Gang-Related Legislation by Subject Index

Juvenile Gang Members

Arizona (view all subjects for this state)

Arizona § 13-504. Persons Under 18 Years of Age; Juvenile Transfer.

D. The court shall consider the following factors in determining whether public safety and the juvenile's rehabilitation, if adjudicated delinquent, would be served by the transfer:

6. Whether the juvenile committed the alleged offense while participating in, assisting, promoting, or furthering the interests of a criminal street gang, a criminal syndicate, or a racketeering enterprise.

Florida (view all subjects for this state)

Florida § 985.047. Information Systems

(1)(a) For the purpose of assisting in law enforcement administration and decision making, such as juvenile diversion from continued involvement with the law enforcement and judicial systems, the sheriff of the county in which juveniles are taken into custody is encouraged to maintain a central identification file on serious habitual juvenile offenders and on juveniles who are at risk of becoming serious habitual juvenile offenders by virtue of having an arrest record.

(b) The central identification file shall contain, but not be limited to, pertinent dependency record information maintained by the Department of Children and Family Services and delinquency record information maintained by the Department of Juvenile Justice; pertinent school records, including information on behavior, attendance, and achievement; pertinent information on delinquency and dependency maintained by law enforcement agencies and the state attorney; and pertinent information on delinquency and dependency maintained by those agencies charged with screening, assessment, planning, and treatment responsibilities. The information obtained shall be used to develop a multiagency information sheet on serious habitual juvenile offenders or juveniles who are at risk of becoming serious habitual juvenile offenders. The agencies and persons specified in this paragraph shall cooperate with the law enforcement agency or county in providing needed information and in developing the multiagency information sheet to the greatest extent possible.

(c) As used in this section, "a juvenile who is at risk of becoming a serious habitual juvenile offender" means a juvenile who has been adjudicated delinquent and who meets one or more of the following criteria:

6. Meets at least one of the criteria for youth and street gang membership

Florida § 985.433. Disposition Hearings in Delinquency Cases

When a child has been found to have committed a delinquent act, the following procedures shall be applicable to the disposition of the case:

(1) The court shall notify any victim of the offense, if such person is known and within the jurisdiction of the court, of the hearing.

(2) The court shall notify and summon or subpoena, if necessary, the parents, legal custodians, or guardians of the child to attend the disposition hearing if they reside in the state.

(3) The court may receive and consider any other relevant and material evidence, including other written or oral reports or statements, in its effort to determine the appropriate disposition to be made with regard to the child. The court may rely upon such evidence to the extent of its probative value, even though such evidence may not be technically competent in an adjudicatory hearing.

(4) Before the court determines and announces the disposition to be imposed, it shall:

(a) State clearly, using common terminology, the purpose of the hearing and the right of persons present as parties to comment at the appropriate time on the issues before the court.

(b) Discuss with the child his or her compliance with any home release plan or other plan imposed since the date of the offense.

(c) Discuss with the child his or her feelings about the offense committed, the harm caused to the victim or others, and what penalty he or she should be required to pay for such transgression.

(d) Give all parties, as well as the victim or a representative of the victim, representatives of the school system, and the law enforcement officers involved in the case who are present at the hearing an opportunity to comment on the issue of disposition and any proposed rehabilitative plan. Parties to the case shall include the parents, legal custodians, or guardians of the child; the child's counsel; the state attorney; and representatives of the department.

(5) At the time of disposition, the court may make recommendations to the department as to specific treatment approaches to be employed.

(6) The first determination to be made by the court is a determination of the suitability or nonsuitability for adjudication and commitment of the child to the department. This determination shall include consideration of the recommendations of the department, which may include a predisposition report. The predisposition report shall include, whether as part of the child's multidisciplinary assessment, classification, and placement process components or separately, evaluation of the following criteria:

(a) The seriousness of the offense to the community. If the court determines under chapter 874 that the child was a member of a criminal gang at the time of the commission of the offense, the seriousness of the offense to the community shall be given great weight.

(b) Whether the protection of the community requires adjudication and commitment to the department.

(c) Whether the offense was committed in an aggressive, violent, premeditated, or willful manner.

(d) Whether the offense was against persons or against property, greater weight being given to offenses against persons, especially if personal injury resulted.

(e) The sophistication and maturity of the child.

(f) The record and previous criminal history of the child, including without limitations:

1. Previous contacts with the department, the former Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, the Department of Children and Family Services, the Department of Corrections, other law enforcement agencies, and courts.

2. Prior periods of probation.

3. Prior adjudications of delinquency.

4. Prior commitments to institutions.

(g) The prospects for adequate protection of the public and the likelihood of reasonable rehabilitation of the child if committed to a community services program or facility.

(h) The child's educational status, including, but not limited to, the child's strengths, abilities, and unmet and special educational needs. The report shall identify appropriate educational and vocational goals for the child. Examples of appropriate goals include:

1. Attainment of a high school diploma or its equivalent.

2. Successful completion of literacy course(s).

3. Successful completion of vocational course(s).

4. Successful attendance and completion of the child's current grade if enrolled in school.

5. Enrollment in an apprenticeship or a similar program.

It is the intent of the Legislature that the criteria set forth in this subsection are general guidelines to be followed at the discretion of the court and not mandatory requirements of procedure. It is not the intent of the Legislature to provide for the appeal of the disposition made under this section.

(7) If the court determines that the child should be adjudicated as having committed a delinquent act and should be committed to the department, such determination shall be in writing or on the record of the hearing. The determination shall include a specific finding of the reasons for the decision to adjudicate and to commit the child to the department, including any determination that the child was a member of a criminal gang.

(a) The juvenile probation officer shall recommend to the court the most appropriate placement and treatment plan, specifically identifying the restrictiveness level most appropriate for the child. If the court has determined that the child was a member of a criminal gang, that determination shall be given great weight in identifying the most appropriate restrictiveness level for the child. The court shall consider the department's recommendation in making its commitment decision.

(b) The court shall commit the child to the department at the restrictiveness level identified or may order placement at a different restrictiveness level. The court shall state for the record the reasons that establish by a preponderance of the evidence why the court is disregarding the assessment of the child and the restrictiveness level recommended by the department. Any party may appeal the court's findings resulting in a modified level of restrictiveness under this paragraph.

(c) The court may also require that the child be placed in a probation program following the child's discharge from commitment. Community-based sanctions under subsection (8) may be imposed by the court at the disposition hearing or at any time prior to the child's release from commitment.

