan for delinquent children policies and programs every year.

E. The commission shall develop a formula grant program based on such factors as population at risk, number of juvenile and young adult arrests, juvenile weapons and drug arrests, and other factors as may be found to be applicable.

F. Beginning with the 1993-1994 Fiscal Year, from funds specifically appropriated by the legislature for this purpose, the commission may award grants based on competitive basis. Local public or private entities interested in implementing juvenile delinquency and gang prevention programs may apply for these funds through the local Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board. Such grants shall be awarded pursuant to R.S. 15:1429.

G. An amount not to exceed ten percent of the total appropriation may be used by the commission to administer the program.

Louisiana § 15:1429. Grant Application Procedures

A. An entity may apply for an annual juvenile delinquency and gang prevention program grant, which may be renewed for up to two additional years, if funding is available, by submitting a grant proposal for funding or continued funding to the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board by December 1, 1993, and by May first every year thereafter. The commission shall establish the grant application procedures, giving priority consideration to proposals which include a youth and street gang prevention component. In order to be considered for funding, the grant proposal shall include the following assurances and information:

(1) A letter from the chairman of the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board of the district confirming that the grant application has been reviewed and approved and that it conforms to the district's delinquency prevention plan as developed by the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board.

(2) A rationale and description of the program and the services to be provided, including goals and objectives.

(3) A method of identification for the appropriate clients in the program.

(4) Provisions for the participation of parents and custodians in the program.

(5) Coordination with other community-based and social service prevention efforts such as drug and alcohol abuse prevention, dropout prevention, and child abuse prevention, including hotlines and volunteers who serve the target neighborhood.

(6) An evaluation component to measure the effectiveness of the program in accordance with the provisions.

(7) A program budget, including the amount of local resources committed to the budget.

(8) The necessary program staff.

B. The department shall consider the following in awarding such grants:

(1) The number of juvenile arrests within the geographical area to be served by the program. Those geographical areas with the highest number of juvenile arrests shall have priority for selection.

(2) The extent to which the program targets high-juvenile-crime neighborhoods and those public schools serving juveniles from high-crime neighborhoods.

(3) The validity and cost-effectiveness of the program.

(4) The degree to which the program is located in and managed by local leaders of the target neighborhoods and public schools serving the target neighborhoods.

C. The commission and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board shall make available to anyone wishing to apply for such a grant information on all of the criteria to be used by the commission and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board in the selection of the proposals for funding pursuant to the provisions of this Section.

D. The commission and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board shall review all program proposals submitted. Entities submitting proposals shall be notified of approval by March 2, 1994, for the 1993-1994 Fiscal Year and by September first of every fiscal year thereafter.

E. Each entity which is awarded a grant as provided for in this Chapter shall submit an annual evaluation report to the chairman of the commission and the chairman of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board, and the chairman of the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board, by a date subsequent to the end of the contract period established by the commission, documenting the extent to which the program objectives have been met, the effect of the program on the juvenile arrest rate, and any other information required by the commission.

F. The commission may promulgate rules and regulations necessary to implement the provisions of this Chapter.

Miscellaneous Gang Legislation (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 15: 1401. Citation

This Chapter shall be known and may be cited as the "Louisiana Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act."

Louisiana § 15:1405.3. Notification of the Release of a Member of a Criminal Street Gang

When a person is released from the custody of the Department of Public Safety and Corrections, and that person was in the custody of the department for conviction of a violation of the provisions of this Chapter, or the department knows that the person is or was a member of a criminal street gang, the department shall transmit notice of the release of that person to the sheriff of the parish in which the crime was committed and the sheriff of the parish in which that person will reside upon release. If the crime was committed in a municipality, or if that person will reside in a municipality upon release, that department shall transmit the same notice to the chiefs of police of those municipalities.

Louisiana § 15:1407. Local Laws; No Preemption

Nothing in this Chapter shall prevent the governing authority of a local governmental subdivision from adopting and enforcing ordinances consistent with this Chapter relating to gangs and gang violence. When local ordinances duplicate or supplement this Chapter, this Chapter shall be construed as providing alternative remedies and not as preempting the field.