(8) If the court determines not to adjudicate and commit to the department, then the court shall determine what community-based sanctions it will impose in a probation program for the child. Community-based sanctions may include, but are not limited to, participation in substance abuse treatment, a day-treatment probation program, restitution in money or in kind, a curfew, revocation or suspension of the driver's license of the child, community service, and appropriate educational programs as determined by the district school board.

(9) After appropriate sanctions for the offense are determined, the court shall develop, approve, and order a plan of probation that will contain rules, requirements, conditions, and rehabilitative programs, including the option of a day-treatment probation program, that are designed to encourage responsible and acceptable behavior and to promote both the rehabilitation of the child and the protection of the community.

(10) Any disposition order shall be in writing as prepared by the clerk of court and may thereafter be modified or set aside by the court.

Florida § 985.605. Prevention Service Program; Monitoring; Uniform Performance Measures

(1) The department's prevention service program shall monitor all state-funded programs, grants, appropriations, or activities that are designed to prevent juvenile crime, delinquency, gang membership, or status offense behaviors and all state-funded programs, grants, appropriations, or activities that are designed to prevent a child from becoming a “child in need of services,” as defined in chapter 984, in order to inform the Governor and the Legislature concerning efforts designed to further the policy of the state concerning juvenile justice and delinquency prevention, consistent with ss. 984.02 and 985.02.

(2) The department shall expend funds related to the prevention of juvenile delinquency in a manner consistent with the policies expressed in ss. 984.02 and 985.02. The department shall expend said funds in a manner that maximizes public accountability and ensures the documentation of outcomes.

(a) All entities that receive or use state moneys to fund juvenile delinquency prevention services through contracts or grants with the department shall design the programs providing such services to further one or more of the following strategies:

1. Encouraging youth to attend school, which may include special assistance and tutoring to address deficiencies in academic performance and collecting outcome data to reveal the number of days youth attended school while participating in the program.

2. Engaging youth in productive and wholesome activities during nonschool hours that build positive character, instill positive values, or enhance educational experiences and collecting outcome data to reveal the number of youths who are arrested during nonschool hours while participating in the program.

3. Encouraging youth to avoid the use of violence and collecting outcome data to reveal the number of youths who are arrested for crimes involving violence while participating in the program.

4. Assisting youth to acquire skills needed to find meaningful employment, which may include assistance in finding a suitable employer for the youth and collecting outcome data to reveal the number of youths who obtain and maintain employment for at least 180 days.

(b) The department shall develop an outcome measure for each program strategy specified in paragraph (a) that logically relates to the risk factor addressed by the strategy.

(c) All entities that receive or use state moneys to fund the juvenile delinquency prevention services through contracts or grants with the department shall, as a condition of receipt of state funds, provide the department with personal demographic information concerning all participants in the service sufficient to allow the department to verify criminal or delinquent history information, school attendance or academic information, employment information, or other requested performance information

Florida § 985.606. Prevention Services Providers; Performance Data Collection; Reporting

Each state agency or entity that receives or uses state appropriations to fund programs, grants, appropriations, or activities that are designed to prevent juvenile crime, delinquency, gang membership, status offenses, or that are designed to prevent a child from becoming a “child in need of services,” as defined in chapter 984, shall collect data relative to the performance of such activities and shall provide said data to the Governor, the President of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House no later than January 31st of each year for the preceding fiscal year.

Illinois (view all subjects for this state)

Illinois § 625 ILCS 5/6-103. What Persons Shall Not be Licensed as Drivers or Granted Permits

The Secretary of State shall not issue, renew, or allow the retention of any driver's license nor issue any permit under this Code:

18. To any person who has been adjudicated under the Juvenile Court Act of 1987 based upon an offense that is determined by the court to have been committed in furtherance of the criminal activities of an organized gang, as provided in Section 5-710 of that Act, and that involved the operation or use of a motor vehicle or the use of a driver's license or permit. The person shall be denied a license or permit for the period determined by the court.

Illinois § 625 ILCS 5/6-205. Mandatory Revocation of License or Permit; Hardship Cases

(b) The Secretary of State shall also immediately revoke the license or permit of any driver in the following situations:

3. Of any person adjudicated under the Juvenile Court Act of 1987 based on an offense determined to have been committed in furtherance of the criminal activities of an organized gang as provided in Section 5-710 of that Act, and that involved the operation or use of a motor vehicle or the use of a driver's license or permit. The revocation shall remain in effect for the period determined by the court. Upon the direction of the court, the Secretary shall issue the person a judicial driving permit, also known as a JDP. The JDP shall be subject to the same terms as a JDP issued under Section 6-206.1, except that the court may direct that a JDP issued under this subdivision (b)(3) be effective immediately.

Illinois § 705 ILCS 405/1-7. Confidentiality of Law Enforcement Records

(A) Inspection and copying of law enforcement records maintained by law enforcement agencies that relate to a minor who has been arrested or taken into custody before his or her 18th birthday shall be restricted to the following:

(1) Any local, State or federal law enforcement officers of any jurisdiction or agency when necessary for the discharge of their official duties during the investigation or prosecution of a crime or relating to a minor who has been adjudicated delinquent and there has been a previous finding that the act which constitutes the previous offense was committed in furtherance of criminal activities by a criminal street gang, or, when necessary for the discharge of its official duties in connection with a particular investigation of the conduct of a law enforcement officer, an independent agency or its staff created by ordinance and charged by a unit of local government with the duty of investigating the conduct of law enforcement officers. For purposes of this Section, "criminal street gang" has the meaning ascribed to it in Section 10 of the Illinois Streetgang Terrorism Omnibus Prevention Act.

Illinois § 705 ILCS 405/5-201. Legislative Declaration

The General Assembly recognizes that, despite the large investment of resources committed to address the needs of the juvenile justice system of this State, cost of juvenile crime continues to drain the State's existing financial capacity, and exacts traumatic and tragic physical, psychological and economic damage to victims. The General Assembly further recognizes that many adults in the criminal justice system were once delinquents in the juvenile justice system. The General Assembly also recognizes that the most effective juvenile delinquency programs are programs that not only prevent children from entering the juvenile justice system, but also meet local community needs and have substantial community involvement and support. Therefore, it is the belief of the General Assembly that one of the best investments of the scarce resources available to combat crime is in the prevention of delinquency, including prevention of criminal activity by youth gangs. It is the intent of the General Assembly to authorize and encourage each of the counties of the State to establish a comprehensive juvenile justice plan based upon the input of representatives of every affected public or private entity, organization, or group. It is the further intent of the General Assembly that representatives of school systems, the judiciary, law enforcement, and the community acquire a thorough understanding of the role and responsibility that each has in addressing juvenile crime in the community, that the county juvenile justice plan reflect an understanding of the legal and fiscal limits within which the plan must be implemented, and that willingness of the parties to cooperate and collaborate in implementing the plan be explicitly stated. It is the further intent of the General Assembly that county juvenile justice plans form the basis of regional and State juvenile justice plans and that the prevention and treatment resources at the county, regional, and State levels be utilized to the maximum extent possible to implement and further the goals of their respective plans.

Illinois § 705 ILCS 405/5-615. Continuance Under Supervision

(9) When a hearing in which a minor is alleged to be a delinquent is continued under this Section, the court, before continuing the case, shall make a finding whether the offense alleged to have been committed either: (i) was related to or in furtherance of the activities of an organized gang or was motivated by the minor's membership in or allegiance to an organized gang, or (ii) is a violation of paragraph (13) of subsection (a) of Section 12-2 or paragraph (2) of subsection (c) of Section 12-2 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012, a violation of any Section of Article 24 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012,11 or a violation of any statute that involved the unlawful use of a firearm. If the court determines the question in the affirmative the court shall, as a condition of the continuance under supervision and as part of or in addition to any other condition of the supervision, require the minor to perform community service for not less than 30 hours, provided that community service is available in the jurisdiction and is funded and approved by the county board of the county where the offense was committed. The community service shall include, but need not be limited to, the cleanup and repair of any damage caused by an alleged violation of Section 21-1.3 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012 and similar damage to property located in the municipality or county in which the alleged violation occurred. When possible and reasonable, the community service shall be performed in the minor's neighborhood. For the purposes of this Section, “organized gang” has the meaning ascribed to it in Section 10 of the Illinois Streetgang Terrorism Omnibus Prevention Act.

Illinois § 705 ILCS 405/5-710. Kinds of Sentencing Orders

(1) The following kinds of sentencing orders may be made in respect of wards of the court:

(a) Except as provided in Sections 5-805, 5-810, 5-815, a minor who is found guilty under Section 5-620 may be:

(ix) ordered to undergo a medical or other procedure to have a tattoo symbolizing allegiance to a street gang removed from his or her body; or

(10) When a court finds a minor to be guilty the court shall, before entering a sentencing order under this Section, make a finding whether the offense committed either: (a) was related to or in furtherance of the criminal activities of an organized gang or was motivated by the minor's membership in or allegiance to an organized gang, or (b) involved a violation of subsection (a) of Section 12-7.1 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012, a violation of any Section of Article 24 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012, or a violation of any statute that involved the wrongful use of a firearm. If the court determines the question in the affirmative, and the court does not commit the minor to the Department of Juvenile Justice the court shall order the minor to perform community service for not less than 30 hours nor more than 120 hours, provided that community service is available in the jurisdiction and is funded and approved by the county board of the county where the offense was committed. The community service shall include, but need not be limited to, the cleanup and repair of any damage caused by a violation of Section 21-1.3 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012 and similar damage to property located in the municipality or county in which the violation occurred. When possible and reasonable, the community service shall be performed in the minor's neighborhood. This order shall be in addition to any other order authorized by this Section except for an order to place the minor in the custody of the Department of Juvenile Justice. For the purposes of this Section, "organized gang" has the meaning ascribed to it in Section 10 of the Illinois Streetgang Terrorism Omnibus Prevention Act.

(11) If the court determines that the offense was committed in furtherance of the criminal activities of an organized gang, as provided in subsection (10), and that the offense involved the operation or use of a motor vehicle or the use of a driver's license or permit, the court shall notify the Secretary of State of that determination and of the period for which the minor shall be denied driving privileges. If, at the time of the determination, the minor does not hold a driver's license or permit, the court shall provide that the minor shall not be issued a driver's license or permit until his or her 18th birthday. If the minor holds a driver's license or permit at the time of the determination, the court shall provide that the minor's driver's license or permit shall be revoked until his or her 21st birthday, or until a later date or occurrence determined by the court. If the minor holds a driver's license at the time of the determination, the court may direct the Secretary of State to issue the minor a judicial driving permit, also known as a JDP. The JDP shall be subject to the same terms as a JDP issued under Section 6-206.1 of the Illinois Vehicle Code [625 ILCS 5/6-206.1], except that the court may direct that the JDP be effective immediately.

Indiana (view all subjects for this state)

Indiana § 31-30-1-4. Juvenile Court Lacks Jurisdiction Over Individuals at Least 16 Years Old Committing Certain Felonies; Retention of Jurisdiction by Court Having Adult Criminal Jurisdiction [Effective July 1, 2014]

(a) The juvenile court does not have jurisdiction over an individual for an alleged violation of:

(7) IC 35-42-5-2 (carjacking)(repealed);

(8) IC 35-45-9-3 (criminal gang activity);

(9) IC 35-45-9-4 (criminal gang intimidation);

Indiana § 31-37-19-17. Delinquent Acts Involving Criminal Mischief or Use of Graffiti; Suspension of Operator’s License or Invalidation of Learner’s Permit

(a) This section applies if a child is a delinquent child under IC 31-37-1 due to the commission of a delinquent act that, if committed by an adult, would be criminal mischief or institutional criminal mischief under IC 35-43-1-2 that involves the use of graffiti.

(b) The juvenile court may, in addition to any other order or decree the court makes under this chapter, order the bureau of motor vehicles to:

(1) suspend the child’s operator’s license; or

(2) invalidate the child’s learner’s permit; for one (1) year beginning the date of the order.

Indiana § 31-37-19-20. Restitution or Removal of Graffiti; Rescission of Order Suspending or Invalidating Operator’s License or Learner’s Permit

(a) This section applies if the juvenile court has entered an order for suspension or invalidation of an operator's license or a learner's permit under section 17 [IC 31-37-19-17] of this chapter (or IC 31-6-4-15.9(f) before its repeal).

(b) Following a determination by the juvenile court that the child has removed or painted over the graffiti or has made other suitable restitution, the court may:

(1) rescind the order for suspension or invalidation; and

(2) allow the child to receive a license or permit before the period of suspension or invalidation ends.

Indiana § 34-31-4-1. Maximum Limit

Except as provided in Section 2 [IC 34-31-4-2] of this chapter, a parent is liable for not more than five thousand dollars ($5,000) in actual damages arising from harm to a person or damage to property knowingly, intentionally, or recklessly caused by the parent's child if:

(1) the parent has custody of the child; and

(2) the child is living with the parent.