Louisiana § 574.62. Substance Abuse Conditional Release

A. The secretary of the Department of Public Safety and Corrections is hereby authorized to release an offender sentenced to the custody of the department to intense parole supervision as provided in R.S. 15:574.4.4, if the offender meets certain requirements provided for in this Section and meets the requirements of any rules or regulations adopted by the secretary in accordance with the provisions of this Section.

B. An offender shall be eligible for conditional release pursuant to the provisions of this Section if all of the following conditions are met:

C. (1) If the offender meets the criteria set forth in Subsection B of this Section, the offender shall be required to undergo an addiction disorder assessment and a mental health screening which shall be reviewed by the secretary of the department and considered by the secretary in determining the offender's suitability to participate in the treatment program. In determining suitability the secretary shall consider all of the following:

(a) Whether the offender's release may pose a danger to the general public or to an individual. In making this determination, the secretary shall consider all of the following:

(i) The offender's involvement in any gang activity during the offender's term of imprisonment.

Public Nuisance/Premises Used by Gangs (view all states for this subject)

Louisiana § 15:1405. Premises Used by Criminal Street Gang; Nuisances; Actions for Injunction and Damages; Other Remedies for Unlawful Use; Exceptions

A. Every private building or place used by members of a criminal street gang for the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity is a nuisance and may be the subject of an injunction or cause of action for damages as provided for in this Chapter.

B. Any person may file a petition for injunctive relief with the appropriate court seeking eviction from or closure of any premises used for commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity by a criminal street gang. Upon proof by the plaintiff that the premises are being used by members of a criminal street gang for the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity, the court may order the owner of record of the premises to remove or evict the persons from the premises and order the premises sealed, prohibit further use of the premises, or enter such order as may be necessary to prohibit the premises from being used for the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity and to abate the nuisance.

C. Any action for injunction, damages, or other relief filed pursuant to this Section shall proceed according to the provisions of the Louisiana Code of Civil Procedure.

D. The court shall not issue an injunction or assess a civil penalty against any owner of record unless that person knew or should have known or had been notified of the use of the premises for a pattern of criminal gang activity. Any injunctive relief other than that specifically authorized in Subsection F of this Section shall be limited to that which is necessary to protect the health and safety of the residents or the public or that which is necessary to prevent further criminal activity. In addition to any other damages or injunction awarded, the court may assess a civil penalty not to exceed five thousand dollars against any or all of the defendants, as provided in Paragraph F(4) of this Section.

E. A petition for injunction shall not be filed until thirty days after notice of the unlawful use or criminal conduct has been provided to the owner of record by mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid, to the last known address. If the premises are abandoned or closed, or if the whereabouts of the owner of record or lessee is unknown, all notices, process, pleadings, and orders required to be delivered or served under this Section may be attached to a door of the premises, and this shall have the same effect as personal service on the owner of record or lessee. No injunctive relief authorized by Subsection F of this Section shall be issued in the form of a temporary restraining order.

F. If the court has previously issued injunctive relief ordering the owner of record of the premises to close the premises or otherwise to keep the premises from being used for the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity, the court, upon proof that the owner of record has failed to comply with the terms of the injunction and that the premises continue to be used for the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity, may do one or more of the following:

(1) Order the premises demolished and cleared at the cost of the owner.

(2) Order the premises sold at public auction and the proceeds from the sale, minus the costs of the sale and the expenses of bringing the action, delivered to the owner.

(3) Order the owner of record to pay damages to persons or local governing authorities who have been damaged or injured or have incurred expense as a result of the owner’s failure to take reasonable steps or precautions to comply with the terms of any injunction issued pursuant to the provisions of this Chapter.

(4) Assess a civil penalty not to exceed five thousand dollars against the defendant based upon the severity of the nuisance and its duration. In establishing the amount of any civil penalty, the court shall consider all of the following factors:

(a) the actions taken by the defendant to mitigate or correct the problem at the private building or place or the reasons why no such action was taken.

(b) The failure of the plaintiff to provide notice as required by Subsection E.

(c) Any other factor deemed by the court to be relevant.

G. No nonprofit or charitable organization, which is conducting its affairs with ordinary care or skill, and no governmental entity shall be enjoined pursuant to the provisions of this Chapter.

H. Nothing in this Chapter shall preclude any aggrieved person from seeking any other remedy provided by law.


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