Indiana § 34-31-4-2. Criminal Gang Activity

A parent of a child who is a member of a criminal gang (as defined in IC 35-45-9-1), who actively encourages or knowingly benefits from the child’s involvement in the criminal gang, is liable for actual damages arising from harm to a person or property intentionally caused by the child while participating in a criminal gang activity if:

(1) the parent has custody of the child;

(2) the child is living with the parent or guardian; and

(3) the parent failed to use reasonable efforts to prevent the child’s involvement in the criminal gang.

Iowa (view all subjects for this state)

Iowa § 723A.3. Gang Recruitment—Penalty

1. A person who solicits, recruits, entices, or intimidates a minor to join a criminal street gang commits a class "C" felony.

2. A person who conspires to solicit, recruit, entice, or intimidate a minor to join a criminal street gang commits a class "D" felony.

Kansas (view all subjects for this state)

Kansas § 75-7023. Juvenile Intake and Assessment System; Confidentiality of Records; Information Collected; Dispositional Alternatives; Custody of Child; Conditions of Release

(d) Except as provided in subsection (g) and in addition to any other information required by the supreme court administrative order, the secretary, the commissioner or by the district court of such district, the juvenile intake and assessment worker shall collect the following information:

(2) criminal history, including indications of criminal gang involvement;

Kentucky (view all subjects for this state)

Kentucky § 640.010. Preliminary Hearing; Proof Required to Try Child as Youthful Offender in Circuit Court

(1) For children who are alleged to be youthful offenders by falling in the purview of KRS 635.020(2), (3), (5), (6), (7), (8), or (9), the court shall at arraignment assure that the child’s rights as specified in KRS 610.060 have been explained and followed.

(2) In the case of a child alleged to be a youthful offender by falling within the purview of KRS 635.020(2), (3), (6), (7), (8), or (9), the District Court shall, upon motion by the county attorney to proceed under this chapter, and after the county attorney has consulted with the Commonwealth’s attorney, conduct a preliminary hearing to determine if the child should be transferred to Circuit Court as a youthful offender

The preliminary hearing shall be conducted in accordance with the Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(a) At the preliminary hearing, the court shall determine if there is probable cause to believe that an offense was committed, that the child committed the offense, and that the child is of sufficient age and has the requisite number of prior adjudications, if any, necessary to fall within the purview of KRS 635.020.

(b) If the District Court determines probable cause exists, the court shall consider the following factors before determining whether the child’s case shall be transferred to the Circuit Court:

8. Evidence of a child’s participation in a gang.

Louisiana (view all subjects for this state)

Louisiana § 15:1422. Legislative Findings and Declaration

The legislature recognizes that, despite the large investment of resources committed to address the needs of the criminal justice system of this state, the crime rate continues to increase, overcrowding the state's juvenile detention centers, jails, and prisons and placing the state in jeopardy of being unable to effectively manage these facilities. The economic cost of crime to the state continues to drain existing resources, and the cost to victims, both economic and psychological, is traumatic and tragic. The legislature further recognizes that many adults in the criminal justice system were once delinquents in the juvenile justice system. The legislature also recognizes that the most effective juvenile delinquency programs are programs that not only prevent children from entering the juvenile justice system, but also meet local community needs and have substantial community involvement and support. Therefore, it is the belief of the legislature that one of the best investments of the scarce resources available to combat crime is in the prevention of delinquency with special emphasis on youth and street gang prevention. Juvenile involvement in gang activity is becoming more prevalent in certain areas of this state and continues to break down family and community support systems. The legislature recognizes that youth and street gangs may best be viewed as a symptom of underlying social and economic problems that reach far beyond the usual alienation found in youth subcultures in urban areas. The existence of an urban underclass, with its attendant socially disorganized and fragmented living conditions, gives rise to many social pathologies, of which the gang problem is just one. Youth and street gangs are symptomatic of many of the same social and economic problems as adult crime: substance abuse, alcoholism, mental illness, homelessness, unemployment, and multigeneration "welfare families" living in hopelessness and despair. The lure of juveniles into gangs stems from many factors, including extensive geographic mobility, rapid urbanization and population growth, substantial pockets of poverty, unemployment, increasing rates of dropouts and expulsions, a rich racial and ethnic mix, and a transient population of youth. Consequently, it is the intent of the legislature to authorize in each of the eight law enforcement planning districts the development of a comprehensive delinquency prevention plan, to be included in the state juvenile justice and delinquency prevention plan, including gang prevention where appropriate. It is further the intent of the legislature that cooperative agreements be developed among parishes within and between those districts and public and private agencies to implement such plans through effective local programs aimed at reducing juvenile crime and gangs and increasing the number of juveniles engaged in positive alternatives to crime.

Louisiana § 15:1424. Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Boards; Membership

A. Within each law enforcement planning district advisory council, a juvenile delinquency and gang prevention advisory board shall be established consisting of at least eleven members, at least three of whom shall be minorities. The chairman of the commission or his designee shall serve as a member and shall appoint at least four members representing child advocates in the community, business leaders, parents, and a student attending high school.

B. Each advisory board shall also include the following representatives:

(1) Two law enforcement officials appointed by the chairman of the commission from a list submitted by the Louisiana Sheriff's Association and the Louisiana Association of Chiefs of Police.

(2) An assistant district attorney assigned to a court having juvenile jurisdiction appointed by the chairman of the commission from a list submitted by the Louisiana District Attorneys Association.

(3) An assistant public defender or an attorney residing in the district who handles juvenile matters, appointed by the chairman of the indigent defender board.

(4) Two persons employed by the city or parish school board appointed by the chairman of the commission from a list furnished by the Louisiana Association of Educators and Louisiana Federation of Teachers.

(5) A judge who handles juvenile matters appointed by the chairman of the commission from a list submitted by the Louisiana Association of Juvenile and Family Court Judges.

Louisiana § 15:1425. Purposes

The purposes of each juvenile delinquency and gang prevention advisory board are to develop a delinquency prevention plan which meets the needs of each of the local communities in the law enforcement planning district, to advise the chairman of the commission on prevention and diversion programs in the district, to approve grants submitted to the governor's Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board regarding juvenile delinquency and gang prevention program grant applications, and to act in an advisory capacity to each of the juvenile delinquency and gang prevention programs under such plan. The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board and the commission shall coordinate efforts among the councils and develop a comprehensive delinquency prevention state plan which shall conform to applicable federal and state laws and rules and regulations and shall coordinate funding between the two programs.

Louisiana § 15:1426. Powers and Duties

Each gang prevention council shall have the following powers and duties:

(1) Develop and implement a delinquency prevention plan for the provision and coordination of delinquency programs and services to meet the needs of the communities represented in the district.

(2) Advise and assist the judicial administrators or other local officials in the provision of optional, innovative delinquency services in the district to meet the unique needs of delinquent children.

(3) Develop, in consultation with the Law Enforcement Planning District Advisory Council, funding sources external to the commission for the provision and maintenance of additional programs and services in the district for delinquent children and their families in consultation with the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and Advisory Board. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board may apply for and receive funds, under contract or other funding arrangement, from federal, state, parish, city, and other public agencies, and from public and private foundations, agencies, and charities for the purpose of funding optional, innovative prevention, diversion, or treatment services in the district to meet the unique needs of delinquent children.

(4) Contract with city, parish, or other public agencies or private entities for the provision and maintenance of optional, innovative additional prevention and diversion programs and services in the district for delinquent children and their families, in consultation with the Law Enforcement Planning District Advisory Council. In contracting with public and private entities, the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board may use any funds available to it. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board shall actively solicit proposals for new contract and purchase of service programs and services from community organizations, associations, and groups representing the racial and ethnic mix of the community which is being served.

(5) Programs may utilize up to fifteen percent of grant funds for audit costs, not to exceed the prorated share and shall require that each grant, contract, and purchase of service agreement entered into between the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board and any public or private entity to carry out any purpose or responsibility of the commission and of each program grant awarded by the commissioner. An evaluation component is required of each grantee. Evaluations must be submitted to the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board.

(6) Collect information and statistical data helpful in assessing the need for delinquent children services in the district.

(7) Consult and coordinate with other districts and agencies dedicated to the provision of delinquent children services and the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board in order to ensure availability of sufficient services and prevent overlapping of services.

(8) Meet at least quarterly and convene special meetings at the call of the chair or the judicial administrator.

(9) Advise, assist, and approve juvenile delinquency and gang prevention program grants submitted by the local public or private entities and submit such applications as are approved for funding consideration by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board and the commission.

Louisiana § 15:1427. Establishment

A. Each gang prevention council shall:

(1) Immediately after the members are appointed, elect a chair and a vice chair from among its members, and elect other officers as deemed necessary by the council. The judicial administrator or his designee may not serve as the chair, vice chair, or other officer.

(2) Immediately after the members are appointed and officers are elected, identify and assess the needs of delinquent children and their families in the district served by the council and submit to the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board a written description of:

(a) Existing services provided; the anticipated schedule for providing those services; and the manner in which the services are to be provided, including a description of arrangements and agreements with community organizations, state and local educational agencies, federal agencies, public assistance agencies, the juvenile courts, foster care agencies, and other applicable public and private agencies and organizations.

(b) The strategy to be used for service coordination.

(3) Make and adopt bylaws and rules for the operation of the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board, provided such bylaws and rules are not inconsistent with federal or state laws or parish ordinances. The bylaws and rules must be submitted to the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board for approval.

(4) Provide an annual written report to the chairman of the commission and the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board no later than October first of each year. The annual report shall contain such information as is required by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board for effective program planning, for example: information on the effectiveness of delinquent children services in the district, including cost-effectiveness; detailed information on the various programs, services, and activities available in the district and the degree to which the programs, services, and activities have been successfully used; and information on programs, services, and activities that should be eliminated, continued, or added with respect to services in the district for delinquent children and their families.

B. Members of each Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board shall serve without compensation and shall use existing available staff.

Louisiana § 15:1428. Delinquency Prevention Plan; Programs; Grants

A. A delinquency prevention plan submitted to and approved by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board and the commission is authorized in each district for the purpose of reducing delinquent acts, juvenile arrests, and gang activity. Juvenile delinquency and gang prevention programs under such plan shall be administered by the commission in cooperation with other appropriate governmental organizations and public and private agencies.

B. Delinquency prevention plans that include youth and street gang prevention should be developed from a proactive policy stance regarding juveniles involved in gangs. Law enforcement should be active and aggressive against gang leaders and hard-core gang members by utilizing special gang units, centralized efforts, and statewide intelligence. Intervention programs should be used to initiate prevention efforts directed at marginal and potential gang members.

C. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board may use public hearings and other appropriate processes to solicit input regarding the development and updating of the delinquency prevention plan. Input may be provided by parties which include but are not limited to:

(1) Local-level public and private service providers, advocacy organizations, and other organizations working with delinquent children.

(2) Parish and municipal governments.

(3) The Department of Public Safety and Corrections, the Department of Social Services, and other departments or state agencies that provide services to delinquent children.

(4) University youth centers.

(5) Judges, district attorneys, public defenders, and the Louisiana State Bar Association.

(6) Victims of crimes committed by children.

(7) Law enforcement.

(8) Delinquent children and their families and caregivers.

D. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board must develop its delinquency prevention plan in close cooperation with the commission, Department of Public Safety and Corrections, Department of Social Services, Department of Health and Hospitals, local school districts, and with local law enforcement in order to maximize services for delinquent children. The Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board must update the plan for delinquent children policies and programs every year.

E. The commission shall develop a formula grant program based on such factors as population at risk, number of juvenile and young adult arrests, juvenile weapons and drug arrests, and other factors as may be found to be applicable.

F. Beginning with the 1993-1994 Fiscal Year, from funds specifically appropriated by the legislature for this purpose, the commission may award grants based on competitive basis. Local public or private entities interested in implementing juvenile delinquency and gang prevention programs may apply for these funds through the local Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board. Such grants shall be awarded pursuant to R.S. 15:1429.

G. An amount not to exceed ten percent of the total appropriation may be used by the commission to administer the program.

Louisiana § 15:1429. Grant Application Procedures

A. An entity may apply for an annual juvenile delinquency and gang prevention program grant, which may be renewed for up to two additional years, if funding is available, by submitting a grant proposal for funding or continued funding to the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board by December 1, 1993, and by May first every year thereafter. The commission shall establish the grant application procedures, giving priority consideration to proposals which include a youth and street gang prevention component. In order to be considered for funding, the grant proposal shall include the following assurances and information:

(1) A letter from the chairman of the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board of the district confirming that the grant application has been reviewed and approved and that it conforms to the district's delinquency prevention plan as developed by the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board.

(2) A rationale and description of the program and the services to be provided, including goals and objectives.

(3) A method of identification for the appropriate clients in the program.

(4) Provisions for the participation of parents and custodians in the program.

(5) Coordination with other community-based and social service prevention efforts such as drug and alcohol abuse prevention, dropout prevention, and child abuse prevention, including hotlines and volunteers who serve the target neighborhood.

(6) An evaluation component to measure the effectiveness of the program in accordance with the provisions.

(7) A program budget, including the amount of local resources committed to the budget.

(8) The necessary program staff.

B. The department shall consider the following in awarding such grants:

(1) The number of juvenile arrests within the geographical area to be served by the program. Those geographical areas with the highest number of juvenile arrests shall have priority for selection.

(2) The extent to which the program targets high-juvenile-crime neighborhoods and those public schools serving juveniles from high-crime neighborhoods.

(3) The validity and cost-effectiveness of the program.

(4) The degree to which the program is located in and managed by local leaders of the target neighborhoods and public schools serving the target neighborhoods.

C. The commission and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board shall make available to anyone wishing to apply for such a grant information on all of the criteria to be used by the commission and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board in the selection of the proposals for funding pursuant to the provisions of this Section.

D. The commission and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board shall review all program proposals submitted. Entities submitting proposals shall be notified of approval by March 2, 1994, for the 1993-1994 Fiscal Year and by September first of every fiscal year thereafter.

E. Each entity which is awarded a grant as provided for in this Chapter shall submit an annual evaluation report to the chairman of the commission and the chairman of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Advisory Board, and the chairman of the Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Prevention Advisory Board, by a date subsequent to the end of the contract period established by the commission, documenting the extent to which the program objectives have been met, the effect of the program on the juvenile arrest rate, and any other information required by the commission.

F. The commission may promulgate rules and regulations necessary to implement the provisions of this Chapter.

Minnesota (view all subjects for this state)

Minnesota § 609.494. Solicitation of Juveniles

Subdivision 1. Crime.

A person is guilty of a crime and may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 2 if the person is an adult and solicits or conspires with a minor to commit a crime or delinquent act or is an accomplice to a minor in the commission of a crime or delinquent act.

Subd. 2. Sentence.

(a) A person who violates subdivision 1 is guilty of a misdemeanor if the intended criminal act is a misdemeanor or would be a misdemeanor if committed by an adult, and is guilty of a gross misdemeanor if the intended criminal act is a gross misdemeanor or would be a gross misdemeanor if committed by an adult.

(b) A person who violates subdivision 1 is guilty of a felony if the intended criminal act is a felony or would be a felony if committed by an adult, and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one-half the statutory maximum term for the intended criminal act or to payment of a fine of not more than one-half the maximum fine for the intended criminal act, or both.

Subd. 3. Multiple sentences.

Notwithstanding section 609.04, a prosecution for or conviction under this section is not a bar to conviction of or punishment for any other crime committed by the defendant as part of the same conduct.

Subd. 4. Consecutive sentences.

Notwithstanding any provision of the Sentencing Guidelines, the court may provide that a sentence imposed for a violation of this section shall run consecutively to any sentence imposed for the intended criminal act. A decision by the court to impose consecutive sentences under this subdivision is not a departure from the Sentencing Guidelines.

Subd. 5. Definition.

"Solicit" means commanding, entreating, or attempting to persuade a specific person.

Missouri (view all subjects for this state)

Missouri § 578.423. Participating Knowingly in Criminal Street Gang Activities, Penalty—Persons Between Ages of Fourteen and Seventeen Participating to be Transferred to Courts of General Jurisdiction

Any person who actively participates in any criminal street gang with knowledge that its members engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal street gang activity, and who willfully promotes, furthers, or assists in any felonious criminal conduct by gang members shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for a period not to exceed one year, or by imprisonment in a state correctional facility for one, two, or three years. For any person between the ages of fourteen and seventeen who is alleged to have violated the provisions of sections 578.421 to 578.437 the prosecuting attorney or circuit attorney may move for dismissal of a petition and transfer to a court of general jurisdiction.

Nebraska (view all subjects for this state)

Nebraska § 43-245. Terms, Defined

For purposes of the Nebraska Juvenile Code, unless the context otherwise requires:

(5) Criminal street gang means a group of three or more people with a common identifying name, sign, or symbol whose group identity or purposes include engaging in illegal activities;

(6) Criminal street gang member means a person who willingly or voluntarily becomes and remains a member of a criminal street gang;

(7) Custodian means a nonparental caretaker having physical custody of the juvenile and includes an appointee described in section 43–294;

(8) Guardian means a person, other than a parent, who has qualified by law as the guardian of a juvenile pursuant to testamentary or court appointment, but excludes a person who is merely a guardian ad litem;

(9) Juvenile means any person under the age of eighteen.

New Mexico (view all subjects for this state)

New Mexico § 31-18-15.2. Definitions

As used in the Criminal Sentencing Act [this article]:

A. "serious youthful offender" means an individual fifteen to eighteen years of age who is charged with and indicted or bound over for trial for first degree murder; and

B. "youthful offender" means a delinquent child subject to adult or juvenile sanctions who is:

(1) fourteen to eighteen years of age at the time of the offense and who is adjudicated for at least one of the following offenses:

(f) shooting at a dwelling or occupied building or shooting at or from a motor vehicle, as provided in Section 30-3-8, NMSA 1978;

North Carolina (view all subjects for this state)

North Carolina § 14-50.28. Applicability to Juveniles Under the Age of 16

Except as provided in G.S. 14-50.22, 14-50.29, and 14-50.30, the provisions of this Article shall not apply to juveniles under the age of 16.

North Carolina § 14-50.29. Conditional Discharge for First Offenders Under the Age of 18.

(a) Whenever any person who has not previously been convicted of any felony or misdemeanor other than a traffic violation under the laws of the United States or the laws of this State or any other state, pleads guilty to or is guilty of (i) a Class H felony under this Article or (ii) an enhanced offense under G.S. 14-50.22, and the offense was committed before the person attained the age of 18 years, the court may, without entering a judgment of guilt and with the consent of the defendant, defer further proceedings and place the defendant on probation upon such reasonable terms and conditions as the court may require.

(b) If the court, in its discretion, defers proceedings pursuant to this section, it shall place the defendant on supervised probation for not less than one year, in addition to any other conditions. Prior to taking any action to discharge and dismiss under this section, the court shall make a finding that the defendant has no previous criminal convictions. Upon fulfillment of the terms and conditions of the probation provided for in this section, the court shall discharge the defendant and dismiss the proceedings against the defendant.

(c) Discharge and dismissal under this section shall be without court adjudication of guilt and shall not be deemed a conviction for purposes of this section or for purposes of disqualifications or disabilities imposed by law upon conviction of a crime. Discharge and dismissal under this section may occur only once with respect to any person. Disposition of a case to determine discharge and dismissal under this section at the district court division of the General Court of Justice shall be final for the purpose of appeal. Upon violation of a term or condition of the probation provided for in this section, the court may enter an adjudication of guilt and proceed as otherwise provided.

(d) Upon discharge and dismissal pursuant to this section, the person may apply for an order to expunge the complete record of the proceedings resulting in the dismissal and discharge, pursuant to the procedures and requirements set forth in G.S. 15A-145.1.

(e) The clerk shall notify State and local agencies of the court's order as provided in G.S. 15A-150.

North Carolina § 14-50.30. Expunction of Records

Any person who has not previously been convicted of any felony or misdemeanor other than a traffic violation under the laws of the United States or the laws of this State or any other state, may, if the offense was committed before the person attained the age of 18 years, be eligible to apply for expunction of certain offenses under this Article pursuant to G.S. 15A-145.1.

North Carolina § 15A-145.1. Expunction of Records for First Offenders Under the Age of 18 at the Time of Conviction of Certain Gang Offenses

(a) Whenever any person who has not previously been convicted of any felony or misdemeanor other than a traffic violation under the laws of the United States or the laws of this State or any other state pleads guilty to or is guilty of (i) a Class H felony under Article 13A of Chapter 14 of the General Statutes or (ii) an enhanced offense under G.S. 14-50.22, or has been discharged and had the proceedings against the person dismissed pursuant to G.S. 14-50.29, and the offense was committed before the person attained the age of 18 years, the person may file a petition in the court where the person was convicted for expunction of the offense from the person's criminal record. Except as provided in G.S. 14-50.29 upon discharge and dismissal, the petition cannot be filed earlier than (i) two years after the date of the conviction or (ii) the completion of any period of probation, whichever occurs later. The petition shall contain, but not be limited to, the following:

(1) An affidavit by the petitioner that the petitioner has been of good behavior (i) during the period of probation since the decision to defer further proceedings on the offense in question pursuant to G.S. 14-50.29 or (ii) during the two-year period since the date of conviction of the offense in question, whichever applies, and has not been convicted of any felony or misdemeanor other than a traffic violation under the laws of the United States or the laws of this State or any other state.

(2) Verified affidavits of two persons who are not related to the petitioner or to each other by blood or marriage, that they know the character and reputation of the petitioner in the community in which the petitioner lives, and that the petitioner's character and reputation are good.

(3) If the petition is filed subsequent to conviction of the offense in question, a statement that the petition is a motion in the cause in the case wherein the petitioner was convicted.

(4) Repealed by Session Laws 2010-174, s. 4, effective October 1, 2010, and applicable to petitions for expunctions filed on or after that date.

(4a) An application on a form approved by the Administrative Office of the Courts requesting and authorizing a name-based State and national criminal record check by the Department of Justice using any information required by the Administrative Office of the Courts to identify the individual and a search of the confidential record of expunctions maintained by the Administrative Office of the Courts. The application shall be forwarded to the Department of Justice and to the Administrative Office of the Courts, which shall conduct the searches and report their findings to the court.

(5) An affidavit by the petitioner that no restitution orders or civil judgments representing amounts ordered for restitution entered against the petitioner are outstanding.

The petition shall be served upon the district attorney of the court wherein the case was tried resulting in conviction. The district attorney shall have 10 days thereafter in which to file any objection thereto and shall be duly notified as to the date of the hearing of the petition.

The judge to whom the petition is presented is authorized to call upon a probation officer for any additional investigation or verification of the petitioner's conduct during the probationary period or during the two-year period after conviction.

(b) If the court, after hearing, finds that (i) the petitioner was dismissed and the proceedings against the petitioner discharged pursuant to G.S. 14-50.29 and that the person had not yet attained 18 years of age at the time of the offense or (ii) the petitioner has remained of good behavior and been free of conviction of any felony or misdemeanor other than a traffic violation for two years from the date of conviction of the offense in question, the petitioner has no outstanding restitution orders or civil judgments representing amounts ordered for restitution entered against the petitioner, and the petitioner had not attained the age of 18 years at the time of the offense in question, it shall order that such person be restored, in the contemplation of the law, to the status occupied by the petitioner before such arrest or indictment or information, and that the record be expunged from the records of the court. No person as to whom such order has been entered shall be held thereafter under any provision of any laws to be guilty of perjury or otherwise giving a false statement by reason of the person's failure to recite or acknowledge such arrest, or indictment or information, or trial, or response to any inquiry made of the person for any purpose. The court shall also direct all law enforcement agencies, the Department of Correction, the Division of Motor Vehicles, and any other State or local government agencies identified by the petitioner as bearing record of the same to expunge their records of the petitioner's criminal charge and any conviction resulting from the charge. The clerk shall notify State and local agencies of the court's order as provided in G.S. 15A-150.

(c) This section is supplemental and in addition to existing law and shall not be construed so as to repeal any existing provision contained in the General Statutes of North Carolina.

(d) A person who files a petition for expunction of a criminal record under this section must pay the clerk of superior court a fee of one hundred seventy-five dollars ($175.00) at the time the petition is filed. Fees collected under this subsection are payable to the Administrative Office of the Courts. The clerk of superior court shall remit one hundred twenty-two dollars and fifty cents ($122.50) of each fee to the North Carolina Department of Justice for the costs of criminal record checks performed in connection with processing petitions for expunctions under this section. The remaining fifty-two dollars and fifty cents ($52.50) of each fee shall be retained by the Administrative Office of the Courts and used to pay the costs of processing petitions for expunctions under this section. This subsection does not apply to petitions filed by an indigent.

North Dakota (view all subjects for this state)

North Dakota § 27-20-53. Children's Fingerprints, Photographs

1. No child under fourteen (14) years of age may be fingerprinted in the investigation of a crime except as provided in this section. Fingerprints of a child who is referred to the court may be taken and filed by law enforcement officers in investigating the commission of the following crimes: murder, manslaughter, gross sexual imposition, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, theft, forgery, and unlawful possession or use of a handgun.

6. A child may be photographed by a law enforcement officer at the time of arrest for the crimes of murder, manslaughter, gross sexual imposition, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, theft, forgery, or unlawful possession or use of a handgun. The photograph must be destroyed if the child is not referred to the juvenile court. If a court finds facts that would justify a finding that a child at least fourteen years of age at the time of the offense is delinquent and the finding involves the unlawful use or possession of a handgun or the commission of an act proscribed by the criminal laws of this state and punishable as a felony or a Class A misdemeanor committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association or affiliation with any criminal street gang, with the intent to promote, further, or assist in the activities of a criminal gang, the juvenile court shall order upon the request of the state's attorney the taking and retention of a photograph of the child for purposes of identification. Photographs of children under this subsection may be maintained on a local basis and sent to a central state depository but must be maintained separate from those of adults and must be destroyed in accordance with Section 27-20-54.

Tennessee (view all subjects for this state)

Tennessee § 37-1-134. Transfer to Criminal Courts

(a) After a petition has been filed alleging delinquency based on conduct which is designated a crime or public offense under the laws, including local ordinances, of this state, the court, before hearing the petition on the merits, may transfer the child to the sheriff of the county to be held according to law and to be dealt with as an adult in the criminal court of competent jurisdiction. The disposition of the child shall be as if the child were an adult if:

(1) The child was sixteen (16) years or more of age at the time of the alleged conduct, or the child was less than sixteen (16) years of age if such child was charged with the offense of first degree murder, second degree murder, rape, aggravated rape, aggravated robbery, especially aggravated robbery, kidnapping, aggravated kidnapping or especially aggravated kidnapping or an attempt to commit any such offenses. The district attorney general may not seek, nor may any child transferred under the provisions of this section receive, a sentence of death for the offense for which the child was transferred;

(b) In making the determination required by subsection (a), the court shall consider, among other matters:

(6) Whether the child’s conduct would be a criminal gang offense, as defined in § 40-35-121, if committed by an adult.

Texas (view all subjects for this state)

Texas Fam. Code § 54.0491. Gang-Related Conduct

(a) In this section:

(1) "Criminal street gang" has the meaning assigned by Section 71.01, Penal Code.

(2) "Gang-related conduct" means conduct that violates a penal law of the grade of Class B misdemeanor or higher and in which a child engages with the intent to:

(A) further the criminal activities of a criminal street gang of which the child is a member;

(B) gain membership in a criminal street gang; or

(C) avoid detection as a member of a criminal street gang.

(b) A juvenile court, in a disposition hearing under Section 54.04 regarding a child who has been adjudicated to have engaged in delinquent conduct that is also gang-related conduct, shall order the child to participate in a criminal street gang intervention program that is appropriate for the child based on the child's level of involvement in the criminal activities of a criminal street gang. The intervention program:

(1) must include at least 12 hours of instruction; and

(2) may include voluntary tattoo removal.

(c) If a child required to attend a criminal street gang intervention program is committed to the Texas Youth Commission as a result of the gang-related conduct, the child must complete the intervention program before being discharged from the custody of or released under supervision by the commission.

Utah (view all subjects for this state)

Utah § 78A-6-1113. Property Damage Caused By a Minor—Liability of Parent or Legal Guardian—Criminal Conviction or Adjudication for Criminal Mischief or Criminal Trespass Not a Prerequisite for Civil Action Under Chapter—When Parent or Guardian Not Liable.

(1) The parent or legal guardian having legal custody of the minor is liable for damages sustained to property not to exceed $ 2,000 when:

(a) the minor intentionally damages, defaces, destroys, or takes the property of another;

(b) the minor recklessly or willfully shoots or propels a missile, or other object at or against a motor vehicle, bus, airplane, boat, locomotive, train, railway car, or caboose, whether moving or standing; or

(c) the minor intentionally and unlawfully tampers with the property of another and thereby recklessly endangers human life or recklessly causes or threatens a substantial interruption or impairment of any public utility service.

(2) The parent or legal guardian having legal custody of the minor is liable for damages sustained to property not to exceed $ 5,000 when the minor commits an offense under Section (1):

(a) for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with any criminal street gang as defined in Section 76-9-802; or

(b) to gain recognition, acceptance, membership, or increased status with a criminal street gang.

Virginia (view all subjects for this state)

Virginia § 16.1-269.2. Admissibility of Statement; Investigation and Report; Bail

B. Prior to a transfer hearing pursuant to subsection A of Section 16.1-269.1, a study and report to the court, in writing, relevant to the factors set out in subdivision A 4 of Section 16.1-269.1, as well as an assessment of any affiliation with a youth gang as defined in Section 16.1-299.2, shall be made by the probation services or other qualified agency designated by the court. Counsel for the juvenile and the attorney for the Commonwealth shall have full access to the study and report and any other report or data concerning the juvenile which are available to the court. The court shall not consider the report until a finding has been made concerning probable cause. If the court so orders, the study and report may be expanded to include matters provided for in Section 16.1-273, whereupon it may also serve as the report required by this subsection, but on the condition that it will not be submitted to the judge who will preside at any subsequent hearings except as provided for by law.

C. After the completion of the hearing, whether or not the juvenile court decides to retain jurisdiction over the juvenile or transfer such juvenile for criminal proceedings in the circuit court, the juvenile court shall set bail for the juvenile in accordance with Chapter 9 (Section 19.2-119 et seq.) of Title 19.2, if bail has not already been set.

Virginia § 66-3.2. Additional Duties of the Director

A. The Director shall coordinate with the Department of Corrections the development and submission of requests for compensation from the United States Department of Justice State Criminal Alien Assistance Program for costs associated with incarcerating undocumented aliens.

B. The Director shall forward to the Commonwealth's Attorneys' Services Council, updated on a monthly basis, a list of all juveniles, 14 years of age or older, who (i) have been committed to the Department, (ii) have been found guilty of a felony offense defined as a predicate criminal act under § 18.2-46.1, or have been adjudicated delinquent on the basis of an act that would be a felony and a predicate criminal act under § 18.2-46.1 if committed by an adult, and (iii) have been identified as belonging to a criminal gang. The list shall contain identifying information for each gang member, as well as the offense, court, and date of conviction or adjudication.

Washington (view all subjects for this state)

Washington § 9.94A.833. Special Allegation—Involving Minor in Felony Offense—Procedures

(1) In a prosecution of a criminal street gang-related felony offense, the prosecution may file a special allegation that the felony offense involved the compensation, threatening, or solicitation of a minor in order to involve that minor in the commission of the felony offense, as described under RCW 9.94A.533(10)(a).

(2) The state has the burden of proving a special allegation made under this section beyond a reasonable doubt. If a jury is had, the jury shall, if it finds the defendant guilty, also find a special verdict as to whether the criminal street gang-related felony offense involved the compensation, threatening, or solicitation of a minor in order to involve that minor in the commission of the felony offense. If no jury is had, the court shall make a finding of fact as to whether the criminal street gang-related felony offense involved the compensation, threatening, or solicitation of a minor in order to involve that minor in the commission of the felony offense.


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